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sheets, and published at short stated intervals of not more than one

month, conveying intelligence of passing events, and bona fide extras Free exchange and supplements of any such publication. And nothing herein contained of newspapers shall be so construed as to prevent the free exchange of newspapers bebetween publishers not pro

tween the publishers thereof, as provided for under the twenty-ninth hibited. section of the act entitled "An act to reduce into one the several acts 1825, ch. 65. for establishing and regulating the Post Office Department, approved

the third day of March, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-five." Penalties, &c. Sec. 17. And be it further enacted, That all pecuniary penalties under this act, and forfeitures, incurred under this act, shall be one half for the use of to informer, the person or persons informing and prosecuting for the same, and the and one-half to other half to the use of the United States, and shall be paid over to the U.S.

Postmaster General, and accounted for by him as other moneys of the Prosecution department; and all causes of action arising under this act, may be of offenders. sued, and all offenders against this act may be prosecuted, before the

justices of the peace, magistrates, or other judicial courts of the several States and of the several Territories of the United States, they having competent jurisdiction, by the laws of such States or Territories, to the trial of claims and demands of as great value, and of the prosecutions, where the punishments are of as great extent; and such justices, magistrates, or judiciary, shall take cognizance thereof, and proceed to

judgment and execution, as in other cases. Contracts for Sec. 18. And be it further enacted, That it shall be the duty of the transporting the Postmaster General in all future lettings of contracts for the transportathe lowest re- tion of the mail, to let the same, in every case, to the lowest bidder, sponsible bid- tendering sufficient guarantees for faithful performance, without other der.

reference to the mode of such transportation than may be necessary to provide for the due celerity, certainty, and security of such transportation; nor shall any new contractor hereafter be required to purchase

out, or take at a valuation, the stock or vehicles of any previous conLetters to be

tractor for the same route. And all advertisements made under the advertised, &c. orders of the Postmaster General, in a newspaper or newspapers, of

letters uncalled for in any post office, shall be inserted in the paper or papers, of the town or place where the office advertising may be situated, having the largest circulation, provided the editor or editors of such paper or papers shall agree to insert the same for a price not greater than that now fixed by law; and in case of question or dispute as to the amount of the circulation of any papers, the editors of which may desire this advertising, it shall be the duty of the postmaster to receive

evidence and decide upon the fact. Transportation of the mail by

Sec. 19. And be it further enacted, That to insure, as far as may be rail-roads.

practicable, an equal and just rate of compensation, according to the service performed, among the several railroad companies in the United States, for the transportation of the mail, it shall be the duty of the Postmaster General to arrange and divide the railroad routes, including those in which the service is partly by railroad and partly by steamboats, into three classes according to the size of the mails, the speed with which they are conveyed, and the importance of the service; and it shall be lawful for him to contract for conveying the mail with any such railroad

company, either with or without advertising for such contract: ProProviso, com: vided, That, for the conveyance of the mail on any railroad of the first ed.

class, he shall not pay a higher rate of compensation than is now allowed by law; nor for carrying the mail on any railroad of the second class,

a greater compensation than one hundred dollars per mile per annum; In case a con

nor for carrying the mail on any railroad of the third class, a greater tract cannot be compensation than fifty dollars per mile per annum. And in case the made with a Postmaster General shall not be able to conclude a contract for carryrail-road, howing the mail on any of such railroad routes, at a compensation not transmitted. exceeding the aforesaid maximum rates, or for what he may deem a

reasonable and fair compensation for the service to be performed, it
shall be lawful for him to separate the letter mail from the residue of
the mail, and to contract, either with or without advertising, for con-
veying the letter mail over such route, by horse express or otherwise, at
the greatest speed that can reasonably be obtained; and also to contract
for carrying over such route the residue of the mail, in wagons or other-
wise, at a slower rate of speed : Provided, That if one-half of the ser- Proviso.
vice, on any railroad, is required to be performed in the night season,
it shall be lawful for the Postmaster General to pay twenty-five per cent.
in addition to the aforesaid maximum rates of allowance: And pro-
vided further, That if it shall be found necessary to convey over any rail-
road route more than two mails daily, it shall be lawful for the Postmaster
General to pay such additional compensation as he may think just and
reasonable, having reference to the service performed and the maximum
rate of allowance established by this act.

Sec. 20. And be it further enacted, That all causes of action arising Courts for trial under this act may be sued, and all offenders against this act may be of offenders prosecuted, before any circuit or district court of the United States, or

against this act. the District of Columbia, or of the Territories of the United States.

Sec. 21. And be it further enacted, That for the purpose of guarding Appropriation against the possibility

of any embarrassment in the operations of the to guard against Post Office Department consequent upon any deficiency of the revenues the revenues of of said department which may be occasioned by the reduction of the the post-office rates of postage by this act made, there be, and hereby is, appropriated department. the sum of seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars, to be paid out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, and to be placed to the credit of the Post Office Department in the Treasury of the United States, to be applied, under the direction of the Postmaster General, to supply any deficiency in the regular revenues from postage, in the same manner as the revenues of said department are now by law applied.

Sec. 22. And be it further enacted, That in case the amount of post- Additional apages collected from the rates of postage prescribed by this act, with the propriation for annual appropriation from the treasury of seven hundred and fifty thou- revenues of the sand dollars herein granted, shall prove insufficient to defray the expense post office. of the mail service throughout the United States to an extent equal to what is now enjoyed by the public, and also the expense of extending and enlarging the same in due proportion with the increase and expansion of the population, particularly in the new States and Territories, the deficiency that may so arise shall be paid out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated: Provided, That the amount of Proviso. expenditure for the Post Office Department shall not in the entire aggregate, exclusive of salaries of officers, clerks, and messengers, of the General Post Office, and the contingent fund of the same, exceed the annual amount of four million five hundred thousand dollars.

Sec. 23. And be it further enacted, That nothing in this act con- Franking pritained shall be construed to repeal the laws heretofore enacted, granting ued to President the franking privilege to the President of the United States when in and others. office, and to all ex-Presidents, and to the widows of the former Presidents Madison and Harrison. APPROVED, March 3, 1845.

STATUTE II. CHAP. XLIV. - An Act making appropriations for the service of the Post Office March 3, 1845. Department, for the year ending thirtieth June, eighteen hundred and fortysix.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Appropriations United States of America in Congress assembled, That the following of Post Office sums of money be, and the same are hereby appropriated, for the service Department.

of the Post Office Department for the year ending on the thirtieth June, eighteen hundred and forty-six, out of any moneys in the Treasury arising from the revenues of the said department, in conformity to the

act of second July, eighteen hundred and thirty-six, viz: Transporta

For transportation of the mail, three million and fifty thousand doltion.

lars; Postmasters. For compensation to postmasters, nine hundred and seventy-five thou

sand dollars; Letters.

For ship, steamboat, and way letters, twelve thousand dollars; Wrapping pa For wrapping paper, sixteen thousand dollars; per.

For office furniture, (for the offices of postmasters,) four thousand Office furni

dollars; ture. Advertising. For advertising, thirty thousand dollars; Mail bags. For mail bags, sixteen thousand dollars ; Blanks.

For blanks, twenty-two thousand dollars; Mail locks. For mail locks, keys, and stamps, six thousand dollars; Depredations, For mail depredations and special agents, thirty thousand dollars : &c. Pay and al

Provided, however, That no greater sum shall be paid to any mail agent lowances to of any description than one thousand dollars per annum, and no greater special agents sum for all his travelling and incidental expenses, than at the rate of fixed.

two dollars for each day he shall be actually employed in the capacity

of mail agent; Clerks. For clerks for offices; (for the offices of postmasters,) two hundred

thousand dollars; Miscellaneous. For miscellaneous, fifty-five thousand dollars.

APPROVED, March 3, 1845. STATUTE II. March 3, 1845. Chap. XLV.-An Act supplementary to an act entitled An act to fix the value of Act of March

cerlain foreign moneys of account in computations at the custom-houses." 3, 1843, ch. 92. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Value of florin United States of America in Congress assembled, That, in all computaof Austria fixed. tions of the value of foreign moneys of account at the custom-houses of

the United States, the florin of Austria shall be deemed and taken to be at the value of forty-eight cents; and all former laws inconsistent herewith are hereby repealed.

APPROVED, March 3, 1845. STATUTE II. March 3, 1845. Chap. XLVI.-An Act to confirm the survey and location of claims for lands in

the State of Mississippi, east of the Pearl river, and south of thirty-first degret of north latitude.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United Certain sur States of America in Congress assembled, That all surveys and plats of veys confirmed

confirmed claims and settlement rights for lands situate in the State of as actually made.

Mississippi, east of Pearl river, and south of thirty-first degree of north latitude, which had been made and returned to the surveyor general's office south of Tennessee on or before the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-nine, shall be, and are hereby, con

firmed, as actually surveyed on the ground; and the said surveyor geneSurveyor Gen- ral is hereby authorized and directed, on the request of any party

inte the return and rested in any such claim, to certify the return and plat of such actual plat of survey to survey, so remaining in his office, to the register and receiver for lands ihe register and in the Augusta district, in said State, who are hereby directed to receive Augusta dis and regard said surveys, plats, and location of the claims they represent, trict

as correctly made; and the said register and receiver shall thereupon Register and

issue, in the name of the confirmee of the claim a patent certificate for receiver to give a certificate, &c. each claim; which certificate, being first duly recorded in the said

register's office, shall be delivered to such person as is entitled to repre

survey.

issue a warrant

sent the claim, and which, being presented to the General Land Office at Washington, shall entitle the party interested to a patent therefor : Provided, That any claimant to a tract of land so surveyed and platted Proviso. as aforesaid, who shall, within one year from the passage of this act, file, in writing, with the surveyor general south of Tennessee, his exception to the regularity of the survey so heretofore made, setting forth in what respect said survey is erroneous, the surveyor general shall examine such exception, and, if found to be well taken, shall order a re-survey of the claim, and (a) after proper notice to the party interested ; and, after proper notice, he may order a re-survey of any other claims which, in his opinion, may be indispensably necessary, by reason of errors or defects in the survey, on the ground, which, being returned and approved, shall be certified to the register and receiver at Augusta, on which a patent certificate shall be issued, as before directed : Provided, also, That all Further proactual surveys of claims in said district, which shall not be excepted to viso. within the year aforesaid, or which the surveyor general may not find it indispensably necessary to have re-surveyed by reason of any errors or defects, as aforesaid, shall, after that time, be deemed unexceptionable, so far as relates to the title of the United States, and shall thenceforth be proceeded in and perfected to patent.

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That all re-surveys which may be Re-surveys to ordered by virtue of this act shall be executed under the direction of the be executed unsurveyor south of Tennessee, subject to orders from the General Land surveyor south Office; and all services which shall be rendered in execution of this act of Tennessee. shall be audited, charged, and paid for, as similar services were required Expenses of to be by former laws and regulations in reference to similar claims.

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That when, in any case it shall Surveyor to appear to the surveyor general that the survey of any claim hereby con

for deficiencies firmed is deficient in the quantity of land confirmed to the claimant, by in a resurvey. a number of acres equal to forty or more, then the said surveyor general shall issue to the claimant a warrant, entitling him to a quantity of land, which in the subdivision of the public lands of the United States, shalí not exceed in quantity the number of acres found deficient in the claimant's original survey ; which entry may be made on any lands subject to entry in said district.

Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That this act shall not be construed Conflicting as aiding the title survey or location of any claim, to the prejudice of claims to be de

cided under ex. any other claim with which its pretensions and location may conflict;

isting laws. but all such conflicting rights and locations shall remain subject to existing laws: Provided, however, That, in any such case of conflict, in Proviso. addition to the powers conferred on the surveyor general by this act, it shall be lawful for him, when the conflicting claimants may compromise, by the relinquishment of one of the claimants of his entire location, or so much of it as conflicts with the location of another claim, to grant a warrant to the relinquishing claimant, which shall entitle him to enter an equal quantity with the land relinquished of any land subject to entry in the district of the land surrendered.

Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That all confirmation and evidence Confirmation of title which shall be made or issued in the name of the original claim- of evidence of ant or confirmee, by virtue of this act, shall inure to the use and benefit name of original of those who may be jointly or severally entitled to the lands in the claimants, to several claims referred to, either by descent or purchase, as if such per- nelie of persones sons were specially named therein.

entitled. APPROVED, March 3, 1845.

(a) It is " and " in the original, but probably a mistake.

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STATUTE II.
March 3, 1845. Chap. XLVII. --- An Act making appropriations for the support of the Military

Academy for the year ending the thirtieth June, eighteen hundred and forty-
six.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Appropria- United States of America in Congress assembled, That the following tions. sums be, and the same are hereby appropriated out of any money in the

treasury not otherwise appropriated, for the support of the Military
Academy, for the year ending on the thirtieth of June, eighteen hun-

dred and forty-six : Pay.

For the pay of officers, instructors, cadets, and musicians, seventy

nine thousand four hundred and sixty dollars; Subsistence,

For commutation of subsistence, three thousand five hundred and

seventy-seven dollars; Forage of offi- For commutation of forage for officers' horses, two thousand five huncers' horses. dred and ninety-two dollars; Clothing of of- For clothing for their servants, four hundred and twenty dollars; ficers' servants. For repairs and improvements, fuel and apparatus, forage of public

Incidental and contingent ex

horses and oxen, stationery, printing and other incidental and contin-
penses. gent expenses, twenty-two thousand dollars ;
Barracks. For the building of barracks for cadets, thirty thousand dollars : Pro-

vided, That this appropriation, and the unexpended balance of the one
heretofore made for this object, shall be applied exclusively to the com-
pletion of that portion of the barracks which is designed to accommo-

date the cadets usually quartered in the "old south barracks."
Pay of a cadet. Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That from and after the thirtieth

June, eighteen hundred and forty-five, the pay of a cadet shall be twen-
ty-four dollars per month, in lieu of the present pay and emoluments.

APPROVED, March 3, 1845.
STATUTE II.
March 3, 1845. Chap. XLVIII.—An Act for the admission of the States of Iowa and Florida into

the Union. (a)
Preamble. Whereas, the people of the Territory of Iowa did, on the seventh day

of October, eighteen hundred and forty-four, by a convention of dele
gates called and assembled for that purpose, form for themselves a

constitution and State government; and whereas, the people of the
Act of March Territory of Florida did, in like manner, by their delegates, on the
3, 1845, ch. 75,
and ch, 76.

eleventh day of January, eighteen hundred and thirty-nine, form for
themselves a constitution and State government, both of which said
constitutions are republican; and said conventions having asked the
admission of their respective Territories into the Union as States, on

equal footing with the original States : Iowa and Flo

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United rida declared to States of America in Congress assembled, That the States of Iowa and be States, on an Florida be, and the same are hereby, declared to be States of the United equal footing with the original

States of America, and are hereby admitted into the Union on equal
States. footing with the original States, in all respects whatsoever.

Boundaries of Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That the following shall be the
Iowa.

boundaries of the said State of Iowa, to wit: Beginning at the mouth
of the Des Moines river, at the middle of the Mississippi, thence by the
middle of the channel of that river to a parallel of latitude passing
through the mouth of the Mankato, or Blue-Earth river, thence west
along the said parallel of latitude to a point where it is intersected by a
meridian line, seventeen degrees and thirty minutes west of the meridian
of Washington city, thence due south to the northern boundary line of
the State of Missouri, thence eastwardly following that boundary to the

(a) Notes to the act of June 12, 1838, ch. 96.

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