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isting circumstances? There is a great deal, / and force delivers them. As M. Prandi says, we admit, in the past conduct of the Prince of undoubtedly expressing the feelings of all his Carignan, of which we disapprove, at least as countrymen, who have cherished them for much as those can do who seek to use it for years : “ the Italians have every reason to dethe purpose of embarrassing by far the wisest test the treaty of Vienna, as well as those who course which is at present open to Italy to pur- made it; and they will certainly not neglect sue. We must add, however, that he has the opportunity which Providence has at last given so many proofs of repentance for the past, granted them, of trampling it in the dust.” and so many securities for the future, that if a The king of Sardinia does not possess his man can ever win back his way to forgiveness kingdom by the right of the strongest, but by in private life, and confidence in public, Charles the free will of his subjects, the Genoese inAlbert has entitled himself to the benefit of cluded, whose conduct has of late been adinithese presumptions. For ourselves, if once rable, in spite of many mischievous attempts the foundation is laid of a good government in to make them swerve from their loyal and pathe north of Italy, we are satisfied that the triotic path. These eminently shrewd and happiness of future generations will be a very practical men are well aware that it is more for sufficient apology—and that as such history their interest as Genoese and as Italians, to will accept it—for our having made use of the form part of a kingdom, along with Venice, best instruments which were at hand at the than to constitute a republic at Genoa,-rivalpresent moment. It is undeniable, that an ling Venice, tearing Italy to pieces, and leaving old, royal, and now constitutional kingdom in it at the mercy of any foreigner who may be Piedmont, with a flourishing exchequer, a bap- tempted to interfere in its unnatural hostilities. py and contented population, and a brave army, Thus much history has taught them : for the affords the nucleus round which a powerful rest they must trust to Providence, to their state can be concentrated in the north of Italy. own wisdom, their own courage. Suppose To bring accusations of ambition and perfidy Charles Albert to be raised by the political neagainst Charles Albert—himself an Italian cessities of to-day to the throne of the united prince—because he has assisted his country- kingdom of Lombardy and Piedmont, neither men in getting rid of their foreign oppressors, he nor his successors can hope to reign there is to make an unfair and cruel use of the con- long, unless what may be necessity to-day, shall tradictory, and so far unfortunate, position in have become by to-morrow choice. On his which he stood. His alleged ambition princi- part there must be firmness, and justice, and pally affects Italy. If Italy adopts it, that liberal opinions, and government by law : on fact should remove our fears for it, supposing the part of his subjects, there must be union the charge to be true. Besides, his alleged among themselves, confidence in their new inperfidy may, after all, have been a choice of stitutions, moderation in the use of their new evils, and the least ; for what was the alterna- franchises, and a loyal attachment to the sovetive ? An Italian prince ought to be ambitious reign under whom they are beginning one of of freeing Italy from a foreign yoke imposed the noblest of all experiments—the object of upon his countrymen by force of arms. It

so many hopes, so many fears—a free Italian was force, and force only, which first made and state.Edinburgh Review). has since kept the Italians subject to Austria ;

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To attempt any analysis of the evidence re- charity, its golden rule would have been observlating to the insurrections in Paris, would be a ed to perfection ; for the right hand never very vain undertaking. It is a huge jumble knew what the left was doing, nor the left of confusion, contradiction and inconsistencies; what the right was about. The most importand in these respects it seems a faithful repre- ant orders were issued, but not obeyed ; and sentation of the facts, for the Provisional Gov- no notice was ever taken of the disobedience, ernment appears to have been a complete anar no explanation demanded, no enforcement of chy, every functionary acting according to his the neglected mandate attempted. M. Arago own separate views and purposes ;-no concert quietly says, with reference to an instance of amongst them, no control, no obedience. If disobedience attended with grave consequenthe business of the administration had been ces, “ Few of our orders were ever obeyed.”

It was quite a matter of choice with subordi- responsibility, for want of due preparation, nates, whether they would carry instructions from their shoulders to General Cavaignac, into effect or not; but, more than that, subor- who has risen upon their ruins ; but the Gendinates usurped the functions of their superi- eral, in his own evidence, corroborates the repors, made use of their authority, committed resentations we have quoted : them to responsibilities of the most serious nature, and the chiefs so compromised, tamely 1848, made him feel the necessity of not engaging

The experience of July, 1830, and February, and patiently submitted, dismayed but acqui- the military in the streets, but to keep them toescent, or, at least, quiescent.

gether in a body strong enough to enable them M. Ledru Rollin, for example, declares that to make the insurgents give way before them. the addresses to the electoral departments, The slightest check to an army is fatal in cases of that created so much disgust and alarm, were this description; notwithstanding the niost formal the unauthorized work of M. Jules Favre. orders, a battalion was placed at great risk on the For a parallel , let us imagine Sir G. Grey which incurred a severe reprimand from the Min

Place des Vosges, in a compromising position, protesting that circulars issued from the Home ister of War

, notwithstanding the incontestable Office, preaching Chartism and Socialism, and bravery of the commander and men of that batdecrying property and intellect, were the pro- talion. ductions of Mr. Lewis. The obvious question is, why were they not disavowed ; why was

So that the honor of the French

army

in not the officer so abusing his post of trust re General Cavaignac's keeping, is to be saved moved ; why were the opportunities of more by not exposing it to the risks of civil war. acts of mischief and perfidy left open to him ? Its honor lies in safety ; its honor keeps in But no ; in France it is not thought necessary barracks, while the enemy occupies the streets. to ask or to answer these questions. They In a city in revolt, then, it comes to this: that act there as the characters do in pantomimes

, the honor of the army renders the army, as far who take all things as they come, however ir

as all effects are concerned, the same as nonregular, or however marvellous, without the existent. Citizens, in such case, should pray slightest surprise or questioning. No matter either to be relieved from the expense of mainwhat happens, the “ how is it?" is never asked. taining an army which keeps its honor safe And the French public is in the same nil ad- somewhere in a sheathed sword, or to have an mirari mood as the principal actors on its po- army without an honor to take care of, in preflitical stage. The oddest rules of conduct are erence to all other objects and duties. avowed, and pass without a comment.

But the example of the honor to be kept M Lamartine charges General Caraignac safe, is dangerous; for the national guard and with having omitted to make the necessary garde mobile may set up an honor too, and military precautions against the insurrection in decline having anything to do with barricades, June, and with having suffered the insurgents as perilous to their honor. Will they patientto proceed, without hindrance or interruption, ly submit to the monopoly of honor and safety with the erection of the barricades for two en by the line? Will they not, too, claim a posltire days. M. Ledru Rollin deposes to the tion of honorable distance from the enemy's same effect; and adds, moreover, that the entrenchments? Will they consent to throw General avowed the resolution not to expose away their lives with heroism and devotion, the regular troops to any of the chances of because they have no honor to be endangered war, saying :

in the risks and hazards of war? Should The honor of the army requires me to persist cur again, would not the rappel be rather

such an emergency as that of the four days ocin my system. If only one of my companies were disarmed, I would shoot myself. Let the national awkwardly answered by the avowal, guaril attack the barricades. If it is beaten, I would rather enlist in the line, with its honor would rather retreat into the plain of St. Denis. under the care of General Cavaignac and its and there give battle to the éineule.

troops out of fire, than have our lives recklessBut would the émeute have been complai-ly thrown at the barricades”?. According to ant enough to go forth to the plains of St. General Cavaignac, when impious men wage Denis to give battle to the army? Would war, the post of honor is a backward station. they have responded to the invitation,

But if all should covet a share of the honor

kept in safety, what a fine field will be open to Dilly, dilly, dilly, come and be killed ;

insurgents! and what is to become of the deThe regulars are waiting, and want their bellies serted public? Certainly rebels must rejoice fill'd ?

in having to do with troops which have an honBut we may be told that MM. Lamartine

or to preserve out of gun-shot range from windand Ledru Rollin are endeavoring to shift the ows or barricades.

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General Cavaignac's extraordinary explana- | the other has been brought by the Assembly tion has passed, like every thing else of the itself under the cognizance of a court martial, same kind, without comment; but we cannot is another of the inconsistencies or caprices of but apprehend that it must have its effect upon the present juncture. For what has Paris the minds of the national guard and garde mo- been declared in a state of siege, and martial bile, and that it will put an extinguisher on law been established, if the very worst offenders their zeal and ardor for the future, or induce are not to be subjected to it? The petty crimthem to care for their honor in the same com- inals, the mere instruments of the mischief plotfortable

way

as the line. “Nothing venture, ted by double-dyed traitors, are not spared the nothing have, says the old proverb; but rigor of the court martial; and what a monsnothing venture, and have all honor, is the al- trous injustice is this virtual and partial amnes tered maxim of present French chivalry. We ty to the great culprits ! are great admirers of General Caraignac, but While the Assembly was deciding how the we confess our inability to follow his views of two criminals should be dealt with, one of military honor, and our wonder at his avowal them quietly took himself off

, and is now amusof them, considering the jealousy which already ing himself, or doing his best to amuse bimexists between the bourgeois forces and the self, and truth to say, it is not easy, — in regular troops.

London. The French procedure against crimIf he had merely declared that he held the inals who are members of the Legislature, is regulars in reserve, there would have been no obviously a copy of that curious old method of offence in it, as it would simply have been a catching birds, by putting a grain of salt on strategic disposition; but to turn the arrange their tails. ment on the point of honor, engrossing it, to The question which the Assembly should gether with safety, all for the line, appears to frankly have proposed is, which was the best us to the last degree indiscreet.

way of not finding out too much of the guilt of The resolution of the Assembly to prosecute MM. Caussidière and Louis Blanc, or which M. Caussidière and Louis Blanc for their part was the best way of not punishing the worst in the outbreak of May, and not for their com- criminals in the worse of two insurrections? plicity in the more serious insurrection of Their decision is, practically, a very effective June, merely because the first offence falls answer to that inquiry. Examiner. within the jurisdiction of a civil tribunal, while

COLLECTANEA.

THE FIRST ICE CREAM.

an' what nots at the windows. An' then thar If we knew to whom, or to what, to give war signs with goold letters on to them, hang. credit for the following hit, we would cer in' round the door, tellin' how they sold Soda, tainly do it. It comes to us without any inti- Mead, an' Ice Cream thar. I says to myself, mation of its origin, and we give it place as I have heern a good deal about this 'ere ice ludicrously characteristic. It purports to be cream, an' now if I don't see what they’s made * An account of Ethan Spike’s First and Last of. So I puts my hands into my pockets, an' Visit to Portland”:

walked in kinder careless, an' says to a chap “ Portland is the all-firedst place I ever standin' behind the counterseed. I was down there in '33, to see a little “ Do you keep any ice creams here ?" about my goin' to the Legislatoor, and such a “Yes, sir,” says he,“ how much 'll have ?" time as I had, you never heer'd tell on. Did I considered a minit, says I—"a pint, sir. I ever tell

you
about the ice cream scrape

I The

young

feller's face swelled out, an' he had ?"

liked to have laughed right out, but arter a We answered in the negative, and he re- while he asked— sumed

"Did you say a pint, sir?" “Wall, I'd bin down thar two or three Sartin,” says I, “but p’raps you don't days, pokin' in every hole, an' tho't I'd seed retail, so I don't mind takin' a quart.” every thing thar was to be seen.

But one day

Wall, don't you think the feller snorted right towars' sun down I was goin' by a shop in out. Tell yer what, it made me feel sort a Middle street that looked wonderfully slick- pison, an' I gave him a look that made him there was all manner of candy an' peppermints I look sober in about a minit ; an’ when I clinch'd

my fist and looked so at him, (here Mr. Spike At last I thought I'd go to the theatre, but favored us with a most diabolical expression), afore I got there, the gripes got so strong that he hauled in his horns about the quickest, an' I had to go behind a meetin' house and lay handed me a pint o' the stuff as perlite as could down and holler. Arter a while I got up an' be. Wall, I tasted a mouthful of it, an' found went into a shop an' eat half a dollar's wuth of it cool as the north side o’ Bethel hill in Janu- biled isters with four pickled cowcumbers, and ary. I'd half a mind to spit it out, but jest wound up with a glass of brandy. Then I then I seed the confectioner chap grinnin' be went into the theatre an’ seed the plays, but I hind the door, which riz my spunk. Gall felt so, that I couldn't see any fun in 'em, for I smash it all, thinks I, I'll not let that white don't think the isters and the cowcumbers done liver'd monkey think I'm afeard—I'll eat the me any good. I sot down, laid down, and stood plaguey stuff if it freezes my inards. I tell up, but still it went on, gripe, gripe. I groan'd yer what, I'd rather skinn'd a bear or whipp'd all the time, an' once in a while I was obliged a wild cat, but I went it. I eat the whole in to screech kinder easy. Every body stared at about a minit.

me, and somebody called out, "turn him out!" “ Wall, in about a quarter of an hour I be once or twice. But at last just as the nigger gan to feel kinder gripy about here,” continued Orthello was going to put the piller on his Ethan, pointing to the lower parts of his stom-wife's face to smother her, there cum such a ach, "an' kept on feelin' no better very fast, twinge through me, that I really thought I wus till at last it seemed as though I'd got a steam burstin' up, an' I yelled out—« Oh dear! Oh ingen sawin' shingles in me. I sot down on a scissors !” so loud that the old theatre rung cheer, and bent myself up like a nut-cracker, again. Such a row you never seed : the nigthinkin' I'd grin an' bear it; but I couldn't ger dropped the piller, and Deuteronomy-or set still—I twisted and squirmed about like what you call her there—his wife, jumped off an angle worm on a hook, till at last the the bed and run, while every body in the thcchap as gin me the cream, who had been look- atre was all up in a muss, some larfin,' some in' on snickerin', says he to me,

swearin'. The upshot of it was, the perlice * Mister,” says he, what ails

yer

?" carried me out of the theatre, and told me to “Ails me !" says I, “ that ere stuff o’your'n make myself_scarce. is freezin' up my daylights," says I.

Wall, as I didn't feel any better, I went • You eat too much,” says

he.

into a shop close boy, an' called for two glasses I tell yer I didn't,” screamed I ;“ I know of brandy; arter swallerin' it, I went hum to what's a nuf an’ what's too much without askin' the tavern. I sot down by the winder, an’ you, an' if you don't leave off snickerin' I'll tried to think I felt better, but 'twas no go; spile your face.

that blessed old ingine was still wallerin' away He cottened right down, an' said he didn't inside ; so I went out and eat a quarter's worth mean any hurt, an' asked me if I hadn't better of isters an'a piece of mince pie. Then I take some gin. I told him I would. So I went back an' told the tavern keeper I felt took a purty good horn, an' left the shop. kinder sick, and thought I'd take some Caster

“ Arter I got out,” continued Ethan, I ile, a mouthful of cold meat, and a strong felt better for a minit or so, but I hadn't gone glass of whisky punch, and then go to bed. fur afore the gripes took me again ; so I went He got the fixins, which I took an’ went to bed. into another shop, an' took some more gin; But, tell yer what, I had a rather poor then I sot down on the State House steps, an night. Sometimes I was awake groanin', an there I sot an' sot, but didn't feel à mite when I was asleep I'd better bin awake, for I better. I begun to think I was goin' to kick had such powerful dreams. Sometimes I the bucket, and then I thought of father an' thought I wus skinnin' a bear, and then by mother and of old Spanker—that's father's hoss some hocuspocus 'twould all change t'other -and when I thought that I should never see side to, and the tarnal critter would be a skin'em again, I fairly blubbered. But then I nin' me. happened to look up, an' see a dozen boys Then, again, I'd dream that I was rollin grindin' and larfin' at me, I tell yer what, it logs with the boys, an' jest as I'd be a shoutin riz my dander,—that had got down below nero out—"now then !-here she goes !” every —rite up again. I sprung at 'em like a wild thing would get reversed agin—I was a log, cat, hollerin' out I'd shake their tarnal gizzards an' the boys wore pryin' me up with their out, an' the way the little devils scampered handspikes. Then I'd wake up an' screech was a caution to nobody. But after the 'cite- and roar —then off to sleep again—to dream ment of the race was over, I felt wus agin, and that Spanker had run away with me, or that I couldn't help groanin' and screechin' as I father was whopping me, or some other plaguey went along

thing, till mornin'.

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When I got up, I hadn't any appetite for cient here to record that they exhausted a conbreakfast, and the tavern keeper told me that stitution to which sixteen hours of daily labor if I was goin' to carry on, screamin' and had been but as support and refreshment, groanin' as I had the night afore, my room was and that he died ere he could return to his better than my company.

Phænician manuscripts, amid the duties of a “I hain't,” said Mr. Spike, in conclusion, far other field than that which, though a sol“I hain't bin to Portland since, but if I live dier, he had chosen for his field of fame. to be as old as Methusalem, I shall never forget that all-fired Ice Cream."

BacTrain Coin.- We have lately seen in

the possession of an individual in this neighLITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTEL- small silver coin of Eucratides I., one of the

borhood (Rev. Mr. Smith, Monquhitter), a LIGENCE.

Greek Bactrian kings. It agrees exactly with The Scottish papers record the death in the description given in the “ Penny CycloGlasgow of Mr. David Buchanan, for upwards pædia,” vol. iii., p. 254, of a rare coin of the of twenty years editor of the Edinburgh Eve same monarch, in the British Museum. Ob. ning Courant, and a large contributor, it is profile of Eucratides looking to the right, with stated, to the “Encyclopædia Britannica." a curious helmet and plume. Rev. two caps, Political economy and the study of geography or turbans, with two palm branches, and close were the two departments of literature to beside them a monogram, Basileos Eucratidou. which he was principally devoted. The Eng- Eucratides reigned 181 B.C. These Baclish journals announce the death of Miss Abi- trian coins were first brought under the notice gail Lindo, the authoress of a Hebrew and En- of the learned by the late Sir Alexander glish and English and Hebrew Lexicon—at Burns, and created at the time a great senthe age of forty-five.

sation among the students of numismatology. The Journal des Débats says that M. The ancient Bactria corresponded, speaking Thiers, desiring to co-operate in the efforts in general terms, to the modern Bokhara, to making by the Academy of Moral and Politic- which the attention of this country has of al Sciences for the defence of social principles, late been so unpleasantly directed. It is not and on the appeal of that body, has suspended probable that an example of the coin to which his labors on the “ History of the Consulate we are alluding is to be found in many, even and the Empire” for the purpose of putting of the most valuable and extensive cabinets. the finishing hand to a work which he has en- The one which has given occasion to these titled De la Propriété: and with a view to remarks was purchased in Bombay, along with extending its benefits he has presented his twelve other silver coins, some of which are manuscript as a gift to the Society formed for also rare and curious, from a Persian, who the publication of his history of the Consulate said that he had collected them in the interior and Empire, with a charge that the copies of his native country. - Banffshire Journal. shall be widely circulated.

The French journals have given some inter The PATENT DOMESTIC TELEGRAPII. — Since esting biographical details respecting the late our notice of the application of the principle General Duvivier, one of the gallant men who of the electric telegraph to domestic purposes, have been lost to France amid the recent by Mr. Reid, of Birmingham, he has made troubled times. When the Revolution of Feb some improvements, and extended the use of ruary broke out, the General was about put- the instrument in hotels, taverns, tea-gardens, ting the finishing hand to a work on “ Phæni- coffee and chop-houses, public companies and cian Antiquities” which had occupied him for private houses, and even in mines. The alterthe previous five years, and to which his litera-ation is confined to the dial-plate, on which ry friends attached great value. He was, it is the specific questions and demands are dissaid, well versed in the modern Oriental dia- posed in due order.- Builder. lects, profoundly acquainted with ancient languages, and a learned student in archæology THE MOST AGREEABLE MAN.“ The most and hieroglyphics. Interrupted in his labors agreeable of all companions is a simple, frank by the demands of the Republic, he assumed man, without any pretensions to an offensive the functions of General-Commandant of Paris greatness; one who loves life and understands and General-in-Chief of the Garde Mobile - the use of it ; obliging alike at all hours ; above toiling for eighteen hours a-day during three all, of a golden temper and stedfast as an anterrible months to meet the exigencies of his chor. For such a one we gladly exchange the position. An account of his services through- greatest genius, the most brilliant wit, the proout that feverish time is given ; but it is suffi- | foundest thinker.”—Lessing.

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