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ties as conclusive ; and Dr. Copland, in a very amined under the microscope, any one of these
/ able article in his “ Dictionary of Medicine,” poisons, — although it must be confessed that is an advocate of this view. Whilst we ad- the laws which regulate the attack and spread mit that the evidence which he brings forward of diseases like cholera and fever, are very of the contagiousness of cholera under certain much in favor of the existence of such agents. circumstances is very strong, we do not think If we admit that cholera is due to the generait sufficient to justify the conclusion that it tion of such a poison, we must still further spreads by contagion alone. This is the view admit that circumstances which had no existaken by Dr. W. Reid in his letter addressed tence prior to the year 1817 — the time when to Lord Morpeth upon the question, Is chol- cholera first appeared in India — have been era contagious or not? He believes that oc- developed. What these are can be only matcasionally, under peculiar circumstances, - ter for conjecture. just as ophthalmia and erysipelas, which are Then there are those who—feeling that connot ordinarily contagious diseases, become so tagion, fungi, animalcules, and miasms
- cholera, though not commonly contagious, insufficient to account for the origin of cholera may also assume such a character.
-call in the aid of electricity as partly or enIf, then, the great mass of the cases which tirely the cause; and amongst these is Dr. have occurred in the world are not pro- Leared. Nothing is more common than for duced by contagion or infection, to what other those who know a little of electrical phenoinena, sufficient cause can the prevalence of this dis -and thus become aware of the extent to ease be ascribed ? This question has been which the property which is called electricity answered by many writers with more or less is developed in matter, — to confound its ability. Dr. Cowdell, whose work stands at effects with its causes, or attribute to it an the head of our list, says that the sporules of agency which correct apprehensions of its fungi are capable of producing such a disease. nature would speedily show to be impossible. He has compiled with great industry all the We maintain that no evidence has yet been facts that have been lately published on the brought forward of an unexceptionable characpresence of fungi during disease, - and has ter that could in any manner lead us to infer written a book which may be read with inter- that any unusual manifestation or irregular est, though the conclusions of the author be activity of its phenomena has had anything to not adopted. The great drawback on the prac- do with the production of cholera. We say tical value of his book is, that the argument is this, perfectly aware of all the stories afloat entirely à priori. He has proved in a satis- about the electrical conditions of the atmosfactory manner, by facts drawn from analogy, phere at St. Petersburgh, the derangements that it is not impossible that some of the low- of electric telegraphs, and even the giving off er forms of vegetable growths may contribute of electrical sparks from persons dying of cholto the spread and attack of this disease, - but The fact is, all these phenomena have he has brought forward not one particle of evidently been coincidences, and not at all conpositive proof. Dr. Cowdell would, we think, nected with cholera in the relation of cause and have done better to have waited till be had an effect. opportunity of examining the blood of cholera We must confess that this picture of our patients; for most assuredly, if the fungi are present knowledge of the exciting cause of there they would be revealed by the micro- cholera is not a very cheering one. But there scope as effectually as they are in yeast, scald- are visibly what the doctors call predisposing head, pyrosis, &c. The same objection may causes-circumstances that operate so as to be urged against the animalcula theory of the give those who are exposed to them a much origin of the disease :- a theory, by-the-bye, greater liability to cholera than others. Every which has not so much analogical evidence in day increases the evidence that it is persons its favor as that of the fungous theory. subjected to a damp atmosphere, loaded with
Amongst the non-contagionist writers on animal and vegetable exhalations, that are most cholera, the most favored theory of its origin liable to this disease ; and that next to this is evidently that which ascribes it to a mi come drunkenness, excessive fatigue asm or poison generated on the earth, and (mental or bodily), and terror or fear. Alwhich, passing into the air, is conveyed into though on our acting upon a knowledge of the human system, — where it produces the these facts depends our immunity, we will not disease.
This miasm or poison, however, dwell on these points, -as they are pretty well - like the dreaded malaria, which produ- understood by the public. ces intermittent and remittent fevers - is, If there is difference of opinion on the causes like the fungi and animalcules, an assumed of cholera, there are still greater differences cause. No one has yet caught, bottled, or ex as to the condition of the system in this disease
-its pathology. One author—the name of on the observation of the effects of well-known
candles. One bit of sun was exhibited to the In the midst of this conflict of opinions, it is meeting; and in its light even the famous lime some consolation to find that there is something ball of Drummond grew dim. The difficulty like a standard practice recognized by the great bas been, to compensate for the carbon conmass of the medical profession. In the pam- sumed, so as to keep the points of the carbon phlets by Mr. Allen and Dr. Castle we have always in contact. Mr. Staite seems to have the practical good sense of the general practi- overcome this difficulty. At present, the light tioners of this country expressed. They offer is not quite perfect, – as it is not easy to obno explanation of causes or symptoms; and tain the carbon quite pure. It is, however, recommend a treatment founded on the uni so nearly so, that there seems little doubt of versal experience of mankind, one that rests final success. - Atheneum.
DIARY OF SAMUEL PEPYS.*
No study is more interesting or important fortune 'into the very centre of political movethan the study of man. It may be pursued ment, no man could have been better fitted through a variety of means. We may ob- than Samuel Pepys to present us with a faithserve his manners, tastes and habits; we may ful picture of the Court, of public opinion, listen to his conversation, and mark the influ- and of the state of society as it existed in ence he endeavors to exercise over the minds his age. Our diarist, while delineating other of other men. All these may serve as indica- men, paints also himself, and hy mingling the tions of character, but the means by which we description of his conduct as a public servant may most surely arrive at the truth, is the pe- with that of his domestic eccentricities, conrusal of the thoughts of the secret pages of vinces us of his sincerity. We know he is the mind. Every other medium may prove writing the truth, for he never flatters bimfalse ; this alone is unerring.
self nor others, but exhibits, with his abilities, It is seldom, however, that an individual his success, and his virtues, his faults and will allow us to read his soul, or trace his ac- failings, his follies and his foibles, with the tions to their motive. We must, in general, same degree of frankness. Certainly the be content with watching the changing and de- diary was never intended by him for publicaceptive surface of events, while the steady un- tion of this we have undoubted testimony. dercurrent flows on, concealed from the curious Indeed, were such not the fact, its value would gaze. When, therefore, it is possible to un be immensely diminished in our eyes; and lock the secret depositories of thought, and instead of ranking, as it now does, among the reveal the hidden springs of action, the privi- most curious and interesting works which the lege must be considered as eminently valuable, present century has produced, it would dwinand the more so when we are permitted to in- dle down in our esteem to a mere lively ficvestigate the motives of such men as Samuel | tion. Pepys, who enjoyed high offices, and fulfilled Samuel Pepys was born on the 23d of Febtheir duties with distinguished ability, if not ruary, 1632, whether at Brampton, a small with the most scrupulous conscience, and who country town, or in London, is a disputed exerted considerable influence over the affairs point. The first germs of that varied knowlof the period. His diary is valuable as de- edge which afterwards contributed to carry picting to us many of the most important him so successfully through the world, were characters of the times. Its author has be- planted in his mind at Huntingdon. Thence queathed us the records of bis heart, the
very he was removed to St. Paul's school, and reflection of his energetic mind; and his quaint thence to Trinity College, Cambridge. The but bappy narrative clears up numerous dis- early years of his life are enveloped in obscurputed points, throws light into many of the ity. A large portion of them seem to have dark corners of history, and lays bare the hid been passed under the roof of a noble relative, den substratum of events which gave birth to, Sir Edward Montague, though what situation and supported, the visible progress of the na- he filled in this family is not determined. tion. We are introduced to the public charac Indeed, until the commencement of the presters of his time, divested of those deceptive ent diary we can find no authentic account of trappings which led their contemporaries and his life. He began to write it shortly after he biographers to view them, not as they were, was appointed as clerk in some office of the but as they wished the world to think them. Exchequer, connected with the pay of the For this, and many other reasons, is the diary army, and we propose accompanying him
among the numerous claims it through some portions at least of his experipossesses to the attention of the public, is the ence, and touching on a few of the curious graphic yet simple language in which the able passages of his life. but simple-minded Clerk of the Acts relates Penys introduces himself to us on the 1st his extraordinary experience.
of January, 1659, in a garret in Ale Yard, Born during one of the most eventful pe- with his wife and servant, living in frugal riods of our bistory, educated in the spirit of style ; yet, in spite of his humble position, the times, and thrown by the accidents of not without influence in high quarters. For
a considerable time we find bim engaged in *“ Diary and Correspondence of Samuel Pepys, public business, an account of which he sets Corrected' and Enlarged, with additional Notes | down with scrupulous accuracy, occasionally Illustrative and Explanatory. Edited by Richard Lord Braybrooke.”
pausing to describe the good dinners he en
joyed, and the little inconveniences he suf- | him on, trusting that from his elevation he fered, in bis daily walks to and from the office. might lend a helping hand to them. By This portion of the diary, in addition to its whatever means, however, the conclusion was intrinsic value as a record of affairs during brought about, certain it is that, on the 22d of the period of the Restoration, is curious in the March, 1660, we find Pepys, after passing extreine, when regarded as a picture of the through much trouble, and smoothing down, times—a representation of manners and habits by his ability and industry, countless obstawhich would clash strangely with modern no- cles, receiving his warrant as secretary to the tions of civilization. Pepys describes how he two generals of the fileet. “Strange," he came home with his wife one evening through says, alluding to the venality of those around the Park, when a poor woman offered to race him, “ how people do now promise me any. her for a pot of ale, and, moreover, won the thing—one a rapier, the other a vessel of wine, wager. Numerous instances of this sort oc or a gun, and one offered me a silver hatcur; and in every page we discover testimony band to do him a service. I pray God to keep of the immense alteration which has since me from being proud, or too much lifted up taken place in the topography as well as the hereby.' state of society in the metropolis. We find Embarking on board Sir E. Montague's mention of a little water-brook which trav- ship, Samuel Pepys accompanied the expediersed the Strand, and found its outlet in the tion sent to bring Charles II. to England. Thames; and of numerous other facts which During the many negotiations which attended attest the change that has since come over the this movement, our diarist was continually suraspect of London. But, perhaps, the most rounded by those who trusted to profit by his engrossing feature in this portion of the diary, friendship. Each sought to win his regard. is the extraordinary excitement which appears | One sent him a piece of gold, another a vesto have prevailed throughout society with re sel of wine, another some costly ornaments, gard to the movements of General Monk. another assailed bis cars with adulation, For a long time his intentions were hidden in another courted his friendship by promises, uncertainty ; but when it at length became while others endeavored to secure it by unpublicly known that he had declared for the blushing bribery. No where, however, do we King, London appears to have been frenzied find Pepys occupying himself with his own with joy.
From one end to the other the affairs to the prejudice of his duties as a pubcity was red with the blaze of bonfires, and lic servant. "Ile pursues bis functions with the incessant chime of bells attested the gen- unwearying vigor, writing and reading meeral feeling. The King's health, bitherto in- morials, receiving deputations, holding counsel terdicted, was drank in the public streets; with the naval authorities, and despatching an and when a rumor went abroad that some one infinite variety of business. His advice apwould rise up in the House of Commons and pears to have been sought, and often acted protest against the restoration of Charles upon, by the most distinguished individuals. Stuart, a damp fell upon men's minds, which He was employed to draw up a very imporwas only dissipated by the assurance that no tant vote relative to the decision of a council such protest would be permitted. All the of war, and expressing that which was most incidents connected with these important move favorable to the nonarchy. Pepys thus de ments are related with faithful minuteness. scribes its reception :We trace events from their very roots, and see how they branch and give birth to others
; pride, with pendants loose, guns roaring, caps
He that can fancy a fleet like ours, in her which ramify through the whole complicated lying, and the loud " Vive le rois!" echoed scheme of public affairs. Taking himself as from one ship's company to another
, be, and the centre of the narrative, Pepys describes a he only, can apprehend the joy this vote was wide circle, and makes us intimately ac- received with, or the blessing he thought himquainted with all who came within its range; self possessed of that bore it.” The diary is a history both of persons and opinions.
On the 14th of May the expedition arrived at Following the humble clerk in his progress, its destination, and on the 23d the King emwe find him writing with a steady hand for barked amid, as Pepys expresses, an infinite his own advancement, making friends in and confused shooting of guns. His Majesty every quarter, and conciliating those whom entertained the officers during the homeward he fancied to be hostilely inclined. It was at passage with the account of his adventures, once perceived by his friends that he would perils, and escapes, and, finally, on the 29th rise to power and influence, and those who of May, entered Whitehall in triumph. We find could not hope to step before him, pushed this passage of English history thus described in
a quaint but curious and rare book very nearly samphire from a friend. Appointed one of the out of print :
justices of peace for Middlesex, Kent, Essex,
and Southampton, he confesses, with ingenuous “ And it came to pass on the 29th day of frankness, that though mightily pleased with the fifth month, which is called May, that this honor, he is wholly ignorant of the attenthe King was conducted in great state to his dant duties. † palace at Whitehall, and all the people shouted,
Pepys was, of course, attached to royalty, saying, “ Long live the King !
and accordingly we find him writing and again in London, where we find him alternate speaking of King Charles with the utmost reagain in London, where we find him alternate-spect, paying deference to his slightest wish, ly devoting bis time and attention to business rejoicing at the punishment of his enemies, and pleasure, new suits, and choice dinners and exerting himself vigorously in his service; Flattery and bribes attend him incessantly: but, when describing a visit to Sir W. BatNow he finds, on returning home from his of ten's house, he lets out the fact that in his fice, that a packet of chocolate (a rarity then) earlier years he was a furious enemy of king has been left for him, now five pounds are slip and crown. Speaking of his meeting with an old ped into his hand, now a silver case is pre-schoolfellow, sented to bis wife, and now a case of costly him, he says : “ I was much afraid he would
a deadly drinker,” as he terms liquors comes unordered to his door.. About remember the words I said on the day when this time it was thought fit in influential quar- the King was beheaded — that, were I to ters that Peyps should be rewarded for his services during the expedition to Holland, and preach upon him, my text should be, The
of the wicked shall rot.' However, a place was sought for him. The situation of the Clerk of the Acts suficiently proves,
that Clerk of the Acts was an important one, and if he once entertained ideas inimical to royalty, numerous were those who aspired to its dignity he abandoned them as he grew older, and and emolument. It was hinted that Pepys
we find him as staunch and loyal a subject as was to fill it, and the rumor caused great ex
even a king could wish. Yet, though courtly citement among those who aspired to the post in his predilections, he is as homely and doOne individual offered him £500 to desist mestic as the most humble tradesman. Some from it. “I pray God direct me what to do strange points of his character show themselves berein,” says our diarist. But he appears in the following extract : soon to have made up his mind; for on the 20th of June he received the warrant, and his “My father and I discoursed scriously about altered position now begins to show itself in a my sister's coming to live with me; and yet I more profuse style of living, in more costly am much afraid of her ill nature. I told her clothes, and greater indulgence of his tastes, plainly, my mind was to have her come not as at all times eccentric and extravagart. Yet a sister Init as a servant; which she promised Pepys, though holding a very important civil me that she would, and with many thanks did post, receiving a handsome salary, and ming weep for joy.
Found ling in noble society, loved to busy himself with my wife making of pies and tarts to try the the most homely domestic arrangements, and oven with, but not knowing the nature of it, found amusement in the most trifling incidents. did heat it too hot, and so a little overbake our In one page be describes how he caused things; but knows how to do better another his servant girl to wash the wainscot of his par time. lor, and how this afforded him great sport; * 15th (Nov.) — To Sir W. Battens to and in the next relates the entertainment he dinner, he having a couple of servants married derived from sceing a gentlenían fall into a to-day, and as there was a number of merchants kennel in the Poultry.
and others of good quality, on purpose after The Duke of Gloucester died early in Sep dinner to make an offering, which, after dintember, 1660, and caused a great gap at ner we did, and I did give ten shillings, and Court. His funeral was celebrated with some no more, though I believe most of them did pomp, though Pepys, while making much ac- give more, and did believe that I did so too. count of the mourning he purchased for him “ 21st. At night to my violin (the first self and his wife, describes little of the cere time I have played on it in this house) in my mony; preferring to ramble on to an account dining-room, and afterwards to my lute there, of his drinking wine at the Hope Tavern, and I took much pleasure to have the neighcating 200 walnuts, and receiving a barrel of bors come forth into the yard to bear me.”'
* “ The Chronicles of the Kings of England, by Nathan Ben D. Saddi, a Servant of God, of the House of Israel."
+ How strangely the following sentence sounds in these days :- I did send for a cup of tee (a China drink) of which I never drank before."