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Bofphorusof Thrace, which he pass'd with his Army (on a Bridge made of Boats; and continuing his March through Thrace to the Mouth of the Danube (where he had ordered his Fleet, consisting of 600 Ships, to meet him) he pass’d it in the same manner, and afcerwards marched straic into Scythia ; and having for a long time harass'd and fatigued his Army in search of the Enemy, (who industriously shun'd to give him Battle, that they might by long Marches, and the Straits which they reduced them to for want of Water, and other Necessaries, oblige them either to perish or leave their Country of their own accord) he was at length obliged to return the same way he came with great precipitation, without effecting any thing; having in his Return through Tbrace left his General Megabi. zes with eighty thousand Men, he went straic into Persia: Having from thence pass'd into India at the head of an Army, he subdu'd all that vast Country. · Page 116. The Ionians, at the Instigation A.M.3 FOR of Aristagoras Lieutenant to Hystieus, revolt; and being treacherously abandon'd by the Athenians and their other Allies, are again reduc'd under the Persian Yoke, and their Cities burnt to Ashes, the Flower of their young Men and Women sent Slaves to Persia. I
Darius having recalled all his ocher Gene- A.M.3510 rals, fent Mardonius a young Nobleman of Pera, who had married one of his Daughters, to command in chief in Afia, with Orders to invade Greece, and take vengeance of the A
thenians and Eretreans, for the burning of Sar; dis when they aided the Ionians in their Revolt....
Our Author says here, that Darius shewed little Prudence in the choice of this General, in
having preferr'd a young Man, tho'a Favourite, to his oldest and most experienc'd Generals; especially in carrying on a War of so great Importance, wherein his Honour, and the Glo. ry of his Reign were so much concerned.
Mardonius in his Paffage through Thrace, to go into Macedonia, had his Camp attack'd in the Night-time, and a great part of his Army cut in pieces by the Thracians. At the same time his Fleet being overtaken by a violent Tempeft, three hundred of his Ships, and above twenty thousand Men perished; which. oblig'd him to return into Afa. And Darius being now, when it was too late, fully con. vinced of his Error, recall'd Mardonius, and fent Datis a Mede, and Artaphernes his own Brother's Son, in his place ; with a Resolution to attack Greece, but especially the Athenians and Eretreans with all his force. I
But before Darius had finally engag'd himself in this Expedition, he thought it fit, to send Ambassadors into Greece to found their Inclinations, and see how they were affected towards him. These Ambassadors were charged to require a Delivery of Water and Earth, that being the manner in which the Persians were used to demand Subjection from those they designed to reduce under their Dominion. Some Cities yielded out of fear, but these Ambafiadors met with ruder Treatment at Athens and Lacedemon; the one was thrown into a deep Ditch, and the other into a Pit, and desired to
take the Water and Earth they required from .. thence.
Page 152. Our Author here gives a Description of the surprizing Battle of Marathon, where ten thousand Athenians, a great part of
which were Slaves, raised in hafte, routed a powerful Army of a hundred and ten thousand Perfans.
Datis and Artapbernes at the head of an Army of five hundred thousand Men, besides a Fleet of six hundred Ships, were ordered by Darius to invade Greece, to take Aibens and Eretrea, to burn all the Houses and Temples, and send all the Inhabitants in Chains to Persia. Conformable to these Orders, thefe two Generals after they had made themselves Masters of all the Ines in the Ægean Sea, advanced to Eretrea, which they took and burnt in less than seven days, and sent all the Inhabitants, as they had been commanded, bound in Chains into Persia.
WHEN the Athenians understood, that the Persian Army was advanced as far as Marathon, which is but fifteen Miles diftant from Athens,' they mustered up all their Forces, which after they had obliged the Slaves to take Arms and join them, a thing till then unpractised at Athens, consisted only of ten thousand Men; it was long disputed, whether they should hazard a Battle, or wait the coming of the Enemy, and defend themselves within their Walls: and tho most of their Chiefs were for the last, yet by the Credit and Strength of Reasoning of Miltiades, it was concluded that they should advance to the Enemy, and give them battle.
THE Athenian Army was led by ten Generals, each of which was to command one Day only, as it came to his turn; but Aristides, who was one of them, considering the great Inconveniencies that a Command fo divided and changeable might occasion, prevail'd that the
whole Coinmand should be devolved and united in Miltiades alone ; and in order to induce his Colleagues the more easily to agree to this reasonable Proposal, he set them an example, and when it came to his Day, transferr'd his Comınand to Miltiades, which the rest also did in their turns.
THE Athenian Army having taken their March, and being advanced as far as Marathon, where the Enemy then lay, Miltiades like an able Commaneer endeavouring to make up the Advantage that the Enemy had in their Number by an advantageous Disposition, drew up his small Army at the foot of a Mountain, so as they could not be surrounded, and secured the Flanks with Trees, which he caused to be cut down on purpose, whereby he render'd the Enemies Horse altogether useless to them. All things being thus disposed, Miltiades gave theSige nal for the Onset, which was made with a great deal of Fury and Rage, the Persian Army routed, and pursued to their very Ships, of which the Athenians burnt and funk many, and took seven; the Persians lost fix thousand of their Army, besides what was burnt and drowned in going aboard their Ships. The Aibenians loft only two hundred Men, who had Monuments erected to their Memory in the Field of Battle, with every one their Names in. scrib'd upon them, and the Tribe to which they belonged.
Our Author, besides the particular Account . he gives of this Action, hath in this place added several agreeable and judicious Reflexions of his own on the nature of popular Governments, and the Ingratitude of the Athenians in particular to their Deliverer Miltiades.
WHEN Darius had heard of the Defeat of his Army at Marathon, he was so enraged, and so far from being discouraged by the bad Success, or diverted from his purpose, that it served the more to animate him to push the War with greater Vigour, in order to be reveng'd for the Affront offered his Ambassadors, and to rub off the shameful Defeat of his Army : He therefore sent Orders to all the Provinces under his Dominion to arm themselves, and after three Years great Preparation for the War, which he designed in person to carry into Greece, whilft his Lieutenant should at the same time act against the Egyptians, who had revolted, with another Army. But before he could put his Designs in execution he died, and left the Management of that part to his Son and Succeffor Xerxes. Some say, that he lived to see one part of the Expedition against the Egyptians executed, and that in obedience to an ancient Law among the Persians, he had settled the Succession of the Crown upon Xerxes; left if he had died in the Expedition, the Crown might have been difputed by Artabazan, his Son of the first Marriage. • OTHERS, among the number of which are Fustin and Plutarch, say, that this Dispute actually happened between Artabazan and Xera xes, a Son of the second Marriage by Aloja Daughter of Cyrus, .after Darius's Death ; however that be, the Account Our Author gives of the Moderation, Greatness of Soul, and Disinterestedness with which the Dispute was managed, and the Character he here gives of Darius, is highly worth every one's Per.