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Australian Colonies is not to be advocated. stations in this command, and eventually to proThe outlay incurred during the early oper- ceed to India, at the rate of £1200 per month. ations in New Zealand may aim to le regarded Without reference to the rate, the system of as a contingency, beyond the ordinary esti- biring vessels by the month is manifestly exmates of expenditure; but leaving these aside, pensive and oljectionable, as offering a premiwe may instance some of the current and ordi
um upon dilatoriness. nary items which have fallen under our notice. It may be observed here, that when moving
For the relief of the garrison of Norfolk Is- troops across Van Dieman's Land, as between land, and the conveyance of the relieved | Hobart Town and Launceston, the northern detatchment to New Zealand, involving a ser- capital, a distance of one hundred and twenty vice of two months, two small trading schooners, miles, the intermediate stages are mere villages very ill-calculated for the purpose, were char- of such limited capacity for billeting soldiers, tered at £1300 for the trip—for freight only. that a detachment of fifty men is marched on Contrast this with the contract price for con two or three divisions on successive days. veying troopy from London to the East Indies, Thus large bodies are sent by water, and tonwhich may be taken at £9 10s. per head, nage must be provided at rates of which we including both freight and victualling for a have already furnished a sample. It would four months' voyage. Again, a merchant be scrupulous to dilate further upon the invessel is chartered for two trips, to carry con- sufficiency of the Colonial Marine, or on the victs between Norfolk Island and Tasman's advantage of placing suitable steam power at Peninsula at £800 for each trip, an engage the disposal of the local government. The ment which might occupy altogether about vessels only are wanted; fuel can be abuntwelve weeks. In another instance, a vessel | dantly supplied by the Colony.- United Seris taken up to transport troops between different vice Magazine.
THE ARCTIC EXPEDITIONS.
Of the numerous exploring expeditions The existence of a North-West Passage has which have left the British shores, from the been a favorite dream for centuries. days of Cook to the present time, few, if of discovering a shorter passage to India any, have excited so much interest as that the original pursuit of Columbus himself now shrouded from our view by the icy cur may be regarded as the first incitement to the tain which clings for the greater part of the attempts to navigate westward of the north year around the North Pole.
of America ; and we find sovereigns and merBehind that curtain, Sir John Franklin, chants, time after time, bestowing their patand the gallant party under his command, dis- ronage and money on attempts to pass from appeared on the 26th July, 1845; since the Atlantic to the Pacific. In 1585, the which period no authentic intelligence of them merchants of London being, they say, “ satishas been received, nor indeed any account at fyed of the likelyhood of the discoverie of all beyond the rumors of boats, filled with the North-west Passage,” sent out an expediwhite people, having been seen by Esquimaux tion with this object in view; and, although in the summer of 1846, to the east of the the ships returned unsuccessful, other expedi. mouth of the Mackenzie river.
tions followed in rapid succession. Availing ourselves of the official documents It would be impossible to find a stronger relating to the Arctic expeditions, which have example of the undaunted courage, moral as recently been published by the Admiralty, well as physical, which animates British seaand of information derived from authentic men, than is presented to us by these Polar sources, we purpose in this article to notice in expeditions. Here, indeed, is one of their the first instance the expedition under Sir chief glories ; for it is evident that the fearful John Franklin, and secondly, those lately des- rigors of winters spent in the regions of thickpatched to his relief, with the view of bringing ribbed ice, are unable to quench that intellecsuccintly and clearly before our readers the tual fire which has animated, from the first, machinery, if we may so express ourselves, the leaders and participators in our Arctic now at work in the Polar seas, for the pur- and Antarctic voyages. pose of exploring and making discoveries. In December, 1841, Sir John Barrow,
then one of the secretaries to the Admiral. are now contending; and which, if left to be ty, submitted a proposition to the council of performed by some other power, England, by the Royal Society, for the discovery of the her neglect of it, after having opened the east North-west Passage, in which he strongly and west doors, would be laughed at by all urged the equipment of an expedition which the world for having hesitated to pass the should endeavor to pass from Melville Island thresholds. to Behring's Strait, a distance of about nine It should not be overlooked that there are hundred miles, keeping midway between the in the Pacific, at this moment, two fleets of supposed Bank's Land and the coast of the only two naval powers likely to underAmerica. Sir John Barrow conceived that, take the enterprise in question; it is exalthough Parry saw from Melville Island tremely probable some of their ships will something that looked like the looming of land make trial of this nearest passage home when to the southward, which is marked on the they leave the Pacific station. Polar chart as Bank's Land, yet, even were "If expense be the only objection, it may it so, it would not in any way interfere with be met by observing that one season only the direct track between Behring's Strait and would suffice for its decision, and the cost Cape Walker (the last land on the south of not more than one-third of that of the late Barrow's strait, which leads to Melville Antarctic expedition under Sir James Ross, Island); and the ground on wbich he assumed while one of the objects would be precisely that in this track no land intervenes, is, that the the same as that of the other, namely, obserwhole north coast of America has been traversed vations on terrestrial magnetism, - considered by various persons by land, and in boats by of such importance, that magnetic observatowater; that nothing like land could be dis- ries have been established, through the influcovered from the high coast between the me ence of England, in almost every other part ridians of Cape Walker and Behring's Strait; of the globe.” and that little or no ice was observable. Sir John Barrow adds :
Sir John Barrow further stated, that the
ships Erebus and Terror, which had recently “The Utilitarians were at all times ready returned from the Antarctic expedition under enough to ask, Qui bono? but Elizabeth and Sir James Ross, were in such good order as her ministers, with their enlightened minds, to be ready to be made available for immedisought for · knowledge, the result of which ate employment in the Arctic seas, and that they needed not to be told was ‘ power.' Ob- there was no want of officers well used to serve what followed; the knowledge gained the ice, who were ready and willing to enby the Arctic voyagers was not thrown away. bark on an expedition for completing the Sir Humphry Gilbert, by his grant of the North-west Passage, Island of Newfoundland, made his voyage It was understood that Sir John Barron's thither, in which he nobly perished, but his proposition had been approved by Lord Hadknowledge did not perish with him; on the dington, then First Lord of the Admiralty
, contrary, it laid the foundation of the valua- and the other lords commissioners; and the ble cod-fishery, which still exists. Davis, by reader will be prepared to hear that the council the discovery of the strait that bears his name, of the Royal Society gave their support to the opened the way to the whale-fishery, still car- proposed expedition, not only as likely to irried on ; and Frobisher pointed out the strait crease geographical knowledge, but as a belp which conducted Hudson to the bay that bears to the progress of the science of terrestrial his name, and which gave rise to the estab- magnetism, which they have for many years lishment of a company of merchants under been most zealous in advancing. the name of the Hudson's Bay Company, Accordingly, Government resolved on makwhose concerns are of that extensive nature ing one more attempt to solve the problem of as to be carried on across the whole continent a North-west Passage ; and in the early part of America, and to the very shores of the of 1845 it became known that the intrepid, Polar Sea.
and we may add, veteran Sir John Franklin, " Lastly, the discovery of Baffin, which who had but recently returned from an ardupointed out, among others, the great opening ous and anxious service at the Antipodes, as of Lancaster Sound on the eastern coast of Governor of Van Diemen's Land, had been that bay which bears his name, has in our nominated by the Admiralty to command an time been found to lead into the Polar Sea, expedition for the above object. Little time through which the North-west Passage from elapsed before the ships were ready for sailing. the Atlantic to the Pacific will one day be ac- They were the Erebus and the Terror
, comcomplished, and for the execution of which we manded, officered, and manned as follows:
Frederick Hornby, } Mates
tory, commanded by Sir John Ross, in his
expedition undertaken in 1818. Sir John Franklin, Captain.
It is scarcely necessary to stato, that the James Fitzjames, Commander.
ships were provided with the most improved Graham Gore,
magnetical and meteorological instruments, Henry T. D. Le Vesconte, Lieuts.
and with everything which the experience of
repeated Arctic expeditions could suggest. Charles F. Des Vaux,
On the 26th May, 1845, the expedition de
We shall now give a résumé of Sir John
Franklin's official instructions.
They set forth, in the first instance, the ex-
pediency of making another attempt for the acJames Read, Ice Master.
complishment of a North-west Passage, and 12 Warrant and Petty-officers.
then direct Sir John Franklin to proceed with 53 Seamen and Marines.
the greatest possible despatch to Davis' Strait,
taking the transport as far up that Strait as he 70 Total
can, without allowing her to be beset by ice, or The Terror.
exposed to any violent contact with it. The Francis Rawdon M. Crozier, Captain.
transport iš then to be cleared of the provisions Edward Little,
and stores with which she is charged for the G. H. Hodgson, Lieutenants.
use of the expedition, and to be sent back to John Irving,
England. Sir John Franklin is next ordered
to proceed into Baffin's Bay, and to enter LanRobert Thomas,
caster Sound with as little delay as possible.
Lancaster Sound, and its continuation through
Barrow's Strait, having been four times navi-
gated without any impediment by Sir Edward Alexander M'Donald, Assist. Surgeon.
Parry, and since frequently by whaling ships, J. H. Helpman, Clerk in Charge.
will probably be found without any impedi11 Warrant and Petty-officers.
ment from ice or island; and Sir Edward 57 Seamen and Marines.
Parry having also proceeded from the latter in a straight course to Melville Island, and re
turned without experiencing any, or very little, 68 Total
difficulty, it is boped that the remaining portion The fitting up of the above vessels differed of the passage, about nine hundred miles, to in one respect from that of all ships previously Behring's Strait, may also be found equally sent out on Arctic expeditions. This consisted free from obstruction, and in proceeding to the in their being furnished with a small steam- westward, therefore, you will not stop to exengine and archimedian screw. But in the amine any openings either to the northward or experimental trip made by the Erebus, to test southward in that Strait, but continue to push the power of the screw, the utmost speed which to the westward without loss of time, in the could be attained scarcely amounted to three latitude of about 74°1-4, till you have reached knots an hour, although every means, as we the longitude of that portion of land on which ourselves can attest, were taken to increase this Cape Walker is situated, or about 98° west. rate. The ships were supplied with fuel for From that point we desire that every effort be twelve days - a quantity manifestly insufficient used to endeavor to penetrate to the southward for their probable wants, but still as much as and westward, in a course as direct towards they could afford to stow away, having to carry Behring's Strait as the position and extent of provisions for three years. When the very the ice, or the existence of land, at present unsmall speed producible by the steam-power is known, may admit. considered, coupled with the great incon We direct you to this particular part of the venience likely to result from the most valuable Polar Sea as affording the best
prospect of part of the ship being occupied by the boiler complishing the passage to the Pacific, in conand machinery, not to mention the great prob- sequence of the unusual magnitude and apability of the screw being nipped by the ice, parently fixed state of the barrier of ice observed we shall be quite prepared to hear that this part by the Hecla and Griper, in the year 1820, off of the equipment has turned out a failure, and Cape Dundas, the south-western extremity of that the steam machinery has been thrown Melville Island ; and we, therefore, consider that overboard, as happened in the case of the Vic- | loss of time would be incurred in renewing the
attempt in that direction : but should your | ing the winter, and by the want of such reprogress in the direction before ordered be ar- freshment and refitting as would be afforded rested by ice of a perinanent appearance, and by your return to England. that, when passing the mouth of the Strait between Devon and Cornwallis Islands, you had
Although effecting a passage from the Atlanobserved that it was open and clear of ice; we
tic to the Pacific is distinctly stated to be the desire that you will duly consider, with refer main object of the expedition, yet, ascertaining ence to the time already consumed, as well as the true geographical position of capes
, to the symptoms of a late or early close of the &c., the set of the currents in the Arctic seas, season, whether that channel might not uffer a
and the collection of specimens in the animal, il more practicable outlet from the Archipelago, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms, are specified and a more ready access to the open sea, where as objects of high interest and importance
. there would be neither islands nor banks to
For the purpose of ascertaining the set of arrest and fix the floating masses of ice. And
the currents, as well as of affording more fre if you should have advanced too far to the quent chances of bearing of the progress of the south-westward to render it expedient to adopt expedition, Sir John Franklin is directed after this new course before the end of the present passing the latitude of 65° north, to — once season, and if, therefore, you should have de every day, when in an ascertained currenttermined to winter in that neighborhood, it will throw overboard a bottle or copper cylinder, be a inatter for your mature deliberation wheth- closely sealed, containing a paper stating the er in the ensuing season you would proceed by date and position at which it is launched ; and the above-mentioned Strait, or whether you for this purpose each ship was supplied with would persevere to the south-westward, accord- papers, on which was printed in several laning to the former directions.
guages a request that, whoever should find it,
would take measures for transmitting it to the In case of Sir John Franklin being so for Admiralty. tunate as to make the passage, he is ordered In the case of an irreparable accident hapto proceed to the Sandwich Islands, to refit the pening to either of the two ships, the officers ships and refresh the crews; and, should op- and crew of the disabled ship are to be reportunity offer, an officer is to be sent with des moved into the other; and with her, singly, patches to England by Panama : but in the Sir John Franklin is authorized to proveed in event of no such opportunity offering during prosecution of the voyage. In case of any his stay at the Sandwich Islands, he is, on fatal accident happening to the latter, the conquitting them, to proceed with the two ships to mand is given to Captain Crozier, who is to act Panama, there to land an officer with despatch upon the instructions to the best of his ability. es for England; after which, no time is to be It will be seen by the foregoing, that great lost in returning to England by way of Cape latitude is given to Sir John Franklin, both as Horn.
to the means he may employ to accomplish the Considerable discretionary power is, how- great oliject of the expedition, and the time ever, given, as will be seen by the following which he may devote to the task. It is well extract from the instructions :
known by his relatives and friends, who con"In an undertaking of this description, much versed with him on the subject immediately must always be left to the discretion of the before he sailed, that he did not calculate that commanding-officer; and as the olijects of this the passage could be affected in one season. expedition have been fully explained to you, lands, under the date of July 9, 1845, he
Writing to Col. Sabine from Whalefish Isand you have already had much experience on service of this nature, we are convinced we
says : cannot do better than leave it to your judgment, in the event of your not making a passage be over ansjous if we should not return by the
“I hope my dear wife and daughter will not this season, either to winter on the coast, with time they have fised upon ; and I must beg of the view of following up next season any hopes you to give them the benefit of advice
your or expectations which your observations this and experience when that arrives
, for you know year may lead you to entertain, or to return well, that even after the second winter, without to England to report to us the result of such observations, always recollecting our anxiety some other channel if the state of our provi
success in our object, we should wish to try for the health, comfort, and safety of yourself
, sions and the health of the crews justify it.” your officers, and mon; and you will duly weigh how far the advantage of starting next As we have stated, the last accounts received season from an advanced position may be of the expedition bore the date of July 26, counterbalanced by what may be suffered dur- 1845, when Captain Dannett, of the Prince
of Wales whaler, fell in with the discovery ships procure no information respecting Sir John
Yours. &c. otherwise have been sent liy him. Captain
(Signed) WM. PENNY." Dannett states that the officers whom he saw, John Barrow, Esq. but of whose names (with the exception of Cap
It is worthy of notice that, although the tain Fitzjames) he is ignorant, were all well above letter speaks of a quantity of ice as havand in bigh spirits. He represents the ice as
ing come out of Barrow's Strait during the being at the time very heavy, but loose ; the
previous season, there was no trace or any officers, he adds, expressed good hopes of soon vestige of the expedition, which might be excompleting the expedition. No intelligence whatever was gleaned of the from the west, and remember that Sir John
pected when we are told of a current setting Erebus and T'error during the summer of 1846. Franklin's instructions were to throw a bottle That summer is reported by the whale-ships to
or copper cylinder, containing a paper stating have been unusually severe. The thermome- his position, overboard duily after passing the ter was above freezing-point only twenty days, latitude of C5° north. A striking instance of and the north ice remained unbroken. None the direction of the current to the south and of the whalers appear to have approached Lan
east from Barrow's Strait has been recently afcaster Sound during this season.
forded us by the Prince of Wales whaler havThe summer of 1817 was equally barren of information, although, as will be seen by the latitude C8° 10' N. and longitude 64° 30' W.,
ing picked up, on the 21 of October last, in annexed letter from the captain of a whaler, a cask containing a paper, which was thrown a much higher latitude was reached than dur- from the Investigator on the 28th of Angust, ing the previous year :
1818, in latitude 73° 50' N., and longitude " Aberdeen, 17th November, 1847.
78° 6' W. This cask was, therefore, diifted
5° 40' southward, and 14° 3C' eastward. Sir, -- in answer to your questions I re The captain of the Lady Jane whaler attained spectfully leg to state, the Saint Andrew the latitude of 76", and the longitude of 80o. crossed Baffin's Bay from Cape York in lat. He represents the ice during the whole of the 76°, long. 67°, to Pond's Bay, our usual fishing--eason in 1847 as lei g unusually thick fishing ground, in lat. 72° 45', long. 70°, July and heavy, and adds. 231. The whales having disappeared, I determined to proceed to Lancaster Sound, both
"In places where it has been generally found with a view to the capture of whales and in this the natives accounted for to me by the wind
six feet thick, this year it was ten feet; und search of her majesty's ships. I contended for a week against an adverse wind and a
having prevailed so much from the south-east strong swell down the Sound: we attained no
all the winter, which pressed the ice upon the higher longitude than 78, August 5th ; no
My ship was the only one in Sir appearance of ice in the Sound, and none but James Lancaster's Sound as far as Navy detached streams within 100 miles of it to the Board Inlet; and in the middle of that Sound cast. In consequence of a very wild winter,
there was nothing to be seen to the westward there will be very little ice left in Davis' Strait but a few pieces of small ice. I was most this season ; the last two winters were the mild- anxious to obtain some information about her est the Danes have experienced for a great majesty's ships, and endeavored to affet a number of years at their settlement of Oper- landing on both sides of the Sound; but the nasick, in lat. 72° 45' N., long. 56o. The ice was so heavy and packed on the coast that Saint Andrew re-crossed the Strait in lat. 720 travelling was quite impossible.” 15', in August ; not more than 40 miles of ice, So closed the year 1847, and the puilic and very light. In lat. 70° N. fell in with began to feel like the king and princes who very heavy ice, which continued so to lat. 64o watched the third disappearance of Schiller's 55'; that ice must have come out of Barrow's diver; for three years had nearly clapsed withStrait the previous season.
out receiving any intelligence of the expediBeing a little acquainted with the Esqui- tion. maux language, I made every inquiry of the It should be observed, too, that the Hudvarious tribes I met at Pond's Bay, but could | son's Bay Company, with their usual enerzy,