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strances were made to Her Majesty's Government against any new concessions being NEWFOUNDmade to the French; the proposed Convention was consequently withdrawn, and the Newfoundland fisheries now stand on the same footing which they did before the late Convention was proposed; and subjects of France and citizens of the United States possess, by existing treaties, rights of fishery, which they periodically exercise on the coasts of Newfoundland.
10. The Commandants of His Imperial Majesty's Ships, stationed on these coasts during this season, have intimated that the Government of France is determined that the existing treaties with that nation shall be strictly adhered to; and English fishermen (more particularly in St. George's Bay) have taken great alarm in consequence, having been prosecuting the fishery there for many years, as they allege, without molestation.
11. The question is one which, I think, ought to be finally arranged and set at rest; collisions and disputes frequently occurred, and will again occur, and they may lead to serious consequences; both nations are put to the expense of sending ships of war for the protection of the fisheries, whereas, if the rights of each nation were clearly defined, a cutter or two for police purposes would be sufficient, and only required for six months in the year.
12. If the question of dispute be confined to the construction of existing treaties, which I hope it will, I can see no great difficulty in obtaining a satisfactory solution of what is meant by the terms "concurrent right," and "exclusive right," due attention being paid to the interpretation which has been placed on these treaties by the respective parties, and the practice which has prevailed for a series of years, which, in my opinion, cannot be well ascertained without getting evidence on the spot.
13. I believe, indeed I have no doubt, that encroachments have been made on both sides, and I consider it to be of great importance correctly to ascertain the nature of these encroachments, and which cannot be got at without direct evidence, as hitherto it has been assertion on one side, and denial on the other.
14. I have dwelt too long on this subject, but considering it one of vital consequence, I trust it may soon occupy the attention of Her Majesty's Government, and it will afford me sincere satisfaction to see the Newfoundland fishery question, which has caused so many negotiations and so much correspondence, brought to a satisfactory conclusion.
I have, &c.
(Signed) A. BANNERMAN,
To the Right Hon. Sir E. B. Lytton, Bart., &c.
COPY of DESPATCH from Governor MURRAY to the UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE.
(No. 60.) MY LORD,
Bermuda, June 19, 1858.
IN forwarding the Blue Book for 1857, which only came to my hands from Mr. Kennedy, the Colonial Secretary, so immediately preceding the departure of the last mail that time was not sufficient to examine and send it by that opportunity, I find that no particular remarks are necessary on my part.
2. You will observe some diminution in the exports of agricultural produce, which has been mainly attributable to the potato disease having prevailed to a great extent. I have the satisfaction of finding that the efforts I have made since my arrival in the colony to encourage the development of its agricultural resources have been attended with so much success, that whereas on my first assuming the Government a limited number of
BERMUDA, the small vessels belonging to the colony were sufficient to carry away all the exported articles, I now have the gratification of witnessing the arrival here of numerous foreign vessels of considerable tonnage, seeking to be freighted with the produce of these islands, and obtaining it at remunerative prices.
The Under Secretary of State,
I have, &c.
PART II.-WEST INDIES AND MAURITIUS.
COPIES of a DESPATCH from Governor DARLING to the Right Honourable
King's House, 27th December 1858. (Received Feb. 3, 1859.)
I HAVE the honour to transmit herewith the Blue Book for the year 1857. I assumed the government of the colony towards the close of the month of July in that year, and soon afterwards became occupied in the preparation of measures to be submitted to the legislature at its then approaching session, which commenced early in November and continued until the end of the year.
2. Under these circumstances I have thought that my annual report will be advantageously confined to such a notice of the returns, which the Blue Book contains, as may serve succinctly to exhibit the financial and economic condition of the island at the close of the year 1857, both absolutely and in comparison as respects its more important features with that which the similiar returns for the preceding year disclose.
3. Commencing then with the ordinary revenue derived from duties, taxes, stamps, fees, and licences for the year 1857, it will be perceived that it is returned ́at 200,682l. 19s. 1d. against the sum of 208,450l. 5s. for the year 1856.
4. It appears not to have been the custom in this colony to prepare the comparative return of Revenue and Expenditure for which the Blue Book forms provide, and the ready means of comparison which that document affords are therefore wanting. I shall endeavour to have this omission remedied in future. But it may be stated generally that the more important sources of revenue, viz. the customs' duties, the tonnage duties, the rum duties, and the stamp duties, yielded a return for 1857 rather in excess of that for the preceding year, while the difference in favour of the latter upon the total revenue seems to have been occasioned by the fact that a large amount of arrears of direct taxes was collected in that year.
5. The total revenue for the years 1857 and 1856 stood thus:
1856. £ 208,450 13,318
In both years, however, rests from loans are included which it seems to me have no proper place in a statement of revenue.
The expenditure for those years amounted respectively to, in what are termed :—
1856. £ 182,521 31,091
6. The ordinary payments are, however, made to include the interests of two loans, amounting to no less than 30,000l. while the interests of other loans are placed under the head of casual payments.
7. The local revenues raised and collected in the twenty-two parishes into which the island is divided amounted to 46,2677., and the expenditure of those parishes to 42,0021.
8. The public debt stands, I regret to say, at the very high figure of 852,8081. It is composed as stated in the return:
i. Of the capital of the fund derived from deductions from the stipends of the clergy of the Established Church, to provide pensions for their widows and orphans, amounting to
ii. Of the capitals of charities, eleemosynary and educational, but principally the latter, which have been long since applied by the legislature of the day to purposes of revenue; posterity being saddled for ever with the interest thereon, at rates varying from 6 to 10, and in one instance as high as 24 per cent. These capitals amount to
iii. Of the deposits of the savings' banks, amounting to
iv. Deposits of insolvent estates of the Court of Chancery, and of apprentice valuations, amounting to
v. Of loans secured under various Acts, amounting in all to
8,1501. of this sum consists of exchequer bills which have been redeemed in the course of the present year. The imperial guaranteed loan 480,000l. is under gradual redemption by the payment of 10,000l. a year, as a sinking fund. The immigration loan, amounting to 44,3751. is also under gradual redemption by a special tax upon exports; and there is moreover a sum of 160,000l. remaining unliquidated of the loan of 200,000l. raised under an Act of the fourth year of His late Majesty, to afford relief for the losses incurred in the Slave Rebellion of 1831.
For the salary of stipendiary magistrates and superannuation allowance to officers of customs
To which must be added, part salary of the Governor
Expenditure by Great Britain.
9. The amount expended by Great Britain in and of the civil establishment is stated
The military and naval expenditure on account of the colony is returned at,—
Through the commissariat
Of the first of these items, 47,686l. is on account of the Royal Navy, and 84,7721. for allowances and provisions to the troops.
10. The laws which regulate the militia service provide for a force consisting of 4,426 rank and file, including eight companies of artillery and 565 cavalry, with an adequate number of officers in both arms. And in case of actual invasion or imminent danger thereof, or of rebellion, the Governor may, with the advice of the Privy Council of Jamaica, direct the enrolment in the several regiments of all the male population between the ages of 21 and 45. For the present however, the militia may be said to be disembodied, the periodical ballots for service having been neglected for some time past; this, however, is a defect for which I entertain the hope that the legislature will be disposed to provide the necessary remedy, in so far at least as the enrolment of men liable to service is concerned; but a system of regular drill and muster would, in time of peace, operate so much to the inconvenience of our widely scattered population, except in the the towns, that provisions of law to compel that course would not, I think, be entertained.
11. The legislation of the year 1857 comprises some enactments which there can be little doubt will conduce to the advantage of all classes of the community, when practical effect can be given to them. Without noticing important changes in the former
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