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instructed their officers to give intimation to to the channel discovered on the north coast of the natives to be on the look-out for the expe- the continent, and so on, to Behring's Strait ; dition, which would, in all probability, endeav- failing success in that quarter, he meant to reor to approach the shore near the Mackenzie or trace his course to Wellington Sound, and atCoppermine River, with the view of landing tempt a passage northwards of Parry's Islands; despatches; and to convey to the nearest es- and, if foiled there also, to descend Regent's tablishment any papers or letters that night Inlet, and seek the passage along the coast disbe intrusted to their charge, for which they covered by Messrs. Dease and Simpson.” would be liberally rewarded. Further directions were given to take every possible measure Colonel Sabine, who, though a landsman, for the protection and maintenance of the party has bestowed much attention on the fascinating in the event of their landing.
subject of a North-west Passage, and whose The offer held out by the Hudson's Bay opinion is entitled to great consideration, has Company, of a reward to the natives, may, in long conceived that the most probable passage some degree, account for the rumor which was lies through Wellington Channel. He
says: so recently circulated of their having seen two The east and west sides of Wellington Chanboats filled with white people to the east of the nel should be especially searched for notices, Mackenzie, in the fall of 1846. This appears which may not improbably have been deposited to be Sir John Richardson's opinion, for be there ; and one of the ports in the vicinity says in his letter to the Admiralty, I place might be made one of the temporary stations no contidence in the rumors, but merely con for the depot ship.” sider that they have originated in the queries Thus, it is evident that a large tract of Arcof the traders, and the desire of the Indians tic sea must be swept, and many hundreds to excite the curiosity of the questioner, in the of miles of coast examined, before the search hope that they may obtain something there for Sir John Franklin should be abandoned as by
hopeless. Before the close of the year 1847 — indeed, Let us turn now to an examination of the in the early part of it — several conferences measures which have been taken to find the were held by the most experienced Arctic voy-icc-locked Erebus and Terror. agers respecting the best mode of succoring It was determined that thrce expeditions Sir John Franklin. As early as Septeinber should be equipped : one, consisting of two 1846, Sir John Ross, to his credit be it re- ships, to follow in the track of the Erebus and corded, addressed a letter to the Admiralty, Terror as far as Lancaster Sounı), and then to volunteering to head an expedition in scarch of commence searching; one, also consisting of Sir John Franklin in 1817. To this the Ad- two ships, to be sent to Behring's Strait; and miralty replied by stating, that whilst they ap- the third, consisting of a boat-party, to descend preciated the gallant and humane intentions of the Mackenzie and search the Americ in coast, the writer, it was not intended immediately to castward of that river, leaving the coast to the despatch any relief expedition. The Admi- west to be explored by boats belonging to the ralty, however, lost no time in collecting the ships despatched from Behring's Strait. best practical opinions as to the measures to The command of the first expedition was be adopted for obtaining tidings of, or render- given to Sir James Ross, who rolunteered his ing assistance to, the missing ships. It may services; that of the second to Commander be proper here to state, that it was the firm de Moore ; and the third to Sir John Richardtermination of Sir John Franklin not to aban- son, who, although but recently married, holddon the enterprise until he had exhausted all ing a lucrative Government appointment, and the channels leading to, or supposed to lead to, no longer in the enjoyment of youth, had, in the sea west of Melville Island. We have often the noblest manner, utterly regardless of the heard him thus express himself; and Sir John fearful privations which attach to an Arctic Richardson, who may be regarded as one of land and sea expedition, and with which forSir John Franklin's warmest friends, confirms mer expeditions of a similar nature have made this. He says :
him familiar, volunteered his services.
Availing ourselves of the official instruc“I had many conrersation swith Franklin uptions to these officers, we hope to be enabled to the eve of his departure, respecting his fu- to give our readers a correct idea of the plans ture proceedings. His plans were, to shape which it is proposed to adopt. First, with his course, in the first instance, for the neigh- regard to the expedition under Sir James borhood of Cape Walker, and to push to the Ross. This consists of two ships, the Enterwestward in that parallel; or, if that could not prise and Investigator, of four hundred and be accomplished, to make his way southwards, seventy, and four hundred and twenty tons
respectively. They were built expressly for | Cape Bathurst, or Cape Parry, on the main this expedition, and are in every way calcu- land ; at each of which places Sir John Richardlated for Arctic navigation. Each ship, at the son is directed to have provisions for its use; that suggestion of Sir James Ross, is provided with party will then advance to Fort Good Hope, a launch fitted with a stcam-engine and screw, where they will find directions for continuing of sufficient power to propel them at the their progress up the Mackenzie River, so as to rate of about five knots an hour. The ships return to England by the usual route of trad
in the first instance, to proceed without delay to coast of Banks' Land, and from thence make Lancaster Sound. În passing through that at once for Cape Krusenstern, where, or at inlet to the westward, be is to carefully search Cape Hearne, a caché of pemmican will be both its shores, as well as those of Barrow's placed for Sir John Richardson. The party Strait, for any notices that
may have been de are to communicate with the latter, and, placing posited there, and for any casual indications themselves under his orders, are to assist him of their having been visited by either of Sir in examining the shores of Victoria and WolJohn Franklin's ships. Should the season be laston's Islands, and finally return with him to sufficiently open, a similar examination is to be England by whatever route he may deem admade at one of the shores of Wellington Chan- visable. nel. The several intervals of coast that appear The Admiralty desire the foregoing instrucin our charts to lie between Capes Clarence tions to be regarded as the general outline and Walket are next to be carefully explored ; only of their desires, leaving Sir James Ross and, by means of the steam-launches and ships' free to institute any other plans which local boats, it is confidently expected that all this circumstances may render necessary or desirawill be completed during the present season ble ; and they add,—“ If Providence should (1848). It is recommended that the Investi- not be pleased to crown your efforts with sucgator should be secured for the winter in a fit cess, we leave it to your own judgment when, and safe port near Cape Rennell, from which and from whence, to return to England, as position a considerable extent of coast may be soon as you are convinced that every means explored on foot; and in the spring of 1849, within your reach have been exhausted.” detached parties may be sent across the ice to We have only to add with respect to this ex look thoroughly into the creeks along the west- pedition, that the Enterprise and Investigator ern coast of Boothia, as far as Cape Nicolai, sailed on the 12th May, 1818, and reached while another party is to proceed to the south- Opernavik, in latitude 72° 40' N. and longiWard, and ascertain whether the blank space tude 500 W., on the 13th July. Sir James shown there in our charts consists of an open Ross, writing from thence, says :sea, through which Sir John Franklin may have passed, or, on the contrary, of a continu “That the natives informed him the winter ous chain of islands, among which he may still bad been unusually severe, and that they had be blocked up:
As soon as the returning all suffered greatly from hunger. (He adds :) summer shall have opened a passage between The appearances of the sea and sky since we the land and the main body of the ice, the In have left Whale Islands induce
me to bevestigator is to detatch her steam-launch to lieve that the present season will not prove Lancastar Sound, in order to meet the whale unfavorable to navigation, although a strong ships which usually visit the western side of blink in the sky to the westward proves that Baffin's Bay about that time, and by which the main pack is not far distant in that direcfurther instructions and communications will tion, so that we shall be obliged to go to the be sent out.
northward to round the north end of it, before The enterprise is directed to press forward we can stretch across to Lancaster Sound.... to the westward, and endeavor to reach Winter Last night a strong gale came on from the Harbor in Melville Island, or Banks' Land. southward, and has this morning brought so From this western station active parties are to heavy a sea into the harbor, that I think we be despatched, to make short and useful excur- shall be obliged to get off to sea as soon as we sions before the season closes, and still more can. The whalers' accounts are not so favoreffective ones in the ensuing spring. One able as I expected; but they have given up party is then to pursue the coast in whatever the attempt to cross to the west land at a very direction it may seem likely to have been fol early period of the season. The strong southlowed by Sir John Franklin ; and thus deter-erly gale will have produced a very beneficial mine the general shape of the western face of effect on the ice to the northward, and I have Banks' Land. It is then to proceed direct to no doubt of being able to get along famously.
Later accounts show that Sir James Ross | travel over the ice, or along the coast of was in latitude 73° 50' N., and longitude America to Behring's Strait. 78° 6:30' W., on the 28th of August, at which No restrictions are placed on Commander period all the officers and crew were well. Moore with respect to time, and he is allowed
We pass now to the expedition despatched to use the best means in his power to afford to Behring's Strait. This consists of the ships the desired relief to Sir John Franklin's exPlover and Herald. The former is commanded pedition. It is important to state, that the by Commander Moore, and is fitted for Arctic Russian Government have undertaken to innavigation. The instructions order the Plover struct the authorities at Sitka (Norfolk Sound) to proceed to Panama, where she will be met to give all assistance in their power to the by the Herald, commanded by Captain Kel. Plover. Captain Beechey, who has had much lett; the latter is then to take on board such experience in Arctic navigation, and who, it provisions and stores as will be required for will be remembered, con manded the Blossom the service, and the two ships are to proceed in the expedition sent to Behring's Strait to to Petropaulowski and Sitka, for the purpose coöperate with Franklin, who proceeded westof procuring interpreters and a supply of nieat. erly from the mouth of the Mackenzie, has
They are then to push on to Behring's supplied Commander_Moore with valuable Strait, and should arrive there about the ist suggestions ; and the Hudson's Bay Company of July, and proceed along the American bave instructed their off cers to give all the coast as far as is consistent with the certainty accommodation at their disposal to the boating of preventing the ships being beset by the party of the Plover, should they proceed as ice. Four whale-boats are then to be des- far eastward as to ascend the Mackenzie. patched along the coast, to look for a harbor We have now to consider the overland es. in which to receive the Plover for the winter; pedition, under the command of Sir Jobo and when a suitable place is found, two of the Richardson, upon which great reliance is boats are to conduct the Plover to her winter placed loy competent authorities, who enterquarters, and the other two to proceed along tain strong hopes that it may be the agent to the coast in search of the voyagers, and to relieve I'ranklin. This expedition was sugcommunicate, if possible, with the party which gested by Sir John Richardson as early as it is intended shall descend the Mackenzie February, 1847. It consists of four Loats River under the coinmand of Sir John Rich- built in England, thirty feet long and six feet ardson. As soon as symptoms of winter ap- / wide, of as light materials as is consistent with pear, the boats are to return to the Plover, the necessary strength, manned by twenty men which ship being fitted with fuel and provis- in all, and each capable of carrying nearly ions and stores from the Herald, will house in threc tons in addition to their complement of and make all snug for the winter. The Her The:e boats with their crews left Engald is then to return to the south, to give in- land with the Builson's Bay ships in the suntelligence of the spot where she left the Plov mer of 1847, and made great progress on the
Extensive escursions are to be made route to the Mackenzie before the close of the early in the spring by small parties from the Plover, in every possible and practicabile di- On the 25th of March, 1848, Sir John rection, from the winter station; but as soon Richardson, accompanied ly Mr. Rae, whose as the water has formed along the coast, boat recent Arctic explorations will be in the recolexpeditions are to be despatched towards the lection of our readers, left England for MaliMackenzie River, again to communicate, if fax and New York by the wail-steamer, and possible, with Sir John Richardson's party. lost no time in pushing on northwards. A When the month of July, 1849, arrives, the let'er received from Sir John Richardson, Herald will again proceed to communicate dated from Methay Portage, July 4, 1845, with the Plover; and the Captain of the states that Mr. Rae and himself had joined Herald will be guided by his own discretion the boat party on that portage. He adds, and judgment, the information he may receive, “ We hope to leave this on the 7th ; but the and other existing circumstances, in reëquip- men are much fatigued, and we shall go to sea ping the Plover for passing a second winter on much less fresh and fit for the voyage than that part of the coast, and for continuing her would have been the case had we had the in the search for Sir John Franklin.
help of horses in making this rery laborious In addition to the provisions necessary for portage.” Sir John Richardson expected to the crew of the Plover, she is provided with reach the mouth of the Mackenzie about the large quantities of preserved meats for the use 1st of August. His further probable proceedof the party under Sir John Franklin, should ings will be gathered from the following exthey be compelled to abandon their ships and tracts from his instructions :
you reach the sea in the first week in cease after the winter of 1849, which is to be August, it is hoped you will be able to make passed on the Great Slave Lake, and that, at the complete voyage to the Coppermine Riv- the earliest practical moment in the spring of er, and also to coast a considerable part of the 1850, he is to take steps to return to England. western and southern shores of Wollaston We need scarcely observe, that the Hudson's Land, and to ascend the Coppermine to some Bay Company are powerful auxiliaries in this convenient point, where Mr. Bell and a party expedition. By their coöperation, the boats can be left with the provisions ready for the destined for the coast navigation were carried next year's voyage; and you will instruct through Northern America, under the manhim to send two hunters to the banks of the agement of Mr. Bell; and their officers have river to provide food for the party on the received the necessary instructions to have route to Fort Confidence, and thus spare you supplies of provisions at the winter quarters. any further consumption of pemmican, re Some idea of the quantity necessary to supserved for the following summer.
port active physical life in the Arctic regions “As it may happen, however, from your will be gathered by the following extract of a late arrival on the coast, or subsequent unex letter from Sir John Richardson to the Adpected detentions, that you cannot with safety miralty :attempt to reach the Coppermine, you have our full permission in such a case to return to The rations during the voyage out, which Fort Good Hope, on the Mackenzie, there to will be such as the crews of the Hudson's deposit two of the boats, with all the sea Bay ships receive, are to be paid for to the stores, and to proceed with the other two Company by the Admiralty, and are of exboats, and the whole of the crews, to winter cellent quality, and sufficient in quantity. quarters on Great Bear Lake.
During the boat voyage the rations will vary “ And
you have also our permission to devi- with circumstances. A quantity of excellent ate from the line of route along the coast, dried bacon, biscuit, flour, and cocoa, has should you receive accounts from the Esqui- been provided, to last up to the first wintering maux, which may appear credible, of the place, allowing each man to consume about crews of the Erebus and Terror, or some part 3 lbs. of solid food daily. For the first winof them, being in some other direction. ter the diet will consist almost wholly of fish,
“For the purpose of more widely extending the ordinary allowance being 10 lbs. per man your search, you are at liberty to leave Mr. daily ; but when the fishery is very producRae and a party of volunteers to winter on tive, no restriction is usually placed on the the coast, if by the establishment of a suffi quantity consumed. When the water fowl cient fishery, or by killing a number of deer pass in the spring, one goose or two large or musk oxen, you may be able to lay up pro ducks are substituted for 10 lbs. of fish. The visions enough for them until you can rejoin second winter will be passed at a post where them next summer.
reindeer or musk-ox meat will form a part of “ Should it appear necessary to continue the the rations; and of the meat, 8 lbs. is the search a second summer (1849), and should usual daily allowance. During the summer the boats have been housed on the Copper voyages pemmican will constitute the main mine, you are to descend that river on the article of diet, and will be issued at the rate breaking up of the ice in June 1849, and to of 2 lbs. per diem for each man, which is as examine the passages between Wollaston and much as the average consumption on unlimited Banks, and Victoria Lands, so as to cross the allowance. I calculate upon carrying seven routes of some of Sir James C. Ross'_de- tons of pemmican to the Mackenzic for the tached parties, and to return to Great Bear ulterior progress of the party, Lake in September 1849, and withdraw the Admiral von Wrangel, in his Narrative of whole party from thence to winter on Great an Expedition to the Polar Sea, dwells with Slave Lake, which would be as far south as great force on the vast quantity of meat eaten you will have a prospect of travelling before by his party; and this unfortunate necessity the close of the river navigation.”
for so extraordinary a supply of food forms,
undoubtedly, one of the great difficulties in The Admiralty extend to Sir John Richard- Arctic expeditions, for it is manifestly a hard son the same latitude in his operations as they task to carry provisions to meet so rapid a congrant to Sir James Ross and Commander sumption as is stated above. We must not Moore: they are only anxious that the search forget to notice the offer of rewards to whaleso laudibly undertaken should not be un- ships, on the part of the Admiralty and Lady necessarily or hazardously prolonged; and to Franklin, for rescuing the missing ships, or guard against this, they order his search to I bringing intelligence of them. We do so,
however, in the case of the Admiralty, with | To the owner, two-tenths, or.
£200 unwillingness and regret, because the offer is, captain, one-tenth, or .
. 100 we conceive, totally unworthy the cause and chief mate one twentieth, or . 50 the British nation.
next two officers, one-for
50 The Lords of the Admiralty offered one tieth, or £25 each ... hundred guineas to the crew of any whale-ship The remaining six-tenths, or .... 600 that might bring accurate information of the to be divided amongst the rest of Erebus and Terror; but apprehending, proba
the ship's company bly, that this small reward would be regarded with indifference by the captains of whalers,
"And, further, I hereby offer an additional they state in a letter to the commissioners of sum of one thousand pounds (£1000,) to be customs, dated March 13, 1848, that,
distributed in the same proportions to the owner,
officers, and crew of any ship which shall, at an “ Conceiving there might possibly be mis- early period of the season, make extraordinary conception on the part of masters of whalers exertions for the above object, and, if required, as to their lordships' intentions with respect to bring Sir John Franklin and his party to Eng. the reward to be paid for information as to the land. position of Captain Sir John Franklin's ships,
“The whole or part of this last £1000 will my lords are desirous it should distinctly be be granted according to the decision of Sir understood by the masters, and crews of the John Franklin, or the commanding officer of whale-ships, that a higher reward than the 100 the expedition relieved. In other respects guineas mentioned in that letter will be given the decision of the following gentlemen, who to any ship bringing positive and exact infor- have kindly consented to act as referees in mation of the discovery ships, more particularly awarding the £2000, is to be final, viz., Admiif it should appear to their lordships that every ral Beaufort, Captain Sir W. Edward Parry, exertion had been made in order to convey the R. N., Thomas Ward, Esq., Hull. information to this country with all possible ex (Signed)
Jane FRANKLIN.” pedition and despatch." We cannot forget, that when the fate of the
The Admiralty may be of opinion that the unfortunate Lilloise, French brig of war, which extensive and costly machinery which they was sent to explore part of the coast of Green- have organized in the form of three distinct land in 1833, was uncertain, independently of expeditions, having for their main purpose the despatching an expedition in search of her, relief of Sir John Franklin, render it unnecesthe munificient reward of £4000 was offered sary to stimulate the captains of whalers by by the French Government, two years after high rewards to go out of their course to search her departure, to the crew of any vessel rescu
for the Erebus and Terror; but if this be the ing her; and a pension of 4000 francs, with case, we cannot help feeling that it would have the cross of the Legion of Honor, were con
been better, under existing circumstances, to ferred by the same Government on Captain
have left this subject untouched. Dillon for having discovered the fate of La Pé
Although the search for Sir John Franklin rouse's ship. Lady Franklin, with a munifi- forms the great purpose of the expeditions, cence more in accordance with the importance yet in the case of those under Sir James Ross of the subject, has offered the reward of £2000 and Commander Moore, the Admiralty have in the following notice, copies of which have supplied the vessels with instruments for makbeen sent to the captains of all the whalers :- ing geographic, hydrographic, magnetic, and
atinospheric observations. In their instruc“ With the view of inducing any of the whal- tions, they say, ing ships which resort to Daviš' Strait and Baffin's Bay, to make efforts in search of the
"Whilst we estimate any such observations as expedition under the command of Sir John of inferior importance to the one leading object Franklin, in those parts which are not within of the expedition, you will nevertheless omit the scope of the expeditions about to be sent
no opportunity of rendering it as contributive out by Government, I hereby offer one thou- to scientific acquisitions as to the performance sand pounds (£1000) to be divided as follows ; of the great duties of national humanity.” " to the owner, captain, officers, and crew of any We have now endeavored to give our readship which shall depart so far from the usual ers a clear idea of the measures in operation for fishing grounds as to explore Prince Regent the relief of Sir John Franklin and the party Inlet, Admiralty Inlet, Jones Sound, or Smith under his command, and it must be admitted Sound, provided such ship, finding the above that they are of a nature worthy of the greatexpedition in distress, shall communicate with, est maritime country in the world. It would and afford it effectual relief:
be idle, and apart from the object of this arti