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it appears that 131 whites were pardoned out, and only 11 blacks. “During this time,” says Mr. Gray, “the whites have been precisely twice as many as the blacks, the average of the one being 2213, and that of the other just 111. The number of whites, then, has been to that of the blacks as two to one, and the pardons of the former to those of the latter almost exactly as twelve to one.” It is not so strange that the rate of mortality of the poor blacks should appear thrice as great, when the rate of pardons for them is but one sixth as large, as the corresponding rates for the whites. This consideration adds much weight to our argument on the comparative length of the periods of imprisonment at the two places. The following ratios, which we have hastily calculated from the tables given on pages 41 - 49 of the Annual Report of the prison at Philadelphia for 1845, show obvious reasons why the system is more fatal to the colored race. white prisoners, 364, or 26.6 per cent. of the whole, were confined one year or under ; while of 692 blacks, 103, or only 14.9 per cent., did not exceed one year. Of the whites, 11.8, and of the blacks, 14.8 per cent. were imprisoned three years or more ; 2.8 of the former, and 3.9 of the latter, remained five years or more. The system has been more deadly to the blacks simply because they have been longer exposed to it.

The effects of the separate system on the minds of the convicts are found to be more injurious even than its operation on their bodily health. Solitary imprisonment unmitigated by labor has always caused so frightful an amount of insanity, that the plan has been abandoned in every case in this country in which it has been tried, and usually after a very short experiment. Is there cause to believe that the alleviations of this solitude which have been introduced into the Pennsylvania system have effectually checked the evil? These alleviations consist in giving the prisoner the means of employment in his cell, and in allowing him to be visited by the prison officers and inspectors, and other suitable persons, though he never sees his fellow-prisoners. It is important to know how numerous and how long these visits are, on an average, for each convict, — how large a part of the twenty-four hours he usually spends in the company of a fellow-being. Mr. Gray first cites, upon this point, the testimony of Mrs. Farnham, the excellent Matron of the female department at Sing Sing,

who visited the prison at Philadelphia in 1946, in order to see the actual operation of the Pennsylvania system.

6 In an examination of this system, therefore, one of my particular objects was to ascertain what amount of social intercourse was afforded to those who were placed under its operation. With the advantages which I have named, it would be idle to suppose that a state of things more favorable to a liberal and sound administration of the system will be anywhere realized than in Philadelphia. I was exceedingly interested, therefore, to ascertain how far all these advantages permitted the prisoner to conform to the laws of his mental being, in respect to the particu. lars which I have named. The largest average which was given me of the time spent by each person in social intercourse was by the warden. He thought it might be fifteen minutes of each twenty-four hours, perhaps with a great majority not so much. Those prisoners with whom I spoke thought seven minutes would be a large statement of the amount of time spent by them in society! A few who were peculiarly situated gave much more than this. But these were exceptions, existing under temporary and precarious causes. The periods of imprisonment range, in most countries, from one year or less to the length of the natural life. For terms of time, therefore, varying from those of short duration to the whole of the natural life, persons condemned to this system must suffer a solitude so entire, that fifteen minutes out of each twenty-four hours will include the entire time spent in the presence or communion of a fellow-being."

To confirm Mrs. Farnham's statement, our author shows by a curious calculation that it is not practicable, under the system, to allow each prisoner society for more than fifteen minutes a day.

“ It appears from the above table marked (B.), that the number of prisoners has been on an average, for the last ten years, 364; let 360 be taken as more convenient for this mode of calculation. It is stated that the moral instructor employs from seven to eight hours a day, say eight. In this time there are 480 minutes, which is one minute and one third for each prisoner. It is not to be supposed that he sees them all every day. He states himself that he makes each day from sixteen to twenty visits. Suppose twenty, and allowing no time for passing from one cell to another, each visit is of twenty-four minutes, and each prisoner sees him once in eighteen days.

“ If the visits are more frequent, they must be shorter; or if longer, more rare; for they can amount in all to no more than a minute and one third per day. The same estimate applies to the schoolmaster. The warden, considering his other important avocations, cannot probably devote more than two hours every day to visits, or one fourth part of the time employed by the teacher; which will afford to each prisoner an amount of visiting equal to one third of a minute each day, and as he sees every inmate once a fortnight, each visit may be of four minutes and two thirds. Allow as much for the physician, and as much more for the apothecary, and we have altogether from these officers within the walls three minutes and two thirds per day.”

pp. 126, 127.

The length of the visits made by the inspectors, the committee of the Philadelphia Society, the legislature, the juries, benevolent persons from the community at large, and the turnkeys, is computed in the same manner, and the aggregate is shown not to exceed eleven minutes a day. To adopt Mrs. Farnham's statement, therefore, allowing fifteen minutes a day of human intercourse to each convict is certainly not to fall short of the truth. How much society ought to be provided in order to maintain the bodily and mental faculties of each prisoner in full health and vigor is a question which it is not easy to determine.

“No one probably would think of less than two hours a day. If we suppose this duty of visiting to be assigned to chaplains, as it usually is, and each to be employed eight hours daily, which is as much as can be required, one chaplain for every four convicts would be necessary to accomplish the object. The work would probably be divided, and one chaplain give half an hour a day to each of sixteen convicts. But then three others must give half an hour apiece to each of the same sixteen in order to furnish them with the time specified; and however this duty be distributed among them, their number must amount to at least one fourth part of the prisoners; or to ninety-one in Philadelphia, and seventy-four in Charlestown. Even to provide them with society for one single hour in the twenty-four would require half these numbers. And who would dream of proposing to the State of Massachusetts to employ and pay seventy-four or even thirtyseven chaplains for the State prison, or ask that of Pennsylvania for the still larger number?

pp. 128, 129. We shall not quarrel with the upholders of the Philadelphia plan about a name. If the fact, that each prisoner has society fforded him on an average for fifteen minutes a day, seems to hem to justify their often-repeated assertion, that the system is

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not one of solitary, but of separate, imprisonment,* they are welcome to the appellation. Indeed, as the inmates of the Bastile and the Spielberg, of the Inquisition at Madrid and the Leads at Venice, were necessarily visited each day by the persons who brought them their allowance of food and water, it is pretty evident that solitary imprisonment, as it is understood by the advocates of the separate system, was not permitted in these institutions, nor do we see how it is practicable anywhere.

But whatever name be given to the system, let us see what its effects are on the minds of the prisoners. New cases of Insanity in the Eastern Penitentiary of Pennsyl

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“ Now since it appears, that where the color is distinguished, the number of whites and the number of blacks becoming insane minute and one third per day. The same estimate applies to the schoolmaster. The warden, considering his other important avocations, cannot probably devote more than two hours every day to visits, or one fourth part of the time employed by the teacher; which will afford to each prisoner an amount of visiting equal to one third of a minute each day, and as he sees every inmate once a fortnight, each visit may be of four minutes and two thirds. Allow as much for the physician, and as much more for the apothecary, and we have altogether from these officers within the walls three minutes and two thirds per day.” - pp. 126, 127.

*“The system is called the solitary system by some who have written against it, and who have portrayed their objections in glowing colors. It is not a solitary system ; and therefore such objections, and whatever deduc. tions have been made therefrom, are groundless. The prisoners are separated from each other at all times. They never see one another. From the moment they come into prison they are separated and alone only as regards their fellow-prisoners. The system is properly called, therefore, the separate system.' - Seventeenth Annual Report of the Eastern Penitentiary of Pennsylvania, p. 7. † No statement.

The length of the visits made by the inspectors, the committee of the Philadelphia Society, the legislature, the juries, benevolent persons from the community at large, and the turnkeys, is computed in the same manner, and the aggregate is shown not to exceed eleven minutes a day. To adopt Mrs. Farnham's statement, therefore, allowing fifteen minutes a day of human intercourse to each convict is certainly not to fall short of the truth. How much society ought to be provided in order to maintain the bodily and mental faculties of each prisoner in full health and vigor is a question which it is not easy to determine.

“No one probably would think of less than two hours a day. If we suppose this duty of visiting to be assigned to chaplains, as it usually is, and each to be employed eight hours daily, which is as much as can be required, one chaplain for every four convicts would be necessary to accomplish the object. The work would probably be divided, and one chaplain give half an hour a day to each of sixteen convicts. But then three others must give half an hour apiece to each of the same sixteen in order to furnish them with the time specified; and however this duty be distributed among them, their number must amount to at least one fourth part of the prisoners; or to ninety-one in Philadelphia, and seventy-four in Charlestown. Even to provide them with society for one single hour in the twenty-four would require half these numbers. And who would dream of proposing to the State of Massachusetts to employ and pay seventy-four or even thirtyseven chaplains for the State prison, or ask that of Pennsylvania for the still larger number ? ” — pp. 128, 129.

We shall not quarrel with the upholders of the Philadelphia plan about a name. If the fact, that each prisoner has society fforded him on an average for fifteen minutes a day, seems to hem to justify their often-repeated assertion, that the system is

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