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sixth and seventh Centuries, called 'a Meeting of Counsellors and Bishops in his Palace, A. C. 3726, and by their Advice put out an Edict a.

gainst char Worship, and wrote to Pope Gree: gory:II. that a Council might be called: But the Pope thereupon called a Council at Rome, confirmed the Worship of Images, excommunicated the Greek Emperor, absolved the People from their Allegiance, and forbád them to pay Tribute, or otherwise be obedient to him. Ac cordingly the People of Rome; Campania, RAL :, venna and Pentapolis, with the Cities under them, revolted against the Emperor, killed the Ex. arch of Ravenna, and took an Oach to preserve the Life of the Pope, to defend his State, and to be obedient to his Authority in all things. Thus Rome with its i Dutchy, including part of Tuscany, and part of Campania, révolted in the Year 726, and became a free State under the Governmeni of the Senate of this City : The Authority of the Senate in civil Affairs was henceforward absolute, the Authority of the Pope extending hitherto no farther than to the Affairs of the Church only.""; 371

At that time the Limbards being zealous for the Worship of Images, and pretending to favour the Cause of the Pope, invaded the Cicies of the Exarchate, and at length, A. D. 752, cook Ravenna, and put an end to the Exarchate b; and this was the first of the chree King. doms, thar fellebefore the little Horn. so 2. Mifulpbusob King of the Lombards, having befieged Rome, the Pope fent Letters to peut pin, King of France, wherein he told him," thac if he came not speedily against the Lom:.001 bis hin ! T 2.

3 i i bards, ..Sigonius de regn: Ital. ad Ann: 736,752. W 16 A. C. 755.

bards, pro data sibi potentia, alienandum fore a Regno Dei & Vita æterna, he should be excommunicated. Pepin therefore, fearing a Revolt of his Subjects, came with an Army into Italy, saised the Şiege, besieged the Lombards in Pavia, and forced them to surrender the Exarchate, and Region of Pentapolis to the Pope for a perpetual Poffeffion. Thus the Pope became Lord of Ravenna : This was in the Year of Christ 755. And henceforward the Popes being temporal Princes, left off in their Epistles and Bulls to note the Year of the Greek Empesors, as they had hitherto done ... 5, AFTER this, the Lombards invading the Pope's Countries, Pope Adrian sent to Charles the Great, Son and Successor of Pepin, to come to his allistance. Accordingly, Charles enter'd Italy, with an Army, invaded the Lombards, overthrew their Kingdom, became Master of their Countries, and restored to the Pope, not only, what they had taken from them, but also the rest of the Exarchate, which they had promised Pepin to surrender to him, but had his therto detained ; and also gave him fome Cities of the Lombards: these things were done in the Years 773 and 774%. This Kingdom of the Lombards was the second which fell before the little Horn; but Rome, which was to be the Şeat of his Kingdom, was not yet his own : the Senate and People had still the Authority and Power in all civil Matters. In the Year 796, Leo III, being made Pope, defired Charles the Great, to fend some of his Princes to Rome, who might subject the Roman People to him, 15 . . ..

.... ::: and: Sig. ib. ad Ann.773. - 14 Id. ibid. ad Aon. 7550 ? Sigon.de Rego. Ical. ad Aną. 796. stavi,

and bind them by Oath, in fide & fubje&tionen in Fealty and Subjection, as his Words are Tec cited by Sigonius. Hence arosé a Mifunder? ftanding between the Pope and the City : the Romans, two or three Years after, raised such Tumults against him, as gave occasion to a det State of chings in all the Weft : for two of the Clergy accused him of Crimes, and the Rod mans, with an armed Force, seized him, strip.d him of his facerdotal Habits, and imprisoned: him in a Monastery: bur by the Affiftance ofl his Friends he made his Escape; and fled intos Germany to Charles, to whom he complained of the Romans, for acting against him out of a design to throw off all Authority of the Church and to recover their ancient Freedom. Charles fent the Pope back to Rome with a large Re's tinue' ; and tho' a Council was held to inquire into the Accusation, and to examiné both Par: tiesi; yer when the Pope's adverfariés expected to be heard; the Council declar'd that he, who was the supreme Judge of all Men, was above being judged by any other than himself: whereupon the Pope made a solemn Declaration of his Innocence before all the People, and by doing fo was looked, upon as acquitted. Soon after, upon Christmas-day, the Romans, who hack hitherto elected their Bishop, and reckoned, thao they and their Senate inherited the Rights of the ancient Senate and People of Rome, voted Charles cheir Emperor, and subjected themselves to him in such a manner as the old Roman Em7 pire and their Sena te were subjected to the old Roman Emperors. The Emperor was also made Consul, and was prayed for in the Churs ches of Rome. His Image was henceforward put upon the Coins of Rome. The Enemies

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of

of the Popes to the number of three hundred Romans, and two or three of the Clergy, were sentenced to death. · The three hundred Romans: were beheaded in one day in the Lateran-, Fields; but the Clergymen, at the Intercession of the Pope, weré pardoned, and banished into France 3 Aftet chate things, Charles gave the City and Dutchy of Rome to the Pope, subor-> dinately to himself as Emperor of the Romans; and returned the next Summer into France, leaving the City under its Senate, and both under the Pope and himself. ' *9! . . [Now the Senates and People, and Principality of Romerour Author takes to be the third King the little Horn overcame, and even the chief of the three: For this. People elected : the Emperor; and now, by electing the Emperor and making him Conful, was ackniowledged to retain the Authority of the old Roman Senate and people. This City was the Metropolis of the old Roman Empire, représented in Daniel by the fourth Beast ; and by subduing che Senate, and People, and Dutchy, it became che Metropolis of the little Horn of thar Beaft, and compleated' Peter's Patrimony, which was the Kingdom of that Horn, Begides; this Vicsory was attended with greater Consequences, than those over the other two Kings : for it fet. úp the Western Empire, which continues tó: this day; it fet up the Pope, above the Judica-; ture of the Roman Senate, and above that of a Council of Italian and French Bishops, and even ábove all human Judicature ; and gave him the Supremacy over che: Western: Churches, and.. their Councils in a high degrees ir gave him a. Look more stout tban, bis Fellows ; fo that when Sin na tim

this

City was in

Daniel bv gr. Roman

this new Religion began to be established in the Minds of Men, he grappled not only with Kings, but even with the Western Emperor himself. It is observable also, that the custom, of killing the Pope's Feet, an Honour superior; to that of Kings, and Emperors, began about this time. Let it be observed, that this, third; Horn is none.of the ten before-mention'd..

CHAP. VIII. Treats of the Power of the ears leventh Horn of Daniel's fourth Beast, to change Times and Lawys. In the Reign of the Greek Emperor Kustinian, and again in the Reign of Pbocas, the Bishop of Rome obtained some Dominion over the Greek Churches, but of nos long continuance. His standing Daminion Waş-í only over che Nations of the Western Empire, T. represented by Daniel's fourth Beast, and this't Jurisdiction was set up by an Edict of the Emperors Gracian and Valentinian ft. Our Author y gives us an Abstract of this Edict, but it is toov long to be inferged here. The granting of this Jurisdiction to the Pope, gave several Bishops * occasion to write to him for his Resolucions upe's on doubtfuk cafes, whereupon he answered by decretal Epiftless and henceforward he gave? Laws to the Weftern Churches by, such Epi- 7 stless, out of which our Author quotes severalo Paffages, by which this legislative Authority of the Pope's appears. By the Influence of the Imperia] Edict we mentioned, not only Spain , and Gallia, bụt also Illyricum became subject tove the Pope ; this is proved here by the Epiftles it. of several Popes; for which we must refer our Y Readers to the Book itself, for fear of makingur . this Abstract long. Our Author gives us next is an Edict of the Emperors Theodofius and Valen."

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A. C. 378, or 379.

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