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dine with Pepys, addressing his wife with much | incur for him the displeasure of his superiors familiarity, and assuming all the manners of a in power. Walking in the Park one afternoon, hearty friend. A sad and serious national ca- he saw the king, and immediately hurried lamity, however, threw a damp upon his spirits. away lest he should be observed, for he knew The “ London,” a magnificent vessel with an there were those who, having the king's ear, and armament of eighty brass guns, and manned jealous of his attentions to the new favorite, with a chosen crew, blew up while passing the would not fail to turn these trifling circumNore, and sunk, a shattered wreck. Twenty- stances to the disadvantage of one of whose five souls were all that survived the catastrophe, successes they were jealous. which filled the city at the time with a general The long-expected plague, which had apgloom. But nothing appears equal to the task peared for a considerable period to hang as a of dispelling that jovial spirit which supported threatening cloud over the metropolis, now bePepys under the most melancholy circum- gan to show itself in London, and daily was stances. The lightest breath of pleasure or the number of those doors increased on which profit served to dissipate the heaviest cloud of the red cross attested the presence of death. gloom that ever hung upon his soul; and, | A gloom was shed over the city, and all its while the public mind was filled with misgiving inhabitants seemed to feel that the pestilence and apprehension, he pursues his joyous course, had only showed itself, preparatory to spreadhappy in his home, his wife, his wealth, his ing through the whole population. The deadconsequence, and all the other blessings which carts began to creak along almost deserted fortune had showered
Numerous streets, and wagons and coaches filled the highcircumstances combined about this time to raise ways which led from the metropolis, burthenPepys in his own estimation, as well as that ofed with those whom terror had driven to the numerous individuals who watched his seek refuge in the country. Seventeen or every action, and hoped or feared as fortune eighteen hundred perished every week. appeared favorable or contrary to him. The Friends shunned each other's presence; the king himself held a long conversation with him, father feared the son, the son feared the father asked his opinion on various naval matters, and every one fearing that communication spoke to him in a familiar manner. The Duke brought death along with it. In the last week of Albermarle, too, walked alone with him in of August, 1665, the mortality of London inhis garden, expressing great approbation of his creased to seven thousand, and in the first measures, and calling him the right band of week of September it rose to nearly nine the navy, and saying that nothing could be thousand. The inhabitants knew not what to done without him ; at which,” says he, “I do—where to seek safety. Thousands would am not a little proud.”
ave fled but possessed not the means; thousThere is an old proverb which says that ands had not the energy to fly, and thousands good fortune is the sure presage of ill-luck. fell victims to the disease almost ere they were In a limited sense this was true in the case of aware of its approach. It seemed as if a curse Pepys. He was disturbed from his complacent bad fallen on the city. Men issued from their dreams by the reflection that, while extending homes in vigorous health and died ere they the power and efficiency of the navy, he had also reached their destination. To-day a family lavished sums of money for which he was in no was complete, and to-morrow, perhaps, most of way inclined to be called to account. Not that its members were carried forth to their graves. he had dishonestly appropriated the sums, but The social meeting was dispersed by a whisper that occasionally he had not been careful of the plague, and the few passengers in the enough in their disbursement, and had been streets went out of their way to avoid meeting guilty in some instances of reckless profu- the cart that conveyed the victims to their un
consecrated graves. Nearly every one holding “ 27th (April, 1665), Creed dined with of the nation to be ruled by chance, or by ig
a public office fled the town, and left the affairs me ; and, after dinner, walked in the garden, norant and inexperienced deputies. This was he telling me that my Lord Treasurer now gins to be scrupulous, and will want to know peculiarly unfortunate in times so anxious and gins to be scrupulous, and will want to know important, and it was then that Pepys enjoyed what became of the £26,000 saved by my the opportunity of affording an evidence of his Lord Peterborough, before he parts with any unflinching and fearless character. He remore money, which puts us into new doubts
, mained at his post as a true soldier remains and me into a great fear that all my cake will under his standard when his companions have be dough still.
either fallen or fled, and exerted his utmost His frequent absence from the office, too, energies to support the heavy burthen of busibegan to be noticed, and he feared that it would ness which pressed upon his department of the
public service. He, however, sent his family We perceive that our limits are rapidly to Greenwich, whither he himself also repaired drawing in; we must, therefore, with whatever as soon as the calls of business had been satis regret we may do so, pass on rapidly through fied. The Dutch were on the English coast, the diary, and leave unnoticed numerous interand threatened a descent upon Margate. Pe- esting and curious passages. The plague pys resolved that for no fault of his should his grew upon the city; the river was deserted, country lose a particle of its honor, and he applied and the silent and melancholy streets were himself with vigor to the task of regulating covered with grass. In the beginning of Octhe affairs of the English navy; and his steady tober, however, the bills of mortality deapplication counterbalanced many of the evils creased, and this fact, together with the which would otherwise have resulted from the intelligence of several victories over the Dutch, absence or negligence of the other officials. contributed to shed a little light upon the And all this while the plague was devastating general gloom which hung upon the public the city, death striking down hundreds of hu- mind. But this was but a temporary respite, for man beings every day; and all the bells of the disease recovered strength, and continued to London tolled in dismal chime, the dull echoes rage with greater fury than ever; and so the year never ceasing to sound in the ears of those 1665 ended, and left Pepys in a better condiwho feared every moment to be seized with the tion than he ever was before. He had succeeded frightful disease.
Mr. Pary as commissioner for the affairs of Mr. Marr tells me how a maid-servant of Tangiers, and had, moreover, been nominated Mr. John Wright's, who lives thereabouts, to the post of surveyor of the victualling defalling sick of the plague, she was removed to partment. His savings had increased from an outhouse, and a nurse appointed to look to £1300 to £4400. One fact, however, troubled her, who being once absent, the maid got out him. Lord Sandwich had fallen in the estimaof the house at the window, and run away.
tion of the Court, and was sent as ambassador The nurse coming and knocking, and having to Spain, and the Duke of Albermarle had not received no answer, believed she was dead, risen in popularity. The pestilence now be and went and told Mr. Wright so, who and his gan to weaken, and the weekly average of lady were in great straight what to do to get deaths sank to a comparatively insignificant her buried ; at last resolved to go to Burnt
amount. London resumed by slow degrees wood, hard by, being in the parish, and there its wonted aspect, and, to his great joy, Pepys get people to do it. But they would not; as
was enabled to establish his family again in he went honie full of trouble, and in the
town, and to resume his usual manner of
way met the wench walking over the common,
living which frightened him worse than before ; and
Of his domestic life, Pepys allows us from was forced to send people to take her, which time to time to catch many detached glimpses, they did, and they got one of the pest-coaches which, however, are too scattered and slight and put her into it to carry her to a pest-house. to allow us to form any very accurate idea of And passing in a narrow lane,
apBroune, with his friends in the coach, met this pears to have been, after a fashion, fond of his coach with the curtain drawn close. The lat- wife, though he never allowed her to express ter being a young man, and believing there
an opinion contrary to his own, or to transact might be some lady in it that would not be any affairs to which he was not privy. For inseen, and the way being narrow, thrust his stance, read the following : head out of his own into her coach to look, "12th. I and my wife to her closet, to examine and there saw somebody looking very ill, and her kitchen accounts, and then I took occasion in as ill dress, who stunk mightily, which the to fall out with her for her buying a broad-laced coachman also cried out upon. And presently handkerchief and a pinner, without my leave. they came up to some people that stood looking For this we both began to be angry and so conafter it, and told our gallants that it was a tinued till bed. maid of Mr. Wright's carried away sick of the “ 13th. Up, without being friends with my plague ; which put the young gentleman into a wife, nor yet great enemies, being both quiet fright that nearly cost him his life, but he is and silent.” now well again.'
We find them, however, soon reconciled. *The pestilence is thus spoken of in the curious
We find him one day recording the fact, that work from which we have already quoted :-"But the anger of the Lord was kindled against the king and
she was out of temper on account of his having against the people of England, and he smote the checked her with some abruptness for telling
She do find with died in one year upwards of sixty and seven thousand long stories in the coach. persons.”
with reason,” he says,
" that in the company
of Pierce, Knipp, and other women that I love, with horror. The mayor of the city wept like that I do not value or mind her as I ought.” a child; and when a command was sent to him, Nevertheless, his private life appears to have at the suggestion of Pepys, that he should pull been chequered with few crosses, and he the houses down, and thus endeavor to stop seems to glide on, borne by a smooth current, the fire, he cried, “Lord ! what can I do? I enjoying a happy and prosperous existence. am spent; people will not obey me. I have
The Dutch fleets, about the middle of the been pulling down houses, but the fire overtakes year 1666, met with some important reverses, us faster than we can do it.” being on several occasions driven to flight by Carts laden with furniture, sick persons carthe efforts of the English commanders. But ried away in their beds, thousands of halfa sudden alarm spread through London upon clothed men, women, and children, pale with the news that a great armament, fitted out by fear, and scarcely knowing whither to turn, filled Holland, was about to advance upon our coasts, the streets, some going one way, some another ; and recover the ground lost in their recent de others rushing wildly, with no object in view feats. However, good preparations were made save that of escaping with life from the mighty to meet this attack, and something of the spirit calamity. Pepys now began to occupy himself of enthusiasm at last warmed the heart of Lon for the public safety. He went amidst the don. When, however, an engagement at
crowds, directed the efforts of those employed length took place, although the result showed to pull the houses down, encouraged them, a victory on the English side,
assisted them, and labored like a hero wherwas not so great as to warrant any triumph, ever he found an opportunity. The scene and the country was disappointed of its hopes. which presented itself to his view is vividly
We now approach the great catastrophe described :which struck London, ere it had recovered
“We went as near to the fire as we could from the weakening effects of the plague. On the 2d of August, 1666, Pepys was awakened for smoke; and all over the Thames, with one's from his sleep at three o'clock in the morning, faces in the wind, you were nearly burned with by one of his maid-servants, who told him that houses were burned by these drops and flakes
a shower of fire-drops. This is very true, for a great fire had broken out in the city, Rising, of fire-three or four, nay five or six houses, and looking forth from the window, he saw a
one from another. When we could endure no mighty flame appearing in the direction of Mark Lane, and, as it then seemed to him, the Bankside, over against the Three Cranes,
more upon the water, we to a little alehouse on retreating rather than advancing to his quarter. and there staid till it was dark almost, and He then retired to rest again, and at seven o'clock again looked out. The blaze had now
there saw the fire grow : and as it darker
grew reached Fish street, and was making rapid
and darker, appeared more and more ; and in
corners and progress towards London Bridge. Dressing,
upon steeples, and between and walking out, he repaired to the scene of the churches and houses, as far as we could see up
the hill of the city, in a most horrid, malicious, conflagration, and then, for the first time, understood its serious nature. Thousands of
bloody flame, not like the fine flame of an orpeople thronged the streets, the inhabitants of dinary fire. We staid till we saw the fire as the houses were flinging their goods either into only one entire arch of fire from this to the the street or into the river, or into the barges for an arch awo re à mile long; it made me
other side of the bridge, and in a line the hill that lay ready at hand. The poor clung to their homes until they were scorched by the weep to see it. The churches, houses and all flames, and multitudes of pigeons, unwilling the flames made, and the crackling of houses at
on fire, and flaming at once, and a horrid noise to leave the houses, circled about them, or
their ruin." fluttered at the windows until they dropped amid the burning mass. All the city was in
While working for the public safety, Pepys a tumult. The plague was a silent enemy; it did not neglect his own stores of gold, and came stealthily, and did its noiseless work, those which were under his charge at the office; exerting a sickening influence on the minds of but conveyed them, with many valuable papers the people; but the fire continued its progress, and much plate, that same night by moonlight sending forth a loud and prolonged roar. The to a deep cellar. The next day, he, with crowds were wild with fear and excitement. several of his friends, busied themselves in digThe calamity was as sudden as it was alarm- ging holes in the garden, where they deposited ing
their wines, with some Parmesan cheeses, and As yet none had proposed any measures of numerous articles of value. But bis chief safety; none had thought of the possibility of employment during the continuance of the fire arresting the flames; all alike seemed paralyzed consisted in endeavoring to check its progress,
and prevent it from extending its ravages to he held one of the most honorable posts in those quarters of the city as yet uninjured. that department. Our readers will have perThrough his efforts, together with those of the ceived that he was a man of eccentric characmen who took a pride in following his honora- ter, and they will also have observed that the ble example, it was at length subdued, and by times in wbich he lived were well calculated to slow degrees died away for lack of food. The allow a man of his energy and ability to dis city, however, presented a wretched appear- tinguish himself above his peers. While we
It looked like an extinguished furnace, owe to Pepys a debt of gratitude for the rare and huge clouds of damp smoke rose up from and curious information he has bequeathed to the blackened masses of buildings. St. Paul's us, for the graphic and well-colored pictures stood a shattered ruin, and numerous other which he has presented us, of the times and the public edifices formed its companions in the men among whom he lived, we cannot help regeneral scene of destruction. Those, how- gretting that weakness which led him to the comever, who, during the continuance of the fire, mission of numerous actions which history canhad been too startled, too alarmed, too irreso- not record otherwise than with blame. But be lute to adopt any precautionary measures, now, has written his own character, his own praises, when the devastation had been accomplished, and also his own condemnation. We see him applied their energies to the task of renovation, as he was. He has given us a faithful reflecand a new city began to rise from the ashes of tion of his mind, and the praise of sincerity is the old.
due to him. Those, therefore, who wish to Compliments and panegyrics crowded upon acquire a just idea of him and his period will Pepys." His society was courted, his conver- do well to consult the volume before us. sation sought, and every mark of admiration be With regard to the form in which this diary stowed on him. But these empty honors, has been laid before the public, we shall only though they flattered his vanity, would not have remark, that for the care, ability, and judgbrought much satisfaction to his mind, had ment with which its highly gifted editor, Lord they not been accompanied by a continued, Braybrooke, has performed his task, our though gradual increase of his worldly wealth. thanks — the thanks of all who read the work At the end of 1666, he finds himself worth are due to him. Nothing could be more £6,200, more than he had hoped for. Him- admirable than the introduction and notes, self and his family were in the perfect enjoyment which have transformed the rough diaries of of health, and he, moreover, luxuriated in the Samuel Pepys into one large and consecutive, pleasure, great as it was to him, of taking bis and clear and comprehensive narrative. Pepys meals off silver plates. Public affairs, how- has been fortunate in his editor, and Lord ever, were in not so prosperous a condition, Braybrooke's valuable services will, without and there were even those who prophesied the doubt, be appreciated in the literary world. immediate and entire ruin of the kingdom
Tait's Edinburgh Magazine. “from which,” says Pepys, “God deliver us!”
Of the following year we cannot pause to make much mention. One curious fact is WOODEN GUNPOWDER. - A correspondent spoken of as far on as March, when Pepys (of Douglas Jerrold's Newspaper) writes : says he saw the smoke issuing from cellars Seeing from a paragraph in your paper that it that had not been uncovered since the fire. is stated the making of gunpowder from sawTowards the middle of the year, the city be- dust, sulphuric and nitric acid, is a modern gan to grow into shape again, streets were American discovery, which it is wonderful was marked out, and the work of renovation was not discovered before, I should be glad if you carried on with some vigor. At the close of would make it known that it is an English disthe year, he lost his mother, whose last words covery, and was discovered a little after were, God bless my poor Sam!” — words cotton was found out, viz., Oct., 1846, by, I which affected him to tears. Another incident believe, Mr. Deck, a chemist at Cambridge. which he mentions as important is a fierce quarrel between himself and Sir W. Pen.
My heart," he says, “is as full of spite as INCRUSTATION STEAM-BOILERS. — M. it could hold; but God forgive both me and Cavé, the eminent French engineer, announces him!”
that he has ascertained that a number of small And here, until the publication of the re oak blocks, thrown into steam boilers, bas the maining volumes, we take leave of Pepys. effect of completely preventing incrustation, We have pursued his career, from his humble and that it is sufficient to renew them about clerkship in the Exchequer to the period when twice a fortnight.—Builder.
SHAKSPEARE'S FOOLS, JESTERS, OR CLOWNS.
BY MARY COWDEN CLARKE.
One of the chief proofs of Shakspeare's at the first perceived inattention and "faint wondrous power over our imagination, is the neglect," on the part of his daughter Goneril, influence which a suddenly remembered pas- he recurs to the thought of his fool, as a relief, sage of his will exercise upon us at any given and a pleasant comfort :moment. However gay the subject of con “But where's my fool? I have not seen him versation may be, however mirthful may be these two days.” the actual train of thought, yet if the recol “Knight. Since my young lady's going lection of Othello's writhing exclamation, “Oh, into France, sir, the fool hath much pined misery !” that bursts with uncontrollable an- away." guish from the depths of his wounded heart, llow beautifully this premises his gentle, suggest itself abruptly to the memory, who is faithful nature, preparing us for what comes there that would not feel at once smitten into after ; how well this fond regret for his young gravity? And the theme of consideration mistress (affecting even his health) is followed must be serious indeed, which would not yield by bis attachment to her old father in bis adto an involuntary smile at an unexpected rem verse fortune; and how the susceptibility of iniscence of Falstaff's, "He that will caper temperament thus indicated heightens the with me for a thousand marks, let him lend me pathos of the sequel, when he clings to his old the money, and have at him!”
master through the wild inclemency of that Shakspeare's sway is equally ahsolute night, abiding the “pelting of the pitiless throughout the realm of emotion-he compels storm” with him, seeking to beguile bis misery, our tears to spring at his bidding, alike from and "laboring to out-jest his heart-struck inthe profoundest sympathy with grief, or from juries ! the mysterious sources of laughter, and a sense The tender interest with which Shakspeare of the ludicrous. He will even combine these bas contrived to inspire us for this character, appeals to our several feelings, forcing our even before he appears, is sustained the mothroat to swell, and our eyes to fill, from ment he enters, by the old king addressing him mingled tenderness and humor; and we find in terms of kindness and fondling familiarity our heart beating and our lip quivering with an that convey an idea of youth and gentleness in undefined agitation, which we scarce know the lad himself, as well as of affectionate soliciwhether to trace to the origin of sobs or smiles. tude on the part of his old master :Such is the complex emotion that affects us in “How now, my pretty knave, bow dost studying the character of the Fool in King Lear. thou?" - the word "knave" signifying boy. * In looking down the list of Dramatis Personæ Indeed, one of the most exquisite things to this play, we cannot but be struck with the about this character, is not only its own beauty world of thought, the epitome of tenderness, of conception, but the use which the poet has pity, attachment, gentleness, fancy, playful- made of it in bringing out the best parts of ness, wit, - of constancy simply evinced, - that of Lear himself. The old king, imperious, of gaiety affectionately assumed, - of truth, resentful, and self-willed, is tolerant and confaith, and native worth, all comprised in the siderate towards this lad, this humble comimage suggested to us by those four unpretend- panion, this permitted jester. He takes ing letters, F-o-o-l. It stands thus, a few pleasure in his society, he gives his utmost slight italics, among the subordinate charac- familiarity license, and treats him as much I ters: Curan, a courtier; Old Mon, tenant to like a petted child as a dependent; and, in the Gloster ; Physician ; Fool. No more formal midst of his own misery and wild sense of announcement is deemed requisite to herald wrong, he has still a kindly thought for his one of the most lovely creations that ever “pretty knave.' emanated from poet's brain. But the manner “Lear.
My wits begin to turn. of his introduction in the play itself is as ex
Come on, my boy : How dost, my boy? Art cold ?
I am cold myself.—Where is this straw, my fellow ? quisite and artistically prepared as that of the The art of our necessities is strange, most important among the characters. His That can make vile things precious. Come, your royal master, Lear, first calls for him when he Poor fool and knave, I have one part in my heart
hovel; bids his attendants prepare dinner, as if he That's sorry yet for thee.” were associated in his mind with refreshment
The German word is knabe; and Chaucer speaks and relaxation; and afterwards, when chafing of a knave-child when Griselda bears a male infant.