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ment, will not fail to implore the divine henediction

upon it.

“ I now make it my earnest prayer, that God would have you, and the state over which you preside, in his holy protection; that he would incline the hearts of the citizens to cultivate a spirit of subordination and obedience to government; to entertain a brotherly affection and love for one another, for their fellow citizens of the United States at large; and particularly for their brethren who have served in the field ; and finally, that he would most graciously be pleased to dispose us all to do justice, to love mercy, and to denean ourselves with that charity, humility, and paci. fick temper of mind, which were the characteristicks of the divine Author of our blessed religion ; without a humble imitation of whose example, in these things, we can never hope to be a happy nation.”

From this time the disbanding the army engrossed the attention of Congress and of the Commander in Chief. No funds were established to discharge the five years commutation. Large arrearages of pay were due to officers and privates, and it was not in the power of government to advance them money oven to defray the expenses of the journey to their homes To disband the army in a body under these circum stances, was deemed a measure of too great hazard. Congress therefore directed the General not to give discharges to the troops which were enlisted for the war, until the definite articles of peace should be signed; but to grant furloughs to all non-commisioned of. ficers and soldiers of this description, who desired them; and they were not ordered to rejoin their regiments.

Alarmed at this measure, the Generals, and officers commanding regiments and corps on the Hudson, presented an affectionate and respectful address to the Commander in Chief, in which they expressed a dutiful attachment to the government, but mentioned that after the late resolution of Congress, they “ confident

ly expected that their accounts would be liquidated, the balances ascertained, and adequate funds for the payment of those balances provided, before they should be dispersed or disbanded.” On the succeeding day, in answer to their address, he observed, “ that as no man could possibly be better acquainted than himself, with the past merits and services of the army, so no one could possibly be more strongly impressed with their present ineligible situation ; feel a keener sensibility at their distresses; or more ardently desire to alleviate, or remove them.” He subjoined.

Although the officers of the army very well know my official situation, that I am only a servant of the publick, and that it is not with me to dispense with orders which it is my duty to carry into execution, yet as furloughs in all services are considered as a matter of indulgence, and not of compulsion ; as Congress, I am persuaded, entertained the best disposition towards the army; and, as I apprehend, in a very short time the two principal articles of complaint will be removed ; until the further pleasure of Congress can be known, I shall not hesitate to comply with the wishes of the army, under these reservations only, that officers sufficient to conduct the men who choose to receive furloughs, will attend them, either on furlough, or by detachment."

This answer proved satisfactory; good humour prevailed through the camp, furloughs were generally taken ; and in the course of the summer, the greater part of the soldiers returned quietly home.

In October, Congress issued a proclamation, declaring all those soldiers, who had engaged for the war, discharged on the 3d of December.

While the veteran troops, who had borne the heat and burden of the war, left the service unpaid, and peaceably returned to the business of private life; about eighty new levies, stationed at Lancaster in Pennsylvania, revolted from their officers, and in a body

marched to Philadelphia. Being there joined by two hundred of their companions in arms who were quartered in the barracks, they surrounded, with fixed bayonets, the State House, in which Congress and the Executive Council of Pennsylvania were sitting, and sent in a written message threatening the Council with the last outrage, if their demands were not, in twenty minutes, granted. The members of Congress were not immediately menaced, but they were, for several hours, insolently blocked up in their hall.

As soon as General WASHINGTON received' intelli gence of the mutiny, he detached General Howe with fifteen hundred men to suppress it; but before he reached Philadelphia, the disturbance was without bloodshed quieted. In a letter to Congress, General WASHINGTON thus expressed his indignation at this outrage of the military.

" While I suffer the most poignant distress in observing that a handful of men, contemptiblo in numbers, and eq

ally so in point of service, (if the veteran troops from the southward have not been seduced by their example) and who are not worthy to be called soldiers, should disgrace themselves and their country, as the Pennsylvania mutineers have done, by insulting the sovereign authority of the United States, and that of their own, I feel an inexpressible satisfaction, that even this behaviour cannot stain the name of the American soldiery. It cannot be imputable to, or reflect disho nour on the army at large, but on the contrary it will by the striking contrast it exhibits, hold up to publick view the other troops in the most advantageous point of light. Upon taking all the circumstances into consideration, I cannot sufficiently express my surprise and indignation at the arrogance, the folly, and the wickedness of the mutineers; nor can I sufficiently admire the fidelity, the bravery, and patriotism which must for ever signalize the unsullied character of the other corps of our army. For when we consider that Vol. II.


these Pennsylvania levies, who have now mutinied, are recruits, and soldiers of a day, who have not borne the heat and burden of the war, and who can have, in reality, very few hardships to complain of; and when we at the same time recollect that those soldiers, who have lately been furloughed from this army, are the veterans who have patiently endured hunger, naked-. ness, and cold; who have suffered and bled without a murmur, and who with perfect good order, have retired to their homes, without a settlement of their accounts, or a farthing of money in their pockets; we shall be as much astonished at the virtues of the latter, as we are struck with horrour and detestation at the proceedings of the former; and every candid mind, without indulging ill grounded prejudices, will un.. doubtedly make the proper discrimination."

On the 25th of November, the British troops evacaated New-York. General WASHINGTON, accompanied by Governour Clinton, by a number of other civil and military officers, and by many respectable citizens, make his publick entry on horseback into the city,

His military course being honourably and successfully terminated, the painful task remained to bid adieu to the companions of his toils and dangers. The closing interview took place on the 4th of December. At noon the principal officers of the army assembled at Francis's tavern, and their General soon entered the room. His emotions were too great for concealment. Filling a glass of wine he turned to them and said, “ With a heart full of love and gratitude, I now take leave of you ; I most devoutly wish that your latter days may be as prosperous and happy, as your former ones have been glorious and honourable.”. He drank the wint, and proceeded. “I cannot come to each of you to take my leave, but shall be obliged to you, if each of you will come and take me by the hand." General Knox being the nearest, turned to him. In. capable of utterance, General WASHINGTON grasped

his hand and embraced him. In the same affecting manner, he took leave of each succeeding officer. From every eye dropped the tear of sensibility, and not a single word interrupted the tenderness of the scene. He immediately left the room, and passed through a corps of light infantry, on his way to White Hall, where a barge waited to convey him to Powles' Hook. The whole company followed with feelings which words cannot express. Having entered the barge, he turned, and waving his hat, bade them a silent adieu.

Congress was then in session at Annapolis. To this honourable body, the General immediately repaired to resign his military command.*

* On his way to Annapolis, he stopped at Philadelphia to settle his accounts; of which transaction Dr. Gordon makes the following statement.

2" While in the city, he delivered in his accounts to the Comptroller, down to December 13th, all in his own hand-writing, and every entry made in the most particular manner, stating the occasion of each charge, so as to give the least trouble in examining, and comparing them with the vouchers, with which they were attended. The heads are as follows, copied from the folio manuscript paper book in the file of the treasury office, No. 3700, being a black box of tin, containing, under lock and key, both that

and the vouchers. Total of Expenditures from 1775 to 1783, ex

clusive of Provisions from Commissaries and Contractors, and of liquors, &c. from them and others,

£3387 144 * Secret intelligence and service, .

1982 10 0 Spent in reconnoitring and travelling,

1874 8 8 Miscellaneous charges,

2952 10 1 Expended besides, dollars according to the scale of depreciation,

6114 14 0

£16,311 17 1 ** Two hundred guineas advaneed to General M'Dougad are not included in the £1982 10, not being yet settled, but included in some of the other charges, and so reckoned in the general sum."

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