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COMPARATIVE Prices of Traffic between Lake Erie and New York, viâ the New York Central and
Railway, 142 miles, at 14 cents cost and 1 cent profit
Difference in favour of Welland Railway
25 miles Welland Railway.
1, New York Central Railroad
230, New York and Erie
,, 709, Ogdensburgh Northern,,
107, Waterdown and Rome ,, 161, Oswego and Syracuse
AVERAGE Speed of Freight Trains on the following Railroads, taken from the Annual Report of the
Viâ New York
An account of the cost of loading and unloading have been kept at the Dunkirk Station, on the New York and Erie Railroads, from which it appears the expense is found to be nearly seven cents per ton. (Report Erie Canal Commissioner, State of New York, for 1855, page 91.)
(APPENDIX A, No. 6.)
TABLE showing the comparative Distance, Cost, and Time occupied in transporting a Ton of Goods between Liverpool and Chicago by way of the St. Lawrence, and by the River Hudson. .
18 By Ocean and Railway.
12 By Ocean and Railway.
Viâ New York
2,500 Ocean - 0 1
25 Railway 30
1,000 Lake 0 21
Ocean 0 I
25 Railway 30
We were 2 days in Milwaukie, shipping cargo.
c. m. m.
1,000 Lake 0 21
$ c. 2.50
0 62 10
0 75 20
2 50 10
in a distance of
at Quebec for repairs.
10 days and 2 hours to Port Colborne, Welland Canal
passing the Welland Canal
(APPENDIX A, No. 7.)
EVIDENCE of C. D. PIERCE, formerly Captain of the "Dean Richmond."
1. ARE you acquainted with the navigation of the lakes, rivers, canals, and the Atlantic between Chicago and Liverpool?—I am. I have been sailing on the lakes and on the Atlantic for the last twelve years. I commanded a vessel during ten years in the lake trade between Chicago and Quebec, and two years on the Atlantic, between Chicago and Liverpool, making the first voyage in 1856.
2. Can you give any particulars of the voyage?—Yes; we kept a regular log, which was published in the "London Times." We left Chicago on the 17th July, arriving in Liverpool on the 17th September following.
7 By Ocean, Lake, and R.R.
By Ocean, Lake, and R.R.
14 ByOcean, Canal, and Lake.
through the St. Lawrence Canal to Montreal
3. What was the cause of detention of six days between Prescott and Montreal?—It arose from the depth of water in the St. Lawrence canals. Her draught was nine feet six inches from Chicago through the Welland canal to Dickinson's landing, where we had to lighten to less than nine feet, which detained us two days. We were also detained two days in the Beauharnois canal, where the level was
still less than in the Cornwall, and one day in the Lachine canal, arising from the level being drawn down by mills.
4. What is the expense of lightening through the canals?—It averages about $250 for each vessel on her downward trip when they draw ten feet. The Welland canal admits vessels of ten feet six inches. 5. What number of vessels are making the direct voyage in the lake trade this year?-Fourteen, they average 380 tons, nine of which are under my direction.
6. What channel did you take at the outlet of the Gulf of St. Lawrence?-I went out by the Straits of Belle Isle with the Dean Richmond," and sold her in England in 1856. Passed out by the channel of St. Pauls with the "Kershaw" in 1857, and through the Gut of Canso on her return.
7. What time did you leave Liverpool in the "Kershaw?"-I left on the 30th September, met a gale of wind, and ran into Falmouth; left that port 16th October, and arrived at Quebec 1st December, making the last trip for the season.
8. Did you meet with any difficulty in the navigation of the gulf?-Not the slightest. The charts of Captain Bayfield are so perfect that any competent mariner may take a vessel out or in without the aid of a pilot.
9. How do you account for the high rates of insurance from the Atlantic to and from Quebec ?—It arises from the number of vessels formerly running ashore without sounding, which has led to erroneous impressions. There is no reason why the insurance should be higher than to the ports of New York, Boston, or Portland.
10. What would be a remunerative price per bushel of wheat or corn of sixty pounds, between Chicago and Liverpool, and per ton of merchandise returning?-Grain sixty pounds per bushel net $10; and ton of merchandise returning about $8, freights being extremely low.
11. What description of steamer should be employed to make up a daily line between Liverpool and Quebec, and what time would they occupy ?- Not less than 2,000 tons, which at 10 miles per hour, would occupy about 10 days and 10 hours.
12. What tonnage of steamer will pass the St. Lawrence canals?—A steamer will convey a cargo of 1,000 tons up to Port Dalhousie, provided the St. Lawrence canals alluded to were deepened to 10 feet 6 inches water.
13. What size propeller will pass up the Welland canal?-One of about 360 tons, and which would convey 12,000 bushels of wheat.
14. What size propeller would be most profitably employed between the Welland canal and Chicago? -About the same as on the St. Lawrence, 1,000 tons.
15. Supposing a daily line of steamers of 2,000 tons placed on the route between Quebec and Liverpool, in connection with a continuous line to Chicago, would they obtain full freights ?—Yes; for a period of 200 days, the supply furnished by the Western States would be ample; the transhipment by elevators serves to benefit grain; the voyage would be reduced to at most 20 days. The purchasers of grain could draw from Chicago on Liverpool direct at 30 days, paying first cost only, say 50 cents per bushel, leaving the freight, about 30 cents, to be paid in Liverpool on delivery, requiring less capitâl in the trade, at the same time this daily line would not interfere with the ordinary business of the port inasmuch as seven steamers of 1,000 tons burthen can navigate the ocean with perfect safety and with equal economy; so that it would only require the deepening of the canals to open a direct trade viâ the Welland canal and railway to all parts of Europe, and at the same time admit of a different class of sailing vessels to ply on the said route.
16. Have you any doubt on your mind, that if the same sums of money were annually paid by the Imperial and Canadian Governments for conveying the mails (or for any other object) to Quebec as to New York, individuals would offer a sufficient number of steamers to make up a daily line immediately?—Not the least; if the boats are of sufficient dimensions and power, because they have less ocean distance, can carry passengers, light freight, and emigrants, at less cost and in a shorter time to Quebec than to New York,
17. Have you any suggestion to make which would increase the trade through the Welland and St. Lawrence canals?-Yes; the reduction of tolls on timber, lumber, staves, and other articles. The principal articles of export from the Upper lakes to England at present are the best kind of walnut, cherry, and other boards, staves, and timber. These do not pass the St. Lawrence canals, but are generally rafted down the river; for if conveyed in a vessel, are subject to tolls, both on the Weiland and St. Lawrence canals. Thus the tolls on one ton of wheat, valued at 80 cents per bushel, or $29.60 per ton, pays 30 cents toll, whereas I have estimated that a thousand staves at $20 pay $1.50 per 1,000 for toll.
18. Do you think the removal of the bars in the rapids between lakes St. Francis and St. Lewis woul. repay the cost?—Yes; by Maillefert and Raesloff's report, less than one million of dollars each will give twelve feet of water from Lake Ontario to tide water, the most important improvement yet undertaken.
19. When the St. Lawrence canals become deepened, and when the Welland canal is enlarged, will it, in your judgment, be the means of lessening the traffic over the Welland railway?-No; because the Welland railway is only twenty-five miles long, with a descending grade in the direction of the trade, and from the facility and cheapness with which all descriptions of freight adapted for railways can be conveyed between lakes Erie and Ontario for the traffic east and west, it must always command full freight, it being the shortest land transit between Liverpool and Chicago.
20. Do you think the estimate of transportation mentioned in statement A is correct?—Yes.
21. What are the highest and lowest relative prices of freight paid between Cleveland, New York, and Montreal?-Prices of wheat are variable in the summer season, wheat is conveyed to New York for from 15 to 20 cents, and during the spring and fall from 25 to 35 cents per bushel, and to Quebec for from 10 to 20, and from 15 to 20 cents, making a difference of 50 per cent. to the two ports.
(APPENDIX A, No: 8.)
EVIDENCE OF THOMAS WORTHINGTON, Esq., Inspector of Ports for Upper Canada.
22. Explain to the Committee the mode of intercourse prior to 1856, between Canada and the United States, relative to the exportation of wheat and flour?-By An act passed by the Legislative Assembly in 1847, 10 to 11 Vict., cap. 31, sects. 27 and 72, pp. 31 and 41, it shall be lawful for the importer of any wheat, maize, or other grain to grind and pack the same in bond; providing such grinding and packing be done and conducted under such regulations and restrictions as the Governor in Council shall, from time to time, make for this purpose; and the said regulations may extend to the substitution of beef and pork, flour and meal, in quantities equivalent to the produce of such cattle and swine, maize or other grain, 72, 41,* page 63, sects. 8 and 9 of regulations, 30th March, 1850. In the packing of flour ground from wheat imported from the United States, the Governor in Council permitted barrels to be imported free also from the United States, as in the case at Port Erie.
23. What is the practice now relative to similar importations and exportations?—The Customs
24. How do you construe the 3d article of the Treaty of 1854, between the United States and Canada? This article of the Reciprocity Treaty has always appeared to me to have been previously intended to cover fairly all the products of the field and forest, such as wheat, corn, barley, rye, and oats, ground and unground, including horse feed, shorts, bran, and hay; saw logs, squared timber, lumber, clapboards, railway ties, and shingle bolts, In this construction I know I am borne out by the majority of the Customs officers in our service.
25. Have not consuls or agents been appointed lately?—Yes; but I have not been able to obtain full information as to all the appointments made; the following ports of entry, in Canada, I know are supplied, viz., Toronto, Whitby, Oshawa, Darlington and Newcastle, Collingwood, Oakville, Hamilton, Clifton, Chippewa, Dover, Rowan, Bruce, Port Stanley, Chatham, Windsor, Sarnia, and Goderich, and judging from the foregoing ports, I should infer that altogether there must be over fifty consular agents in Canada West.
26. When were these appointments made ?-Since February last the circular for the Consular General of the United States for British North American Provinces was issued on the 28th July of the present year, and dated from Montreal, directing consular agents to prevent detention at the frontier ports, and to notify shippers of certain regulations of the Treasury Department of the United States. This information had been already communicated to the public by posters, &c., under the signature of Mr. Brydges, about two years since, and every precaution was taken that could possibly be devised by the Canadian Customs, as well as by the United States Customs, to insure correct returns of exports from Canada.
27. Under what circumstances did this change come into operation. The 1st and 2d sections of the Consular General's circular refers to the Treasury regulations of 1857, Nos. 203, 204, 206, 207, 209, 281, 287, 706, 707, and 710, but these have reference almost exclusively to articles paying duty, and not to goods free by treaty (see 287, 706, and 707), while the 3d section refers to articles of the produce of the United States exported to the British North American Provinces, and returned to the United States in the same condition as when exported, claiming to be entered free of duty, &c., and reference is here made to Nos. 242, 246, 286, 293, and 936, in support of this view: none of which however bear upon the question, excepting 930 and 936, these having special reference to the Reciprocity Treaty; it is worthy of note that in 936 we have the words "growth or produce" twice quoted, and not growth and produce. Regarding the 4th section of this circular, " merchandise the value of "$100 and upwards, claiming exemption from duty under the Reciprocity Treaty, pays a fee of $2." This impost is not justified by any law of the United States, and it is in direct violation of the Reciprocity Treaty. Goods free under this treaty cannot be made subject to any oath before a magistrate, nor is it competent for any consular agent to exact a fee legally (see regulation, 922). This regulation has only reference to foreign owners of goods, the produce of Canada, and not to the United States purchaser; upon reading the heading of No. 278, "Foreign owner's oath, where goods have been actually purchased, to be taken before a consular officer of the United States in the British "Provinces," it is observable that the "Consular General" constructs his "regulation" on this heading, rather than upon the form itself, (see pp. 498, 499,) and which most distinctly alludes to the owner, discounts, bounties, and drawbacks, none of which can apply to goods free under the Reciprocity Treaty. Public feeling generally is against the assumption set up by the United States Consular General for British North America, both in the United States and Canada, and some able communications condemnatory thereof have appeared upon this question, through the public press (p. 1, 2, 3).
28. What fees are charged by the consular agents, and who participates in them?—The fee of $2 is charged, one half of which, I understand, goes into the pocket of the agent, and the remainder is transmitted to the Consular General.
(APPENDIX A, No. 9.)
To the Hon. W. H. MERRITT, Chairman of the Committee on Commerce.
Toronto Exchange, 9 July 1858.
We have had occasion to ship a considerable quantity of split peas to New York, and until recently they were admited "as free" under the Treaty of Reciprocity. During the last season, however, in consequence of instructions from Washington, the collectors on the frontier have demanded the payment of duty, on the ground that split peas are not specially enumerated in the list of exemptions We are aware that split peas are not specially referred to in the treaty, but we believe that peas and pease-meal are exempt, and we cannot see why the intermediate manufacture, by splitting, should offend the spirit of the Act, and induce the imposition of a duty, where we think none was ever contemplated by those who framed the Act. Should your Committee concur with us in this opinion, we would respectively beg your attention to the matter, as the present illiberal construction of the Act, by the American authorities, in this and other instances which are now engaging your attention. are militating most injuriously against the commerce of the country.
We are, &c.
(APPENDIX A, No. 10.)
To the Honourable the LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY of CANADA in Parliament assembled.
JAMES BROWNE, Jr., & Co.
The Petition of the Board of Trade of Toronto, respectfully sheweth :-
That whereas Nature has endowed this province with a magnificent highway to the ocean, through the Lakes and the River St. Lawrence, capable of bearing for coming ages the teeming produce of its rich soil to supply the wants of the manufacturing aud consuming population of the countries of Europe:
And whereas the port of Quebec is 500 miles nearer to Liverpool than the port of New York, and produce is now being brought from Chicago and the north-western lakes by means of the facilities to navigation already existing in Canada at a cheaper and more expeditious rate than it can reach New York from the same points, and only requires a corresponding rate of ocean freights from Quebec to compete successfully with the export trade from New York to England:
Charles Robertson, Secretary.
And whereas the commercial, manufacturing, and shipping interests of the province are depressed and in a languishing condition, our public works on the St. Lawrence being all but idle, and the public debt of the country rapidly increasing without any prospect of the expenditure being diminished, under which circumstances it becomes imperative on the Legislature to provide some remedy for our present anomalous condition:
Therefore your petitioners respectfully pray your Honourable House would appoint a Committee to investigate the cause, and if possible provide some measure by which the present distress in commerce inay be alleviated and the natural advantages of the Province be realized.
And your petitioners, as in duty bound, will ever pray, &c. &c.