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always seals up many lips and keeps many spirits in prison. But what misleads the Englishman is a natural reserve, which makes many of us slow to form a judgment, and slower still to express a judgment which we have had no means of forming. What nonsense to talk of the want of freedom of thought! When every thing, good or bad, wise or foolish, decent or depraved, is everywhere blurted out, in the house and by the way, from tongues, pulpits, and presses without number; when every head spins with confusion at the multitude of original ideas and suggestions which are constantly stuffed into its ears and eyes ; when no harm awaits the man who comes forward with his parable, whether it be holy or profane, save that of not being listened to, — it passes one's patience to hear of the suppression of thought. We see many who produce their whims and fancies, both in politics and religion ; and when the quiet common-sense of the land rejects them with coolness and indifference, sufficiently provoking to those who have them at heart, they ascribe it, not to their own ambitious folly, but to the want of independence in the public mind. Foreigners have struck into the same keynote, when they might see, that, even in the respect felt for every thing English, which is so common, there is an evident contempt of popularity. The love of the mother-land is not the passion which burns highest in the hearts of our people ; and it is the one which, if individuals cared for popular favor, they would be most teinpted to suppress.
Having freely stated what he conceives to be the weak points of the Americans, the writer goes on to admit that they are “ brave, hospitable, and friendly; keen, intelligent, and energetic ; patriotic, generous, and lovers of liberty”; - great and substantial virtues, which must, of course, in the present state of human nature, be balanced by a large proportion of shade. That his favorable verdict is not owing to his having met with nothing but sunshine is made clear by his account of an interview with a shoemaker in Saratoga,
a creature utterly unworthy of his useful profession, and who could only contribute to its success by furnishing bristles for waxed ends.
The name of Saratoga recalls the surrender of Burgoyne ; and after saying that the ill success of that expedition was owing to the difficulties of the country, and the energy of its opposers, our author expresses some wonder that so little is said of Gates in comparison with Washington, when this triumph had so great an effect on the future fortunes of the war. He appears not to know, that Gates was considered as having stepped in to receive the credit of a victory which Schuyler's previous arrangements had been the means of gaining; and that his ill success on subsequent occasions tended to confirm the doubts of his ability which had been entertained before. But more than all, his hostility to Washington was enough to destroy all respect for him in the hearts of the American people. A fatal victory that over Burgoyne would have been, had it produced the effect which some few desired, of intrusting to Gates's feeble hands the conduct of the Revolutionary war. When we read the account of Burgoyne's march, and compare it with the scene of action, it is not quite clear why so much is said of the difficulties of the country. The region is level, the soil sandy, and the forest must always have been light. With the exception of the want of roads, which armies cannot expect to find Macadamized to their hands, there seems no particular obstacle in the region over which the English army passed. The weather, it is true, was unpropitious, supplies were not always forthcoming, and there probably was a depressing effect in the sense of loneliness, which even an army feels in the midst of dark forests, and in the heart of an enemy's country.
This traveller was very much impressed by the bustle and activity of New York, and particularly by the energy of self-restoring power with which it recovers from the effect of the great fires that at times have wasted it. He thinks, and doubtless he is right, that its variety and richness of resources will keep it, as it is now, the capital of the United States. If so, it is unfortunate that it should not be able to exert a greater and better influence on other parts of the land. But it has grown too fast to have the right soundation of moral principle and habit, which only can prevent great cities from being great evils. He was not much delighted with its prevailing aspect. In church-building, on which the appearance of any city so much depends, a better taste begins to prevail. Instead of new and unparalleled inventions, it is thought better to adopt the Gothie, a style which the crowd of associations it awakens, if nothing else, recommends for houses of worship, while the Grecian, which has nothing about it well suited for such a purpose, is rapidly passing away. From
what he witnessed at public houses, he did not infer that the young Americans were likely to be a church-going people ; out of four hundred visiters at the Astor House, not more than a dozen appeared to go to church anywhere. He should bave remembered, that a stranger cannot here, as in England, hire a place in which to attend a single service, and that, in most of our city churches, a visiter in want of a seat is more likely to be invited out than in ; a sort of hospitality which none but persons of very peculiar tastes are ever solicitous to encounter. This is matter of reproach, which ought, if possible, to be done away with ; and there is no better appropriation of religious charity than to provide houses where the poor and the stranger may have the opportunity to attend to the first of human duties.
The author was better pleased with the outward aspect of Philadelphia, as more neat and pleasant, with several handsome public buildings, particularly the banks, those temples to a deity who is too much worshipped in all Christian lands. The Girard college, that monument of the folly of trying to do after death what one has not the heart to do while living, he thinks the finest building on the continent. It certainly answers well to the idea, as well as the plan, of the ancient temples, in which use of any kind was the last thing regarded. When the old banker was indulging his spite at the clergy by forbidding their entrance into the building, he little knew what sort of a privilege it was likely to be. Perhaps the best punishment for his narrowness would be to return to earth to enter it himself, to see how it conforins to his own minute directions, and to count the orphans who are likely to be the better for it; according to Bossuet's celebrated suggestion, he would make haste back to his'
But in Philadelphia, as in all our cities, we see that the warehouses and stores are the most satisfactory buildings, because they are not only ornamental, but have the crowning grace of being exactly suited to their purpose. In respect to mere public edifices, men are not so clear as to what they want, and therefore lie at the mercy of pretenders, who abuse their confidence, and play tricks of architecture which are enough to make the angels weep. How little they consult their own taste is painfully evident in many things. There is nothing, for example, that gives our villages so animated and pleasant an aspect as the white houses, when they are so relieved by their green blinds and foliage as not to be chalky or glaring. But let some knowing one suggest that this is not in good taste, and people hasten to einbellish the landscape with dwellings which, at a little distance, look like cakes of chocolate, or loaves of dyspepsia bread, and then feel perfectly satisfied that the work of beauty is done so that it never can be mended. Our fathers, with unambitious common-sense, built, not what they thought beautiful, but what they wanted, without respect to the eyes of others. Accordingly, as all unpretending things look well in their place, their steep roofs and high gables appear infinitely better than the hipped contrivances to catch the rain and snow which have superseded them, or than the Gothic wall, prevented by fear of the elements from running up into the battlement, which gives 10 that architecture so much of its effect. It is to be hoped, that, in time, we shall establish in our minds what is wanted in dwellings, churches, and all public buildings; and thus we may secure for them the advantage of answering their purpose, which may be thought but a humble recommendation, but still is worth securing, since at present they have no recommendation at all.
The author remarks, though without severity, on the outbreaks of popular feeling which have given a name and not a praise to the city of brotherly love. It is in vain to deny that there exists, in many parts of the country, a disposition to take the law into the mob's own hands, which is manifested by persecuting Catholics or any other body of men who happen to be too weak to resist them, and thus to gratify those detestable passions which are so easily stirred in the human breast. There is enough right feeling, however, to make these things, like repudiation, infinitely disgraceful to the places where they can be done ; and some of our States and cities find, that a good name is easy to lose, but exceedingly difficult to regain. Still, the shameful meanness of repudiation and the high-handed villany of mobs are not so alarming as the manner, alluded to by our author, in which popular sympathy is suffered to interfere with the course of law. T'here have been cases of deliberate murder, which, whatever the provocation may have been, were still murder in the eye of God and the law, the perpetrators of which not only the blind and thoughtless multitude, but those who had sworn to administer the laws, even judges, have been found so basely false to their trust, as to release in triumph ; and the public feeling, so far from casting down such wretches from the high stations which they dishonored, has actually cheered them, as if for some upright and honorable deed. Though foreigners charge this upon us, it is not false ; though some among us may stoutly deny it, it is still true; and as we must live under a government of law or none at all, if such tendencies are not resisted, it cannot be long before the foundations of all authority are torn away.
The city of Baltimore, when the author visited it, brought up in his mind recollections of the last war with England, and he indulges in a strain of remark which shows that he is in utter darkness as to the causes in which it originated. He seems to think that it was a piece of self-indulgence on our part to strike a blow at his country when it was busily engaged with other foes ; and that, as soon as those other enemies had been dealt with, the United States at once became peaceful in their disposition, and were glad to lay down their arms. This view of the subject is novel and original ; but to those who know any thing about the matter, it is needless to say that it is far to the north of true. . The city of Washington he describes as an architectural joke; but it appears to have entertained him. He speaks of admiring the Capitol very much, without being troubled by its faults of execution ; the statue of Washington he thought stiff and undignified in its bearing, but redeemed in part by the head. To show how much it is respected, he mentions that some person has written bis name, John H. Brown, on the upper lip, after the manner of moustaches, placing himself where the world can determine the interesting question whether he is more knave or fool.
With the electric telegraph he was particularly pleased. The arsenal and dock-yard there, as elsewhere, did not strike him with any feeling but respect for the manly bearing of the officers who showed them.' When he waited on the president, the colored servant who ushered him in advised him to retain his umbrella, if he did not want somebody " to walk into it.” He thought it might savor of disrespect to take it with him, and left it behind as he was entering the presentation-room, where he was followed by his guardian angel, who gave him the umbrella again, with some very serious advice against trusting it out of his own hands. Whether the counsel of the worthy African was founded on his