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TURKS ISLANDS.

actually proved, by a diminution in import duties of 4291. Os. 2d. in comparison with 1856.
This deficiency is to be accounted for by the want of that permanent employment of labour
in 1855-6 which was enjoyed by the working class in 1857, together with the high price
of provisions, flour having been sold as high as 168. or 3l. 15s. a barrel, Indian corn at
28. or 8s. 4d. a bushel, and other articles of food at the same exorbitant rate, during a
large portion of 1857. The increased importations in the first quarter of 1858 already
show the effect of the constant employment of labourers in 1857, as well as that of the
great fall in the price of provisions, flour being now to be purchased at 78. or 17. 9s. 2d.
per barrel, and other articles of food in proportion.

26. The above table also shows the total value of exports from these islands during the
last nine years to have amounted to 284,7617., 2s. 4d. of which the sum of 247,0877. 11s.
7d. has been received by the salt pond proprietors, who during the same period have
paid rents to the amount of 30,2247. 4s. 10d., leaving to the Crown lessees a return
arising from Her Majesty's salt ponds farmed out to them of 216,8637., 6s. 9d., or
upwards of 24,000l. per annum in advance of their annual rents.

27. The amount received by the salt pond proprietors from the sale of salt has been obtained, in the proportions herein-after mentioned, from the following countries to which it has been exported, viz. :

From British colonies

From the United States
From other countries

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£19,975 8 5
222,869 4 4 6
4,242 18 8

£247,087 11 7

28. The export duty on salt of one farthing per bushel, and the light dues (3d. per ton), have been the means, owing to the large salt crop, and the consequent increase of shipping, in 1857, over 1856, of saving 1857 from being a bad revenual year, which from the deficiency of imports it must otherwise have proved.

29. The salt season of 1857 has been the most productive on record. Up to the close of the year 1,269,304 bushels of salt had been exported, while from 3 to 400,000 bushels remained in the colony, of which, up to the close of the first quarter of 1858, there have been exported 267,968 bushels.

30. The price of salt here, however, during 1857, has never ruled so low (save in 1852) since the first formation of this government, having only averaged 94 cents (or 42d. sterling) per bushel. In 1855 the price averaged 272 cents (or 1s. 1d.) per bushel, and taking the price from 1849 to 1857, both years inclusive, it has averaged during that period 15 cents (or 72d. sterling) per bushel.

31. It is difficult to state with accuracy the cost of raking and shipping a bushel of salt, some of the salt pond proprietors placing it at 4 cents and others at 6 cents. Taking the medium, 5 cents (or 2d. sterling), that amount may possibly approximate to the truth. To this must be added the proportionate amount of rent paid by each proprietor, to ascertain which there can be no general rule, from the plan adopted originally in leasing the ponds, by which some of the best were leased much too low and some of the worst rather too high in proportion. One cent (or one halfpenny sterling) per bushel will, however, cover all rentcharges in any case, though in some it may be less, which, with the farthing export duty, would give an outlay of 63 cents (or 31d. sterling) before the salt raker can count his profit. At the average price obtained in 1857 (9 cents or 43d. sterling) it is clear, therefore, that the salt rakers' profits must have been small, notwithstanding the large quantity raked.

32. Since making the above calculation, I have received the following statement from Mr. Horatio Stubbs, one of the proprietors of Hawes' Pond, a salina on this cay only brought of late years into cultivation. "The salt shipped from Hawes' Pond in 1857 "cost on board five cents (24d, sterling) per bushel, including rental and all other charges, and ten per cent. on cost of carts and mules for wear and tear. From inquiry, "I believe it to be about the cheapest, with small exception, if any. Six cents (3d. sterling) "I presume would be nearer the average."

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33. This calculation, coming from a salt raker, one of the most intelligent in the colony, and which shows that I have rather overstated the cost and charge of a bushel of salt on board, is a very important one, if regarded with a view to fixing future rentals of cultivated salt ponds within these islands.

34. The fluctuating crops and prices of salt are disadvantageous to the labouring population, a short crop at high prices being better for the proprietor, while a large crop, although at low prices, benefits the labourer and the revenue. The high price of salt in 1855, which caused unusually large quantities of Mediterranean salt to be imported into

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the United States, has been one means of the present downfall in price; whereas if salt
were procurable here the whole year round at about 12 cents (or 64 sterling) per bushel,
a most remuneratory price, these importations would not be so great. This may gradually
become the case as the present waste salinas in the East and West Caicos are brought
more extensively into cultivation.

TABLES showing the TONNAGE INWARDS and OUTWARDS from 1849 to 1857.

1855

1856

1857

1855
1856

1857

1849

1850

1851

1852

1853

1854

1855

1856

1857

YEAR.

YEAR.

British.

35. Of the above tonnage, I am only enabled to give the nationality of the shipping composing it for the last three years, which is as follows:

10,202

12,010

16,234

Tonnage
inwards.

41,712

41 269

9,734

12,679

19,424

31,066

40,106

33,552

39,254

20,814

29,086

45,822

ENTERED.

Parochial expenses
Aid to government schools
Hired buildings

CLEARED.

10,283

16,871

29,456

Tonnage outwards.

United States. Other Places.

41,712

41,279

30,846

38,930

31,594

36,676

19,834

28,940

44,747

9,695

15,999

25,118

329

205

132

405

262

205

TOTAL.

20,814

29,086

45,822

19,834 28,940

44,747

Revenue from the Salt Pond Rents and Sale of Crown Lands composing Her Majesty's
Crown Funds.

36. The salt pond rents and such other receipts as appertain to the Crown are collected and disbursed by an officer (the Crown commissioner) specially appointed by Her Majesty's Government for that purpose, and who also acts as Crown surveyor and superintendent of all public works, wliether connected with the salt pond or otherwise.

37. The total fixed expenditure from the Crown Funds in 1857 amounted to 1,6617. 7s. 10 d. consisting of salaries and allowances

£1,025 9 11

370 17 112
150 0 0
115 0 0

£1,661 7 102

38. The principal salaries and allowances defrayed from the Crown Funds are those of the Crown commissioner, and his assistant, the stipendiary justice and assistant stipendiary justice at the Caicos, together with some small allowances which cease in 1858, the total amount, however, remaining about the same, owing to the recent appointment of an auditor of public accounts.

39. The parochial expenses 370l. 17s. 113d include., the maintenance of the poor's house, the cost of which in 1857 amounted to 3561. Os. 114d.; the balance of parochial expenses, 147. 17s. Od., being for matters connected with the vestry.

40. The amount paid in aid of government schools in 1857 (150.) has been now increased to 200l., giving a total expenditure from the Crown Funds and colonial revenue towards public education of 650l. per annum.

TURKS ISLANDS.

TURKS ISLANDS.

Separate, No.17.
ef 21st Sept.
1857.
Mr. Inglis
to Governor
Darling.

41. The amount placed in the Blue Book for rents of public buildings defrayed from
the Crown Funds (1157.) consists of rent of barracks
Ditto of Crown commissioner's office
Four months' rental of a government house in
1857

£85 0 0
20 0 0

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10 0 0

£115 0 0

The rent of the poor's house and hospital, (451.) also defrayed from the Crown Funds, is included in the parochial expenses, and will cease this month.

42. In consequence of the large annual amounts expended on the salt ponds, as well as in the fixed expenditure above mentioned, there has hitherto been little to show in the shape of buildings, with the exception of the lighthouse, towards the erection of which one moiety of the expense was contributed from the Crown Funds of the colony, the other being defrayed from Her Majesty's Treasury.

43. Public buildings of various descriptions have long been contemplated, but owing to the expensive scale on which it has hitherto been proposed to erect them but little has yet been accomplished.

44. Since my arrival in 1854, however, there have been the following public works carried out, independent of the numerous ones connected with the salt ponds, viz. :—

First. The repair of Mathew Tank, one of the most useful and necessary works that could possibly be undertaken in a colony where the scarcity of water is painfully apparent among the poorer class. This tank, originally commenced previous to the separation from the Bahamas, had fallen into a state of complete disrepair, until it was renewed in 1854, and rendered capable of containing upwards of 97,000 gallons of rain water, which, coming as it does from an extensive rocky "catch," is of the purest and best description. The total cost of its construction, inclusive of repairs, has amounted to nearly 1,000l. The pamphlet lately forwarded by your excellency on the production of fresh water from sea water by Dr. Normandy, and which has been already published here for general information, may possibly lead to a new era, as regards the supply of fresh water in a colony where there is none fit for human use save what falls from the clouds.

Second. The erection of a comfortable government house at Waterloo, together with the purchase of that estate, formerly belonging to Mr. Misich, senior member of council, but now the property of the colony.

Third. The excavation from the solid rock of a powder magazine, containing at present 100,000 lbs. of gunpowder and 43 kegs of ball cartridge. It is proposed to make this magazine a depôt for all gunpowder imported into the colony, whether private or public property.

Fourth. The establishment of a poor's house at a short distance from the town of Grand Turk, which is now completed, and where the paupers of the colony will be removed during the present month.

45. In 1856 it was found to be absolutely necessary to provide a magazine for the safe storage of gunpowder, and a half-finished building, about one mile to the north of the town of Grand Turk, was purchased for the purpose, by the advice of the Executive Council.

46. In the course of its construction for that purpose, it was found that it could be more beneficially applied to the purposes of a poor's house and hospital, which alteration, sanctioned also by the council, was adopted, and it now forms one of the best of the public buildings in the colony, besides causing a saving in rent of 451.

per annum. 47. In my speech at the opening of the present legislative session I stated to the council, on the subject of public works, as follows: "There is but little at present to "communicate on the subject of public works, but as I have frequently adverted to the "expensive mode of hiring private houses for government purposes, I may mention, "that should my proposition be carried into effect for the purchase of the present

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building used for public offices, which I have reason to believe has already received "the sanction of Her Majesty's Government, and if so will be defrayed from the Crown "Funds of the colony, the rents of Government buildings will shortly stand at 1667. 15s. "in place of 452. 11s. 8d., as they stood in January 1855, thus effecting since then "a saving to the colony of 285l. 16s. 8d. per annum."

48. Although no direct sanction has been received to my proposition, contained in the despatch quoted in the margin, for the purchase of the building above mentioned, I made the statement to the council on the ground that the Crown Fund estimates for 1858 had been sanctioned, wherein provision is made for a payment on account towards the purchase in question. I therefore considered that no objection would be made on the

part of Her Majesty's Government, although I have deferred concluding the arrangement until the proposition is formally approved.

49. I have omitted to enumerate, among other public works, that during 1857 extensive repairs have been made to the chapel of ease at Salt Cay, by which thirty-six additional seats have been added to the previous accommodation, the necessity for which had been pointed out by the resident minister there.

Ecclesiastical.

50. In the return of ecclesiastical establishments supported by this colony, it will be seen that the parish of St. George, comprising the Caicos Islands, has not the benefit of any minister, resident or otherwise, of the established church; that 401. per annum had been assigned for two lay readers (20l. to each), but that no one had yet been appointed which may be accounted for by the smallness of the sum provided.

51. There is no part of this colony so much in want of spiritual instruction as the Caicos settlements, the population of which are fast verging into a state of semibarbarism, a fact which has been lately brought to my notice by Mr. St. George Tucker, the assistant stipendiary justice residing at Cockburn Harbour, East Caicos, who describes the incestuous immorality practised throughout these settlements, to be hardly credible in a so-called Christian community. Cockburn Harbour forms, I believe, an exception to this lamentable state of affairs.

52. The contribution from the revenue of this colony towards the ecclesiastical establishment of the church of England maintained here already amounting to 673l. 18s. 4d. per annum (exclusive of grants to the dissenters), but little more can well be expected from it, but were the Church Missionary Aid Society made acquainted with the field which is open to them at the Caicos they would probably be induced to render this colony such assistance as might be the means of rescuing the Caicos from their present state of spiritual destitution.

53. In the event of such a proposition being entertained, I would recommend the appointment of a church missionary to the Caicos Islands, who might be placed at Cockburn Harbour as his head quarters, from whence he would be in a position to make periodical visits to the other settlements.

Legislation.

54. Nine ordinances were passed during the legislative session of 1857, the principal one of importance to this community being Ordinance No. 4. of 1857, "to restrict the "contributions to the widows' and orphans' fund to the present public officers of the "colony," on which subject, and its operation, I made a full report in my speech at the commencement of the present session, transmitted in my Despatch to your Excellency (Legislative), No. 30. of 26th April 1858.

Education.

55. The returns in connexion with public education show a total of 428 scholars at the government schools during the year 1857. On this subject I transmit a report* from the head master at Grand Turk, who is also inspector of government schools generally, throughout the colony.

56. Mr. Ockenden states, in his report, dated Grand Turk, 12th June 1858, that the year 1856 shows a falling-off of 21 scholars, in comparison with 1856, attributable to the great demand for labour during nearly the whole of the former year, and which he considers, in as far as the more advanced scholars are concerned, a circumstance not to be regretted, inasmuch as they have been contributing to their own support and that of their parents. When it is remembered that most of the scholars in our public schools are destined to become salt-pond labourers, Mr. Ockendon's view will probably be concurred in; while the fact that this small decrease is attributed to the true cause may be gathered from the statement at the close of the fifth paragraph of his report, viz., that the numbers and attendance at the schools had steadily increased since the busy season last year.

57. In the fourth paragraph of his report Mr. Ockenden refers to the great want of suitable schoolhouses; a subject of regret to myself, which at present I see no means of remedying.

58. Mr. Ockenden, in his sixth paragraph, adverts to my personal observation at the recent public examinations of the several schools here and at Salt Cay, and the favourable allusion to the head school at this cay made in my speech at the opening of the present

TURKS ISLANDS.

Not received.

TURKS ISLANDS.

Enclosure 2 in No. 10.

session of the Legislative Council, which I take the liberty to quote as follows:-"On the
"subject of public education I laid before you last year some interesting statistics. I
"now have the pleasure to state that the proposed establishment of a public school at
"the rising settlement of Cockburn Harbour, East Caicos, has received the sanction of
"Her Majesty's Government, and I hope in the next educational returns to show that it is

likely to be not among the least of our colonial schools. The late public examinations
"here must have been gratifying to all who witnessed them; and I am of opinion, in
"which I am confident the honourable members who witnessed it will coincide, that the
"examination of the first and second classes of the head school at Grand Turk would,
"in the intelligence displayed by the scholars, have compared favourably with any similar
"school in the West Indies, and that the school in question is fortunate in possessing as
"its head master Mr. Ockenden, inspector of government schools, ably assisted as he is
"at present by a gentleman whose educational talents are conspicuous. I cannot take
better or more public opportunity than the present of calling the attention of parents
"to the grave responsibility which those incur who neglect to take advantage of the price-
"less boon of a good education so freely proffered to them by this government, and
"would earnestly point out to them that if they wish their children to bless their memory

66 a

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they will not fail to accept it for them while there is yet time."

59. With regard to the government school at Lorimers, Caicos, where Mr. Ockenden mentions that in July last year he found 123 scholars of both sexes on the register, on whose attainments he could not report favourably, I have reason to believe that the next report will show an improvement both in the numbers and proficiency of the scholars.

60. The school at Kew, Caicos, which Mr. Ockenden reports on in paragraphs eight and nine, with regard to the master of which I lately made some remarks in my Despatch (Separate), No. 32. of the 18th May 1858, I have only to state, in reference to it, that the board of education have never considered that they exercised any supervision whatever over it, or were in any way answerable for its shortcomings, and that the amount of 101. per annum (now withdrawn) was given purely as a gratuity to encourage education at a place where no government school existed.

61. Mr. Ockenden reports favourably, in his tenth paragraph, on the new government school lately established at Cockburn Harbour, East Caicos, where the numbers of scholars have already increased to 47, with an average daily attendance of 34.

62. On the subject of fees (paragraph eleven), Mr. Ockenden is aware of my opinion, in which I am supported by the members of the board of education, that the small fee of 1d. sterling per week should be rigidly enforced. The due collection of these fees is of importance to the maintenance of these schools. The poorest cannot consider them high (the fees having been reduced from sixpence to the present amount), while the enforcement of their payment causes education to be more appreciated. Mr. Ockenden confirms the necessity for this compulsory payment, when he states that the total grant, now amounting to 650l. per annum, placed at the disposition of the board of education, does not suffice to meet the present expenses incurred in the cause of public education within this colony. It will be seen by the returns that the fees collected during 1857 amounted to 50l. 2s. 44d., an important item, increasing the annual receipts to 700l., which, although a large sum to expend in proportion to the revenue of the colony, is by no means as large as could be desired.

I have, &c.

W. R. INGLIS, President.

Enclosure 2. in No. 10.

COPY of a DESPATCH from Governor DARLING to President W. R. INGLIS.

(No. 69.)

SIR,

King's House, Jamaica, July 9, 1858.
I HAVE perused with gratification your interesting report accompanying the Blue
Book of the presidency for the year 1857.

2. I shall not fail to request the attention of Her Majesty's Government to your
suggestion that the Church Missionary Aid Society might be induced to render assistance
in the extension of spiritual care to the inhabitants.

3. With reference to the view which you take of the difficulty of meeting my instruction, that whatever portion of the Crown Funds is appropriated to the general service of the colony should be considered as "incidental revenue," and entered accord

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