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now arose

gen is, of course, blessed with the presence of a state, care must be taken not to disturb the pubroyal family; and this family, Die Herrschaf- lic mind. ten,' — that is, “The Masters,' as they are called “No one knew anything of the great progress

– have always been in the habit of dining at that had been made during the night; but in three o'clock, and in old times they kept a pub- the morning there was terrible confusion in lic table — that is, a table to which every sub- Little Residenzlingen, for all the maid-servants

, ject might come, not to eat, of course, but to see it seemed, lay a-bed too long, and all the boys the princes eat, and to make sure that they did were too late at school, and all the parlor clocks it just like other men. It seems, however, that and watches were wrong, and had to be set. in the winter the royal family found this hour of Next winter, however, government was wiser three rather too late for dinner, for they wished than to run the risk of altering the time by an always to dine by daylight. A great question hour all at once; they did it by a few minutes

- how this was to be managed ? A at a time, so that it was scarcely noticed; if a raw young fellow, who had no experience in stranger caine to the capital, his watch was

, of court affairs, thought it was very simple, and course, found to be different from those of Litsaid, • Can't they dine at two ?' But there tle Residenzlingen, but he got so unmercifully was almost a scream at this revolutionary sug- laughed at that he was glad to alter it — just as gestion. What's to become of us ?' said the some people do their consciences, when they courtiers ; "what's to become of the world, if differ from those of the rest of the world. the ancient order of things is to be overturned Things went on very smoothly for some years; in this way?'

but now came a terrible change in the position * Then an old Hofrath arose, and taking a of affairs at Little Residenzlingen. A railroad pinch of snuff, and waving his silk pocket hand was made to it; and lo! it appeared that for kerchief like a banner, said, “It has long ap- years together all the clocks had been wrong: peared to me, that the pretensions of mere The ministers set on foot negotiations with all learned men to fix the time is nothing but a the neighboring courts, to get them to agree piece of presumption. We alone, your high- to their reckoning of time, and even tried to ness, have a right to settle what is the time of organize a secret conspiracy among the sextons, day.

who had the care of the clocks; but it was all * This speech was received with great ap- of no use; and so the ministry of Residenzlinplause, and orders were immediately given that gen resigned, for they declared it was all over all the church clocks should be put an hour with them if the people should once come to forward; but it was to be done quite quietly, in know really what o'clock it was." - Westminster the middle of the night, when everybody was Review, asleep; for above all things, in a well-regulated


The Conquerors of the New World and their | himself, and add a most instructive and valua

Bondsmen : being a Narrative of the Prin- ble book to the historical library. Considercipal Events which led to Negro Slavery ing the absorbing interest which attaches to in the West Indies and America. By the the subject, the amplitude of the existing maAuthor of "Friends in Council,” The terials for such a work, and its great imporClaims of Labour,” &c. Vol. I. Pick-tance as a contribution to the History of Sociering.

ety, it is matter of some wonder that no one

has as yet devoted himself to the task. Here A real history of slavery is a desideratum is a theme fit for the greatest mind to grapple in literature. The writer who shall give a with; a subject grand and vast as Gibbon's, philosophical view of the progress of this abounding in dramatic variety, - touching strange social institution — showing its na- all conditions of life, from the civilization of ture and the extent to which it was found pre- the Greek to the savagedom of the Congoan, vailing at the dawn of the historic ages, having upon its stage the utmost contrasts of tracing its history through the great states of persons and character, from Sambo the dark antiquity, in all the conditions of society and up to Plato the divine, weaving itself into all in the midst of changing ethics and religious the great systems of law in the ancient world, creeds, the influence of civilization upon it, and connecting itself with the domestic phase the causes of its decline, and the certainty of of all history. Of course, a theme like this its extinction,—will make a reputation for daunts by its vastness as much as it excites.

The task would be not less difficult to do than prefer no information to mis-information : and, noble when done. Industry in working data, in its present form, we think this account of skill in narration, constructive power in mak- the conquerors of the New World and their ing out one story from a multitude of widely- bondsmen quite as likely to do harm as scattered fragments, are only a few of the good. more ordinary qualities that such a work We are aware that the writer may say, would demand in the person who should at his plan did not include the history which tempt it.

He must have, also, a large and we demand ; his object being only to show eclectic mind, free from the thraldom of peri- how the Black race came into America. odic modes of thought, and above the region of Perhaps, though we might have better apmerely conventional morals; a reason cool and proved of a design somewhat less locally limjudicial, wedded to no intolerant system, but ited, we have no right to object to this. quick to find and ready to acknowledge the The author follows his own idea : we must elements of good necessarily inhering in all suppose that he presents his subject in what he long-lived institutions.

considers to be a complete and attractive form. Whether the author before us possesses But we have a right to complain of, and to these qualities, we are not about to discuss. warn the reader against, the one-sidedness The frank avowals of his Preface afford some with which this is done. In his Dedication hints by which the reader may judge. He the author says that before studying the subhas not attempted the large thesis of which we ject specially for this work, he had * no knowlhave sketched the outline; even when com- edge of what may be supposed to be the wellpleted his work will be only a monograph — known facts of the case. This assurance we the history of one aspect and epoch of slav- can readily accept — as well from the implied ery, the slavery dealt in at Exeter Hall. The as from the asserted evidence. But we might book, at best, will be only a fragment; and not unreasonably have expected that the man a fragment which can be ill understood with who proposed to chronicle the events of an inout a knowledge of the precedents of the stitution as old as history and universal as the thing described. As a part of the history of ancient world, would have dipped into the society the history of slavery has a sort of pages of a few of the great historians and unity - like the history of a science, of art, jurists of antiquity, and have told his readers or of law – which is necessary to its thorough out of them that slavery did exist in the comprehension. Without tracing the past of world, before the discoveries of lower Africa an institution, without knowing the course of and America, in various shapes, and that those its evolution, it is profitless to study its pres- important discoveries only gave a new direcent. How unintelligible, for example, would tion to a traffic already well known. be the annals of astronomy in America writ When every allowance which the severest ten without any reference to the prior astro regard to historic truth demands, is made, a nomical studies of Egypt, Greece, England, vast weight of opprobrium still rests upon Germany, and so forth! Yet this is precisely Spain and Spaniards : - they cannot afford to what is here done in the matter of slavery. have any injustice done to them. Our author Now, this is no more indigenous to the Ameri- begins his account by a long, and, as it apcan soil than that : nay, the institution has had pears to us, superfluous detail of the course of a wider diffusion and a larger share in the his- Portuguese discovery on the western coast of tory of other lands — ancient and middle-age Africa, marking the periods when the Negro

– than the science. To confine the view of it first came, in his own country, into contact to one country or to one age, is to commit a with Europeans, and the first dawnings of great historical anachronism. It is to put a the slave trade. A few lines would have special fact in the place of a general law, — to conveyed all the information on this subject invest one age with the responsibility of an evil really to the point; the remainder of the which belongs to all ages, and to cast the space might have been much more profitably odium of a foul practice upon a nation which employed in showing how the idea of slavery inherited, but did not create it. This is unfair was inwoven in the texture of the Iberian and unphilosophical. To write of Negro slav- mind. It was so; and the trade in negroes ery as if the negroes were the first servile race, grew up in Spain with no violence whatever to and the New World the first land loaded with the sentiment of the people. In the palmiest the curse of helotry, is as mischievous as it is days of Hellenic civilization and Roman dofalse, — for it disturbs the faith of the un- minion, this institution prevailed universally. learned in the progressive improvement of Lycurgus sanctioned, the decemvirs recogmankind. History cannot be cut up into nized, its existence. Christianity did not forsquares and fragments. For ourselves, we bid it. Mohammed found it prevailing, and

diil not oppose it. An oriental can barely yet were driven out of Spain, the sentiment and coceive of a society without it. It was a so- habitual feeling which sanctioned the trade in cial condition, as well as a political order. man, the property in buman blood, began to The highest races and the supremest intellects give way : but the eradication of a national were sometimes involved in it. Greeks were idea domesticated for many centuries, and slaves in Greece, and Italians in Italy. Re- never entirely foreign, was, of course, very verses in wars gave armies —- nations, even - gradual; and, in the mean time, the New unto bondage. No man was exempt from World was discovered, and the Spaniards carsuch a fate, — and it was calmly submitted to ried to it and established in the empire which because the practice was universal. Had any they founded there the political and domestic of the Southern races — Hellenes, Carthagin institutions to which they had been accustomed ians, Romans, Arabians — permanently main- at home. However unjust and how disastrous tained dominion over the world, slavery would soever these institutions proved, we must not, perhaps have been its perpetual heirdom. as we have said, charge the sin and guilt of

Its death-blow came from the North. The them home to the men of that day. They hardy warriors from the German forests and perpetuated — and without a proper knowlScandinavian seas, brought into the struggles edge of its guilt — the inheritance which their of an expiring civilization new elements of do- fathers bad left them. So much blame atmestic lito, which cut the root of all servile taches to them for the use which they made of conditions, and gradually, where their sway their mastery the extermination of the nawas most completo, emancipated the helot tives by fire and sword, by starvation and class. This process, however, even in the compelled labor, by wanton waste and deadly countries most thickly settled by the Northern cruelty, by the torch, the match lock, and the races, was not rapid.' It passed through vari- bloodhound, - that we need not heap upon ous stages, from absolute slavery, through them the sins of others. serfdom and villeinage, up to the dignity of That the institution of slavery was not refreedom. In the South of Europe, the re- pugnant to the moral sense, the religious feelmains of the old slave system remained much ing, or the intelligence of that age, our author longer; and while as yet all was chaotic and furnishes abundant proofs. The greatest and confused, the Arab conquerors — an Oriental most illustrious personages sanctioned it — race, to whom slavery was an historical insti- Columbus, Ferdinand of Arragon, and Prince tution swept along the African coasts and Henry of Portugal. In an analysis of one of fixed themselves in the European peninsula. the Discoverer's despatches to Ferdinand and To the long conflicts of the Moors and Span- Isabella from Hispaniola we read. iards for the possession of the country, may,

“ Columbus now touches upon a matter which perhaps, be ascribed the long continuance of intimately concerns our subject. He desires Anslavery in Western Europe. The rival races tonio de Torres to inform their Highnesses that made slaves of cach other; each warrior, as he has sent home some Indians from the Cannihe went forth to battle, looked to that condi- bal islands as slaves, to be taught Castilian, and tion as one of his probable contingencies, and to serve afterwards as interpreters, so that the regarded it with no greater dread than any in support of this proceeding are weighty. He

work of conversion may go on. His arguments other of the accidents of war. same with every other people in conflict with people away from Cannibalism, and to have

speaks of the good that it will be to take these the Ottoman — but, of course, would be least them baptized, that so they will gain their souls, cared for by those born to its contemplation as he expresses it. Then, too, with regard to and constantly in face of it, like the Spaniards. the other Indians, he says, we shall have great To them it had few horrors, either to inflict or

credit from them seeing that we can capture and to endure.

make slaves of these Cannibals of whom they, The Moors, holding empire both in Spain Such arguments must be allowed to have much

the peaceable Indians, entertain so great a fear. and Africa, carried on a large and lucrative force in them; and it may be questioned whethtraffic in negroes long before any European er many of those persons who are, in these days, state had the means of entering it. They ex the strongest opponents of slavery, would then changed their Barbary horses for negroes, at have had that perception of the impending danthe town of Hoden, beyond cape Blanco - ger of it which Los Reyes appear to have engetting from ten to eighteen for each horse, tertained, from their answer to this part of the and carried them to the markets of Turin, be done; but let the Admiral see whether it

document. This is very well, and so it must Sicily, and Seville, where they brought vast profits ; it being a point of pride with the bal islands) that they should be brought to our

could not be managed there,' (i. e. in the Canniwealthy Christians to have their households sacred Catholic Faith, and the same thing with crowded with the sable skins. After the Moors the Indians of those islands where he is." The

It was


Admiral's despatch in the next paragraph goes Naples to take the Regency, and for some time much further: he boldly suggests that for the after, must have made many suitors for royal advantage of the souls of these Cannibal In- favor whom it were hard to deny. Ferdinand dians, the more of them that could be taken the was not fond of giving, and with the great and better; and that considering what quantities of costly affairs he was engaged in, seldom had live stock and other things were necessary for much to give. Indians, however, were now the maintenance of the Colony, a certain num a sort of money. The courtiers asked for reber of caravels should be sent each year with partimentos of Indians — some purposing to go these necessary things, and the cargoes be paid themselves to Hispaniola and push their fortunes for in slaves taken from amongst the Cannibals. there, and others intending merely to farm their He touches again on the good that will be done Indians out, as absentee proprietors. Ferdinand to the Cannibals themselves; alludes to the did not resist these applications; and though the Customs duties that their Highnesses may levy Governor Ovando, probably aware of the misupon them; and concludes by desiring Antonio chief, and alive to the inconvenience, remonde Torres to send, or bring, an answer, · be- strated as much as he dared, especially against cause the preparations here' (for capturing absentee proprietors, there were many cases in these cannibals) “may be made with more confi- which he must have been obliged to give way. dence, if the scheme seem good to their high- | The mania for gold finding was now probably at nesses. A more distinct proposition for the es its height; and the sacrifice of Indian life protablishment of a slave trade was never made, portionately great." though we must do Columbus the justice to believe that his motives were right in his own

Indians soon becoming scarce in the island, eyes."

it became necessary to import laborers from Columbus had been brought up on the the sable servitors of the Spanish grandees to

elsewhere. As yet the idea of transferring African coasts, and had there and elsewhere the mines of Hispaniola had not occurred :been accustomed to slavery ; his motives, how, but workers must be had or the mines would

for he was an eminently wise and be profitless, — and this was the way in which just man for his age, were to convert these

they were obtained. slaves to Christianity and to civilization. How far man has a right to do this — to enslave the

“ Ferdinand was told that the Lucayan islands body under the pretence of saving the soul of good thing to bring them to Hispaniola that

were full of Indians; that it would be a very his fellow-creature — is a point which we are they might enjoy the preaching and political not to discuss here. Rightly or wrongly the customs which the Indians in Hispaniola enworld has made up its mind — and against joyed. “Besides, they might assist in getting the doctrine of the Discoverer. That Colum- gold, and the King be much served.' The King bus proceeded on, for him, sufficing reasons, gave a license. The first Spaniards who went we need not doubt - though his argument to entrap these poor Lucayans did it in a way may be unsound. We do not visit him with that brings to mind our English proverb – penal censures because his social ideas were

seething a kid in its mother's milk” – for they

told these simple people that they had come not those of the nineteenth century, any more from the heaven of their ancestors, where these than we would denounce Plato for the differ- ancestors and all whom the Indians had loved in ence between our ethics and his. Great men

life were

now drinking in the delights of belong only to their ages, — and are, like heavenly ease: and these good Spaniards would events, historical.

take the Lucayans in their ships to join their The connection of Columbus with the es

much-loved ancestors, and dearer ones than antablishment of slavery in America is strongly how the more simple amongst them, lone women

cestors who had gone thither. We may fancy brought out by our author, — rather too and those who felt this life to be somewhat strongly we think ; but there can be no doubt dreary, crowded round the ships which were to as to his participation in the matter. At first, take them to the regions of the blest. I picture only prisoners taken in war were enslaved — a to myself some sad Indian, not without his doubts custom to which the conquerors had long been of these Spanish inducements

, but willing to inured. But when more la lorers were want

take the chance of regaining the loved past, and ing, pretexts for hostilities were easily found, saying like King Arthur to his friend Sir Bediand the inhabitants of whole districts were

vere upon the shore,

I am going a long way cleared off and sent to work the mines, where With these thou seest if indeed I go they perished yearly by thousands. This was (For all my mind is clouded with a doubt)

To the island valley of Avillion ; in the time of Ovando's government, after the Where falls nor rain, or hail, or any snow, disgrace and recall of Columbus. Events in

Nor ever wind blows louilly ; but it lies

Deep-meadow'd, happy, fair with orchard-lawns Italy also hastened the ruin of the poor abo And bowery hollows crown'd with suminer sea,

Where I will heal me of my grievous wound. rigines.

Alfred Tennyson. Morte d'Arthur,' vol. 2, p. 15. “ The troublous and perplexed times in Spain This hideous pretence of the Spaniards did its from Isabella's death to Ferdinand's return from work; but there were other devices, not men

tioned to us, which were afterwards adopted; | Majesty, in his place as Lord of these isles and and the end was, that in five years forty thous continent, and receive these religious men. If and of these deluded Lucayans were carried to you do, his Majesty will greet you with all love Hispaniola. Most men in the course of their and affection, and leave you your wives and lives have rude awakenments which may enable children free, and will give you many privileges them to form some notion of what it was to and exemptions. But if you do not, by the come down from the hope of immediate para- help of God I will enter with power into your dise to working as a slave in a mine. Some land and will subdue you, and will take your lived on in patient despair; others of fiercer na wives and children and make slaves of them, ture, refusing sustenance, and flying to dark and sell them as such, and take all your goods caves and unfrequented places, poured forth and do you all the mischief I can, as to vassals their lives, and we may hope were now, indeed, that do not obey and will not receive their Lord.” with the blest. Others of more force and prac

It would be difficult to match the terms tical energy, 'peradventure the wisest,' as Peter Martyr says, made escape to the northerly parts

of this proclamation, even out of the most of Hispaniola, and there with arms outstretched intolerant reigns of Mohammedan sovereigns : towards their country, lived at least to drink in after this, we do not marvel to find Spanish the breezes from their native lands. Those soldiers gravely hanging thirteen natives, as lands were now paradise to them."

Las Casas says, “ in honor and reverence of This was one of the last acts of the monk Christ our Lord, and his twelve Apostles.”Ovando's government. He gave place to As yet, the history before us is brought down Diego Columbus, son of the Discoverer. But only to the promulgation of the laws of Burthings did not improve much in consequence gos. Another volume is expected to comof the change. We have noticed that the plete the narrative. Should a second edition chief motive which Columbus had in taking be called for, we would counsel its author yet possession of the natives, was to convert them: to give some account of the older slavery

this motive was also avowed by the King which existed in Europe, and particularly in and Queen. Of the way in which converts the Peninsula, before the discovery either of were sought to be made we have an instance in the New World or of Negroland. Such an one of the proclamations of Ojeda, - which, addition is necessary to the completeness of after setting forth that the Pope had given to his plan — to the unity and consecutiveness of the Kings of Castile and Leon, &c., sovereign history - to the fair apportionment of praise power and dominion over the New World, to and blame — and to the clear understanding christianize and to rule it, goes on to say —

of the question. The portion of the subject 66. Wherefore I entreat and require you,' says taste, and correct feeling:

really treated of is touched with care, good Ojeda, or

The book is not any

other privateering discoverer, *that after taking due time to consider this, you unlikely to become popular, — and we would acknowledge the church' as sovereign lady of therefore desire to have it as complete as the world and the Pope in her name, and His possible. — Athenæum.


In the busy haunts of crowded cities it is day last year, set out from the quiet old town often refreshing to the mind to withdraw its of Abingdon, for a ramble of a few miles into thoughts from the actual and present, and to the adjacent country. recall the memories of those men of genius Neither Abingdon nor its neighborhood whose lives have been connected with the par- boasts any marvellous beauties; indeed, the ticular locality. The hurry of business, and professed connoisseur (not lover—that is a the perpetual flow of the stream of human different character) of the picturesque would life, are there, however, a powerful interrup- pass the locality altogether as uninteresting. tion to such contemplations. In the quietude Abingdon is a genuine old town, with many of rural scenery we trace more uninterruptedly genuine old defects—such as narrow streets and agreeably the footprints of genius, live ill-drained, and inconvenient houses ill-ventiagain in old memories, and realize and luxuri- lated. However wise in their generation the ate in the past. This was strikingly experi- monks of the rich abbey that gave its name enced by a little party who, on a calm autumn to the town might have been in selecting for

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