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COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY
JAMES 0. EASTLANI), Mississippi, Chairman

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee
OLIX D, JOHNSTON, South Carolina
THOMAS C. HENNINGS, JR., Missouri
JOHN L. MCCLELLAN, Arkansas
PRICE DANIEL, Texas
JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming
MATTHEW J. NEELY, West Virginia

ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin
WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota
WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana
ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah
EVERETT MCKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois
HERMAN WELKER, Idaho
JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN THE UNITED STATES

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee, Chairman
THOMAS C. HENNINGS, JR., Missouri WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota
PRICE DANIEL, Texas

ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin
JAMES H. BOBO, General Counsel

CONTENTS

Page

1

1. Introduction..

Motion pictures are a part of the media of mass communication

investigation.

Letters express concern over excessive violence in motion

pictures

Concern expressed over objectionable motion-picture adver-

tising --

II. Has there been an increase in violence and brutality in motion

pictures

Motion-picture industry admits overemphasis on excessive

violence

Foreign countries officially object to violence in American

films....

Examples of alleged film violations of the Production Code.

III. Factors underlying the present trend toward criminal violence and

salacious" ess in motion pictures.

Factors involved

Arguments against unrestricted “realism" in motion pictures.

IV. Relationship between brutality and violence in motion pictures and

adolescent behavior. -

Résumé of testimony of Dr. Frederick C. Hacker and Dr.

Marcel Frym

Results of a survey of professional clinicians by the subcom-

mittee...

Effects of crime and violence films at the cultural level.

Differential effects of crime and violence movies on children..

Identification with movie-type heroes resulting in unadaptive

behavior.

Motion pictures as a part of mass media may not only initiate

but sustain delinquent activities.

The concept of crime does not pay in motion pictures.

Techriques of crime can be learned from movies

Conclusior's regarding violence and brutality in motion pictures -

V. Motion-picture advertising-

Ecitorial criticism of motion-picture advertising

Alleged violatiors of the Motion Picture Advertising Code

VI. The Motion Picture Production Code Administration..

Synopsis of the working of the Motion Picture Production Code

Administration..

Alleged violations of the Motion Picture Production Code

VII. Opinions of the members of the motion-picture industry-

VIII. Attempts of the movie industry to develop good citizenship on the

part of young people,

The Film : stimate Board of National Organizations

School and educational use of motion pictures.

IX. Conclusions

Conclusions on the effect of crime and violence films on juvenile

behavior

Comparison of motion pictures with other mass media-

Impact of a sirgle film may be relatively_creat.

Movie violence and the Motion Picture Production Code

Motion-picture advertising -

Responsibility of the motion-picture industry

Regulation of motion pictures.

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62

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63

66

66

67

February 1, 1955..

Independent Motion Picture Producers Association.

Public previewing groups.

Motion picture councils and other commu

munity organizations.

State and city censor boards.

Bibliography

III i II

i i iii

105

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108

112

120
1 Comic Books and Juvenile Delinquency, a part of the Investigation of Juvenile Delinquency in the United States. Interim Report, 84th Cong., 1st sess.

MOTION PICTURES AND JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

A PART OF THE INVESTIGATION OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

IN THE I'NITED STATES

-Ordered to be printed

Mr. KEFAUVER, from the Subcommittee To Investigate Juvenile Delin

quency in the United States of the Committee on the Judiciary, submitted the following

INTERIM REPORT

[Pursuant to S. Res. 62, 81th Cong.)

I. INTRODUCTION

The Subcommittee To Investigate Juvenile Delinquency, pursuant to authorization in Senate Resolution 190, 83d Congress, 2d session, and Senate Resolution 62, 8th Congress, 1st session, has been making a "full and complete study of juvenile delinquency in the United States," including its “extent and character” and “its causes and contributing factors."

Hearings have been held by the subcommittee dealing with community problems in various cities and with a number of special considerations that are believed to be atlecting juvenile delinquency.

Over a period of several months, the subcommittee received a vast amount of mail from parents expressing concern regarding the possible deleterious effect upon their children of certain of the media of mass communication. This led to an inquiry into the relationship to juvenile delinquency of these mass media.

On June 16 and 17, 1955, the subcommittee held hearings in Los Ingeles, Calif., continuing its extensive study of the mass media in order to determine their impact on the youth of our Nation. The subcommittee has already issued an interim report on its study of crime, brutality, horror, and sadism in comic books. A report has also been issued on the effects on juvenile delinquency of crime and violence as portrayed on television programs. Both of these subjects were part

* Television and Juvenile Delinquency, a part of the Investigation of Juvenile Delinquency in the United States, Interim Report, 81th Cong., 1st sess.

of this larger study of the mass media. In studying the effects of crime, violence, sadism, brutality, and sex in the movies on juvenile delinquency, the subcommittee also examined the manner in which these movies are advertised.

It was made clear at the outset that the members of the subcommittee had no preconceived ideas or final conclusions concerning the effects of movies on children. Above all, we did not wish to create the impression that we had censorship of the movie industry in mind. The subcommittee has continually denounced censorship in all forms. We have adhered to the concept of regulation by the industry itself, and the industry generally does a fine job in regulating itself. As a result of the interim report on crime comics, the comic-book industry developed a code and appointed an administrator to insure that good comic books were produced. At the Los Angeles hearings, the subcommittee once again reiterated its denunciation of censorship.

It is honestly believed that the majority of the people in the filmmaking business, the great majority, are sincere in their efforts to make good products. The subcommittee appreciates the fact that they are presented with the problem of making products that attract audiences because they are in business--the free-enterprise businessto make money. They cannot develop programs that will be altogether educational. They must produce movies that will appeal to the public.

The motion picture industry would readily agree that no harmful movies should be seen by American youngsters. The cooperation afforded the subcommittee by the industry in the development of these hearings attests to this fact. Mr. Eric Johnston and his office greatly ilssisted both the subcommittee staff and the chairman in this study. They cooperated wholeheartedly throughout the several months of the investigation and are to be congratulated for their frankness in discussing their faults as well as their many fine achievements.

When the subcommittee's investigation was first announced some industry representatives expressed concern about the aims and

purposes of the investigation. As the study progressed, however, their attitude changed. By the time the hearings were prepared for presentation it was apparent that between us, i. e., the industry and the subcommittee, the trade could be examined and conclusions could be deduced that would be both beneficial to the industry and to the subcommittee's investigation of the mass media.

LETTERS EXPRESS CONCERN OVER EXCESSIVE VIOLENCE IN MOTION PICTURES

In the last 22 months an increasing amount of correspondence has been received from intelligent people throughout the country. These people were concerned about an increase in what was felt to be unnecessary movie violence. They complained constantly of excessive brutality, sadism, and illicit sexual behavior in motion pictures. Many of these letters link the increase in brutal juvenile crimes with this increase in brutality and violence in movies.

The subcommittee realizes that to say bad movies create additional delinquency is not in keeping with present-day social-psychological thinking. You cannot say a child will see a movie and then commit om act of delinquency. But the subcommittee does believe that with the prevailing world conditions, with the uncertainty of the draft, with the lurking thought of atomic destruction; with all of these as background, an atmosphere of violence is being assumed and conveyed

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