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her, and nothing but a dexterous movement of the helm preserved her from the shock.

When I retired to my cabin, the awful scene still followed 150 me. The whistling of the wind through the rigging sounded like funereal wailings. The creaking of the masts, the straining and groaning of bulkheads, as the ship labored in the weltering sea, were frightful. As I heard the waves rushing along the sides of the ship, and roaring in my very ear, it seemed 15 as if Death were raging round this floating prison, seeking for his prey; the mere starting of a nail, the yawning of a seam, might give him entrance.

A fine day, however, with a tranquil sea and favoring breeze, soon put all these dismal reflections to flight. It is 162 impossible to resist the gladdening influence of fine weather and fair wind at sea. When the ship is decked out in all her canvas, every sail swelled and careering gayly over the curling waves, how lofty, how gallant, she appears, how she seems to lord it over the deep!

I might fill a volume with the reveries of a sea voyage, for with me it is almost a continual reverie, - but it is time to get to shore.

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153. Bulkheads, board partitions making water-tight compartments in a ship.

156. Death were raging, etc. Personification (from personify, Lat. persona, a person, and facere, to make). It consists in representing inanimate objects or abstract notions as endued with life and action like a person, or possessing the qualities of living beings.

165. Lord it over. To act as a lord, to rule despotically.

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It was a fine sunny morning when the thrilling cry of "Land!" was given from the mast-head. None but those 170 who have experienced it can form an idea of the delicious throng of sensations which rush into an American's bosom when he first comes in sight of Europe. There is a volume of associations with the very naine. It is the land of promise, teeming with everything of which his childhood has heard or 175 on which his studious years have pondered.

From that time until the moment of arrival, it was all


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feverish excitement. The ships of war, that prowled like guardian giants along the coast; the headlands of Ireland, stretching out into the channel; the Welsh mountains, tow- 180 ering into the clouds, - all were objects of intense interest. As we sailed up the Mersey, I reconnoitred the shores with a telescope. My eye dwelt with delight on neat cottages, with their trim shrubberies and green grass-plots. I saw the mouldering ruin of an abbey overrun with ivy, and the taper 185 spire of a village church rising from the brow of a neighboring hill, — all were characteristic of England.

The tide and wind were so favorable that the ship was enabled to come at once to the pier. It was thronged with people; some idle lookers-on, others eager expectants of 190 friends or relatives. I could distinguish the merchant to whom the ship was consigned. I knew him by his calculating brow and restless air. His hands were thrust into his pockets; he was whistling thoughtfully, and walking to and fro, a small space having been accorded him by the crowd in 195 deference to his temporary importance. There were repeated cheerings and salutations interchanged between the shore and the ship, as friends happened to recognize each other. I particularly noticed one young woman of humble dress, but interesting demeanor. She was leaning forward from among the 201 crowd; her eye hurried over the ship as it neared the shore, to catch some wished-for countenance. She seemed disappointed and agitated, when I heard a faint voice call her name. It was from a poor sailor who had been ill all the voyage, and had excited the sympathy of every one on board. When 205 the weather was fine, his messmates had spread a mattress for him on deck in the shade, but of late his illness had

182. Mersey (mirʼzee), a river in England. It expands into a large estuary or arm of the Irish Sea, forming Liverpool harbor. Reconnoitred (Lat. recognoscere, to take notice of again; Fr. reconnaître, to recognize), examined carefully.

185. Abbey (Fr. abbaye; from Syriac abba, father), a monastery or similar building for persons of either sex, governed by an abbot or abbess.

so increased that he had taken to his hammock, and only breathed a wish that he might see his wife before he died. He had been helped on deck as we came up the river, and 210 was now leaning against the shrouds, with a countenance so wasted, so pale, so ghastly, that it was no wonder even the eye of affection did not recognize him. But at the sound of his voice her eye darted on his features; it read, at once, a whole volume of sorrow; she clasped her hands, uttered a faint 215 shriek, and stood wringing them in silent agony.

All now was hurry and bustle, the meetings of acquaintances, the greetings of friends, the consultations of men of business. I alone was solitary and idle. I had no friend to meet, no cheering to receive. I stepped upon the land of 220 my forefathers, but felt that I was a stranger in the land.

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What is the gulf that a voyage interposes between us and our homes? What words describe it?

"Whither he may be driven" (line 34). Why is whither better than where? Which of them means to what place? Which of them means at or in what place?

"I said that at sea all is vacancy" (line 38). Quote any previous passage containing this idea.

What were some of the amusements of the voyage? Day-dreaming? Looking down "on the monsters of the deep at their uncouth gambols"? Watching a distant sail? Contemplating the object seen at a distance, the mast of a wrecked ship? Story-telling? Any other?

"Expectation, anxiety, dread, despair" (lines 93, 94). Which expresses the strongest feeling? How are the words arranged? Define a climax.

What "has brought the ends of the earth into communion"? How? Narrate in your own words the captain's story. Point out the most pathetic expressions in it.

What does Irving say of the ship during the storm?

Explain "how she seems to lord it over the deep!" Contrast that with

the description of her course during the storm.

What were objects of interest as the ship approached the shore?

At what point did they land?

Describe the crowd on the pier.

Who was the most important person there?

What pathetic incident is told?

"I stepped upon the land of my forefathers." Who? Why land of my forefathers?

Express the idea of the last sentence in other words.

Select nautical words or phrases in this sketch.

Was the voyage made in a steamer or in a sailing vessel? Give reasons for the answer.

What is the general character of this sketch? Description?

Commit to memory the paragraph beginning, "We one day descried some shapeless object," etc.

Select and commit to memory any other passage in the piece. Give your reason for your selection.

What is the simple subject in the first sentence in this sketch? The entire subject?


How many clauses ?

Kinds? (Dependent and independent, stating the number of each.)

State the kind of each dependent clause, and tell what each modifies. (Dependent clauses are equivalent to some part of speech; hence we have Noun clauses, Adjective clauses, and Adverbial clauses.)

Simple subject?

Modifiers of the subject?

Entire subject?

Simple predicate?

Modifiers of the predicate?

Entire predicate?

Analyze clauses not already analyzed.


"When I behold, with deep astonishment,
To famous Westminster how there resorte,
Living in brasse or stoney monument,
The princes and the worthies of all sorte;
Doe not I see reformde nobilitie,
Without contempt, or pride, or ostentation,
And looke upon offenselesse majesty,
Naked of pomp or earthly domination?
And how a play-game of a painted stone
Contents the quiet now and silent sprites,
Whome all the world which late they stood upon

Could not content nor quench their appetites.

Life is a frost of cold felicitie,

And death the thaw of all our vanitie."

CHRISTOLERO'S Epigrams, by T. B. 1598.

ON one of those sober and rather melancholy days, in the latter part of autumn, when the shadows of morning and evening almost mingle together, and throw a gloom over the decline of the year, I passed several hours in rambling about Westminster Abbey. There was something congenial to the season in the mournful magnificence of the old pile; and as I passed its threshold, it seemed like stepping back into the regions of antiquity, and losing myself among the shades of former


5. Minster (A.-S. minstre or mynster; Low Lat. monasterium). In Germany and in England this title is given to several large cathedrals or cathedral churches; as, York Minster, the Minster of Strasburg, etc. It is also found in the names of places which owe their origin to a monastery; as, Westminster, the minster or monastery of the West. Westminster is a city and borough, and forms the west portion of London. Westminster Abbey is in the form of a Latin cross; it is 511 feet long by 203 wide across the transepts. For the word abbey see p. 8, line 155.

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