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shipping in the harbour, with the seamen to Count de Grasse. The prisoners, exclusive of seamen, amounted to more than seven thousand, of which, between four and five thousand were fit for duty. The garrison lost during the siege, six officers and five hundred and forty-eight privates in killed and wounded. The privates with a competent number of officers were to remain in Virginia, Maryland, or Pennsylvania. The officers not required for this service, were permitted on parole to return to Europe, or to any of the maritime posts of the English on the American continent. Lord Cornwallis attempted to introduce into the treaty an article in favour of those Americans who had joined his standard ; but General WAsHINGTon referred their case to the civil authority. Permission however was granted to his Lordship to send the Bonetta sloop of war, unsearched, to New-York to carry his despatches to Sir Henry Clinton, and in her those Americans went passengers, who had, in the highest degree incurred the resentment of their countrymen. The terms granted to Earl Cornwallis were, in general, the terms which had been granted to the Americans at the surrender of Charleston; and General Lincoln, who on that occasion resigned his sword to Lord Cornwallis, was appointed to receive the submission of the royal army. The allied army, to which Lord Cornwallis surrendered, amounted to sixteen thousand; seven thousand French, five thousand five hundred continental troops, and three thousand five hundred militia. In the course of the siege, they lost in killed and wounded about three hundred. The siege was prosecuted with so much military judgment and ardour, that the treaty was opened the 11th, and the capitulation signed the 13th day after ground was broken before the British lines. The whole army received the unreserved ap probation of the General. But the peculiar services of particular corps entitled them to special notice. The artillerists and the engineers greatly distinguished themselves. Brigadiers Du Portail and Knox were promoted to be Major Generals. Major Generals Lincoln and the Marquis La Fayette were mentioned with high commendations, and Governour Nelson, who commanded the militia was thanked for his effectual exertions in the field, and in furnishing the army with such articles as his state afforded. To Count Rochambeau, to the French officers and troops, General WASHINGtoN expressed his acknowledgments in flattering language. The British General and Admiral at New-York had not been inattentive to the perilous situation of Lord Cornwallis. Admiral Rodney in the West Indies had early been apprized of the intention of Count de Grasse to visit the American coast; but not supposing that the whole of the French fleet on that station, would be employed on this service, Rodney detached Sir Samuel Hood to the continent with fourteen sail of line of battle ships. Sir Samuel reached the mouth of the Chesapeak before de Grasse, and finding no enemy there, sailed along the coast to Sandy Hook. Agmiral Greaves then lay in the harbour of New-York with seven ships of the line. Immediately after the arrival of Hood, intelligence was received that Count de Barrass had sailed from Newport. Admiral Greaves with the whole British squadron without loss of time sailed in pursuit of him, and on the 24th of September he discovered the French fleet under de Grasse consisting of twenty four ships of the line, riding at anchor in the Chesapeak and extending across its entrance. Count de Grasse ordered his ships to slip their cables and form the line of battle. A partial engagement took place, in which some of the English ships were considerably damaged. The hostile fleets manoeuvred for four or five days in sight of each other, and Count de Grasse then returned to his anchorage
ground. Here he found Count de Barrass who had taken a wide circuit to avoid the English, and had, while the hostile fleets were at sea, entered the Chesapeak with the squadron from Newport, consisting of five ships and fourteen transports, kaden with heavy artillery and military stores for the siege. Admiral Greaves returned to New-York to repair. In the course of a few days, the British squadron was augmented to twenty-five ships of the line, and Sir Henry Clinton determined to encounter every hazard in the attempt to relieve Earl Cornwallis. He embarked seven thousand of his best troops, and, convoyed by the fleet, sailed on the very day of the capitulation, for Virginia. At the entrance of the Chesapeak, on the 24th of October, he received information of the surrender of his Lordship, and he returned to New York. The capture of Lord Cornwallis and his army excited universal joy through the United States. In a circuitous route from Charleston to Yorktown, this army had marched ele, on hundred miles and had spread terrour and distress through the whole extent. From this dread the country was delivered. The surrender of a second royal army, the Americans deemed an event decisive of the independence of the United States, and which would speedily terminate the war. The day after the capitulation General WASHINGTon ordered, “that those who were under arrest should be pardoned and set at liberty;” and ammounced, that “Divine service shall be performed to-morrow in the different brigades and divisions. The Commander in Chief recommends, that all the troops that are not upon duty do assist at it with a serious deportment, and that sensibility of heart, which the recollection of the surprising and particular interposition of providence in our favour claims.” Congress as soon as they received General WAshington's official letter giving information of the event, resolved to go in procession
to the Dutch Lutheran Church, and return thanks to Almighty God for the signal success of the American arms; and they issued a proclamation, recommending to the citizens of the United States to observe the thirteenth of December as a day of Publick Thanksgiving and Prayer. The news of the capture of Earl Cornwallis was every where received with exultation and publick rejoicing. . Congress for this achievement, voted the thanks of the United States to General WAshington, to Count Rochambeau, to Count de Grasse, to the officers of the allied army generally, and to the corps of artillery and engineers in particular. They also resolved that a marble column should be erected at Yorktown in Virginia, bearing emblems of the alliance between the United States and his Most Christian Majesty, and inscribed with a succint narrative of the surrender of the British army under the command of Earl Cornwallis. Two stands of colours taken from the royal troops, were presented to General WAshIngton, two field pieces to Count Rochambeau; and application was made to the French Court that Count de Grasse might be permitted to accept a testimonial of the approbation of Congress, similar to that which Rochambeau had received. To the Commander in Chief the most affectionate and respectful addresses were presented by the governments of the states, by the authorities of cities, and by the corporations of literary institutions. The decided superiority of the allies in naval and land forces, General WASHINgton wished to direct to the conquest of the British posts at Carolina and Georgia. He addressed a letter to Count de Grasse on this subject, requesting his co-operation in measures directed to these objects. But the Count declined, declaring that the service of his King demanded his immediate return to the West Indies. Orders were of course issued for the disposition of Wol. II. 3
the allied armies for the approaching winter, Major General St. Clair was detached with two brigades to South Carolina to reinforce General Green. The French forces remained in Virginia. The Eastern troops embarked early in November for the Head of Elk, under the command of General Lincoln, who was ordered to march them from the place of their landing into New-Jersey and New-York, and to canton them for the winter in those states. Count de Grasse with his fleet sailed for the West Indies, and General WAsh Ington proceeded to Philadelphia.
Preparations for another Campaign—Sir Guy Carleton arrives at New-York and announces the vote of Parliament to acknowledge American Independence—Army anxious for their Pay—Anonymous Address exciting them to a Revolt—General Washington convenes and addresses the officers—Their resolutions:Pre: liminary Articles of Peace received—Cessation of Hostilities proclaimed—General Washington addresses a Circular, Letter to the Executives of the Several States—Army disbanded—New Levies of Pennsylvania revolt—The Commander in Chief enters New-York–Takes leave of his Officers—Resigns his Commission to the President of Congress—Retires to Mount Vermon. 1. THE brilliant issue of the last campaign did not relax the vigilance of General WASHINGton. He deemed it true policy to call forth all the resources of the country, that the United States might be prepared for the conflicts of another year, or, might take a commanding attitude in a negotiation for peace. From Mount Vernon, on his way to the seat of government, he wrote General Green, “I shall attempt to stimulate Congress to the best improvement of our late success, by taking the most vigorous and effectual measures to be ready for an early and decisive campaign the next year. My greatest fear is that, viewing this stroke in a point of light which may too much magnify its im, portance, they may think our work too nearly closed, and fall into a state of languor and relaxation. To