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a natural transition to a debtor's prison ; in fied to find in it so large a proportion of the which M. Paturot—who we perceive is, under working classes. These make the great bulk of the influence of adversity, becoming a sadder the inhabitants of the prison—these and the small and a wiser man,—makes the following reflec- tradesmen and minor industrial classes of Paris. tions.

We are too much accustomed to regard Clichy

as the purgatory of spendthrifts and prodigal “ The prison of Clichy is not in itself mourn

sons ;—these form in reality the smallest part of ful or terrifying in its aspect-and its situation, its population. commanding a view of Paris and overlooking the gardens of the neighborhood, is far from dis- tions of his Malvina—who, notwithstanding

Our friend Jérome is released by the exeragreeable; but there is something oppressive in the very thought of a prison ; and the

her little wanderings in " Vanity Fair,” has

appearance of the locks, the bolts, the turnkeys, imme

remained sound at heart. Her diamonds diately recalls a captive to the dismal reality of and cachemires and all the appurtenances of his position. In the life of a malefactor the pris- the pomp and state of the great house of Paon occupies a regular place; he enters it as a turot in its days of glory, are swept off to the matter of course, and quits it with little satisfac- Mont de Piété—a philanthropic institution tion. He had attacked society knowingly, and

in distress may obtain money at society has avenged itself and shut hiin like

Jé a dangerous animal. That is all fair. But in the interest of 60 per cent. per annum. prisonment for debt is the true torture. Wheth- rome finally obtains a small place under er poverty or imprudence have brought a man Government, and retires to the enjoyment of to it, it has almost always fallen on him quite domestic happiness in a cottage in the country. unexpectedly; and most prisoners of this class Oscar continues to execute portraits of His have wives and children dependent on them for Majesty; and Rumor says that the Princess support, to whom their imprisonment is almost a sentence of death. It is a legacy of barbarous of the Neva,—and that a magnificent noble

Flibustoffskoi is keeping a café on the banks times. With a few exceptions, it reduces itself to this—to demand money from a man, and at

man who accompanied her, the Field-Marshal the same time to place him in a situation in Tapanowitch, rinses the glasses of the estabwhich it is impossible for him to get it.

lishment.-Athenæum. On first entering my new domicile, I was terri

where persons

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1. I Lutti di Lombardia. Di MASSIMO | their unheeded voices against that ancient D'AZEGLIO. Firenze : 1848.

abuse of force, which alone seemed dictating 2. Austrian Assassinations in Lombardy. the new arrangements. Napoleon could By Massimo D'Azeglio. Edited by For- scarcely have done worse.

In vain was it TUNATO PRANDI.

Translated from the urged that every principle of justice and Italian. London: 1848.

policy required the restoration of an inde3. Il ventidue Maszo, primo Giorno dell'In- pendent Polish nation — that language, race,

dipendenza Lombarda (a daily newspaper). religion, character, rendered it impossible for Fol. Milano: 1848.

the Belgians ever to amalgamate with the 4. Lombardy, the Pope, and Austria. By Dutch, or the Italians with the Austrians

George BoWYER, Esq., D.C.L., &c. Lon- that Spain and Sicily had merited, at our don : 1848.

hands particularly, to be preserved from the

selfish cruelty of the Bourbons — that the When the ministers of the allied powers, elder branch of that family, with its tradirelieved from the fear of Napoleon — thanks tions, its bigotry, and its sure reactions, chiefly to English blood and English money would never be permanently accepted by the

were at last allowed, in 1814 and 1815, to French, on whom it was forced by conquersit down with a light heart, if not with a All this was urged in vain. The tranquil conscience, to allot the square miles pacificators of the world relied on their bayoof territory, with its thousands of inhabitants, nets, on their police, and on the support of which their masters had become possessed which they expected from each other in virtue as deliverers, and of which they were going of the Holy Alliance. Germany required a to dispose as owners, a few statesmen raised | little management; and the fathers of their



people in that country adopted the advice of Old Were they less taxed? Were armies less Guido de Montefeltro to Boniface VIII., numerous, or the police less active? Was “Lunga promessa con l' attender corto

the press more free, and men of letters and Trionfar fara nell' alto seggio;”

liberal opinions more encouraged, or

more safe from persecution, than before ? and they acted accordingly. Constitutions were judges made independent? Was eduand free governments were lavishly promised ; cation, in any proper sense of the word, forbut when the fulfilment of these promises warded, and the necessary steps taken to was claimed, the sovereigns met their subjects secure to future generations the blessings of with an altered countenance. At one time civil and religious liberty? popular claims were parried with the dexterity These are questions to which the present of low attorneys and the coolness of swindlers"; state of Europe is an all-sufficient answer. at another, put down with the fierceness of In too many places the benefits of peace

have banditti. An assembly of despots at Frank- not got beyond the mere absence of dangers fort reduced the weak sovereigns of Germany from without, by fire, and sword, and hostile to the condition of vassals ; and the detestable armies. Yet surely the name of peace would tribunals of Mayence proved themselves the not be so blessed were its natural fruits negaworthy successors of the imperial torturers of tions only. And, when nations were said to Ratisbon.

be emancipated, something more than a feelAs often as those, who had foreseen and ing of national independence should have foretold the consequences of this conduct, marked the difference in their conditions have reminded its advocates of their blind- under the two systems, — honorably distinness, the latter have deemed it a sufficient guishing their condition, such as it had become answer to say that Europe has enjoyed four- under their new or native princes, from what and-thirty years of peace. “ Peace has lasted it had been under the French. Unhappily, thirty-three or thirty-four years." We may in some cases, there was not even the pride of be allowed to ask, what are the signs and national independence to fall back on. Those fruits of peace? Has it been peace in who originated these evils by their political France, where, since 1814, the country has arrangements, have not the virtue to confess witnessed only a succession of revolutions - their error: “it is, forsooth, the whole of the flight of Louis XVIII., his second res civilized Europe which is to blame, not they : toration by foreign powers, the dethronement Europe ought to have been loyal, peaceful, of his successor, the expulsion of his line, the happy, and satisfied ; if she is not, it is her transfer of the crown to an elected dynasty, own fault.” That there have been great the fall of that dynasty, and the proclamation faults somewhere, either mismanagement or of a republic ? Has it been peace in Spain, misconduct, is now self-evident. And, in where, in spite of the ferocious proceedings of this alternative, we always prefer, with Burke, Ferdinand VII., a wild democratic constitu- to presume in favor of the people against their tion had to be overthrown by that very governments; the one is changed so much French nation, which, when most unable to more easily than the other. In the present maintain its own freedom, allowed itself to be instance, it is true that even those who had made the oppressor of that of others — and some knowledge of the feelings of discontent where, after all, the order of succession to the prevailing on the Continent, have been surthrone has been changed, and a constitutional prised at its extent and intensity. They monarchy, or at least what is meant to be were not prepared for hearing, not only that such, established ? Has it been peace in the France and Prussia, with most of the minor Netherlands, where Holland and Belgium German States, and Italy, were in a state of have been separated ? — in Poland, where the revolution, but that Vienna itself had deterlast vestiges of its nationality have been mined on Austria being no longer the model drowned in the blood of her children?— in of oppressive and tyrannical governments.

It Italy, where their attempted revolutions have was not surely for want of precautions that outnumbered their years of peace, and where Metternich and Sedlenytski were obliged to for every boasted month of peace there has fly from the capital of the country which they been more, far more, than one illustrious had governed without control for so many victim?

years. They had never modified, or held out In the mean time what was done or doing the slightest hope that they would ever from one end of the Continent to the other, modify, their system under any circumstances. towards the improvement of the condition of We see the consequence; and trust that govthe people? Were they won over to loyalty crnments to the end of time may profit by the by the blessings of paternal governments ? | example. The weight of public indignation



descended on that system, and it was anni- just demands when insisted on by arms.". bilated without a struggle.

(Ib.) It is to the bad faith of the late, as The effect of such portentous news

much as to the honesty of the present Pope, Italy would always have been great. Upon that Italy owes the first prospect of regenerathis occasion it was prodigious, — owing to tion, on which she can rely. the spirit of nationality lately awakened by The Austrian invasion of the Papal States the Pope, as well as to the state of irritation in 1831 was all but causing at the time a genwhich the conduct of the Austrians in Lom- eral war; indeed, it was prevented only by bardy had excited over the whole Peninsula. the great powers — Austria, France, Great The Italians had two great sources of dissatis- Britain, Prussia, and Russia changing into faction : either of which has been ere this, as an European intervention the intervention it ought to be, a cause in itself of mighty which Austria had undertaken by herself and political revolutions : foreign usurpation, and for her own objects. The five powers, after bad government. It is true that only a small the usual amount of protocols and conferences, part of Italy was under the direct sway of addressed, in May, 1831, a note to the PonAustria : but it was by Austrian power that tifical government; which, “although indefithe other Italian governments were directed nite, as might be expected, and imperfect in and upheld

and were known and felt to be its terms, nevertheless, on some points was "In 1816 the king of Naples was pro- sufficiently clear. It demanded the creation hibited, by engagement, from conceding a of a central board, charged with the revision constitution to his subjects. Austria has ex of all the branches of administration, to act as tracted a treaty to the same effect from the a council of state and consist of the most disking of Sardinia, and from every prince in tinguished citizens. Also that a provincial and Italy. .

The sure instinct of des communal council should be established upon potism instructs the Austrians that were the principle of popular representation ; that there a square mile south of the Alps inde- a new civil and criminal legislation should be pendent and constitutionalized, Lombardy is introduced, more simple and in some conformgone. The Neapolitans having nevertheless ity with the knowledge of the age. Lastly, the set up a constitution in 1820, Austria im- secularization of employments ; in other words, mediately suppressed it by force of arms. that laymen should not be altogether excluded Again Austria interfered in 1821, in Pied by law from all affairs of the least importance." mont. In 1831, and again in 1832, with the —(Ib.) His Holiness promised to follow same object and the same result, she bore this good advice; but, emboldened by the down

upon the Papal States : Italy is thus in connivance and countenance of Austria, he so effect nothing better than a Cisalpine Austria. completely forgot his promises, that he would Its ordinary policy is Austrian. ..... The appear to have absolved himself from the pernative governments are every where enslaved formance of every one of them. We have no and trammeled by Austrian agents. . . . It space to enter into particulars : but shall conis Austria that makes out the catalogue of pro- tent ourselves with assuring our readers that scriptions, when what she calls order is re the government of Gregory XVI. became stored. It is Austria which assumes the office worse than that of any of his predecessors, of jailor to the other states, and claims the and that nothing but the fear of Austrian custody of their victims in her dungeons." — bayonets and French acquiescence kept the (Ed. Rev. lv.) So much for foreign domi- subjects of the Pope from attempting to denation. As to bad governments, -the bad- throne a sovereign priest, in whom they saw ness of those of Italy was so notorious, that no signs of either honesty or religion. we have no occasion, we believe, to adduce a To Pius IX., his successor, the praise canword of proof. In some parts of Italy the gov- not be denied of being an upright and just ernments were worse than in others : but they man, as well as a pious and sincere Christian. were all bad ; and, as we observed on a for- He had witnessed and, as far as he could, had mer occasion, on the whole it may be truly alleviated, before his elevation to the throne, stated that there is no corner of Italy which is the oppression which crushed the Papal states; not qualified for a much better government and he was aware that a deep abhorrence of than it enjoys.”—(Ib.) The Papal govern- the head of the church, not only in its temment had, in those times, “raised itself to the poral but in its spiritual capacity, was assumbad eminence of being decidedly the worst ing a more determined cha cter every day. and weakest of all the other governments in He could not conceal from himself that the Italy, the least disposed to satisfy the reason cause of all this was principally the political able requests of its subjects when preferred faithlessness which we have just described ; as humble suitors, the least able to resist their and he at once resolved to act honestly, as

others ought to have done before him. Ac- time after some hundred years, there was in cordingly, with great prudence, with great Italy, not only a nation oppressed on the one caution, and with great singleness of pur- side and her foreign oppressors on the other, pose, he endeavored to carry out the sug- but there were princes on the side of the nagestions made to his predecessors by the tion. It was a gigantic stride towards the defive powers, in May, 1831, and to clear liverance of Italy, and the country is indebted the tiara, if he could not clear his prede- to Pius IX. for it. He it was who broke up cessor, from the charge, but too well prov- the petty holy alliance of Italian signors. en, of having wilfully broken faith with the No part of the Italian people was more people. The present Pope did neither more keenly alive to the difference between a nanor less. He neither deserves blame as a tional and improving government and a foreign rash innovator, a radical reformer, a firebrand, despotic oppression, than the Lombards and and so forth, nor the extravagant praises which the inhabitants of the other provinces immehave been lavished on him as having been of diately subject to Austria. Whilst they themhimself the regenerator and liberator of Italy: selves were left under the harrow, under the he is a plain honest man, who most proba- galling and insulting rule of the steady and bly did not see the consequences of his hon- unswerving Viennese bureaucracy, they had esty, or, if he did, said to himself “fiat jus- now only to look over their border — and they titia ruat cælum."

would see the subjects of the Pope, of the There are Italians in this country who had King of Sardinia, and of the Grand Duke of an opportunity of expressing, in 1831, a de- Tuscany, governed by Italians and rapidly adliberate opinion on the consequences likely to vancing their political condition. It does not flow from the execution of the reforms recom- follow because the Papal States had been worse mended in the note of May. Their opinion governed before than Lombardy and Venice, was, that by joining in the recommendation that Lombardy and Venice were governed Austria either was blind, or meant to pursue well. They who felt where the shoe pinched and urge a very different line of policy from were of a totally different opinion; and we what she had hitherto pursued and urged, hope our readers will agree with us in thinksince it was very easy to foresee, that such ing that four or five millions of dissatisfied improvements at Rome could not fail to pro- people are more likely to be correct in the duce a most salutary effect on the rest of appreciation of a government which they have Italy. Austria, on her. part, lost little time detested for years and against which they have in removing whatever doubt Italian politicians repeatedly risen, than our travelling gentry; might be feeling on the course of her future who, without knowing much of the language, policy. She aided and abetted the late Pope very little of the manners and feelings, and in breaking his word : and by so doing she nothing at all of the parochial, municipal, and proclaimed to Italy and the world, that she customary laws of a country, offer themselves, would neither improve her own administration, nevertheless, as witnesses on the merits of its nor allow other Italian powers to improve institutions and its administrative system. theirs. What was foreseen in 1831, took There is no nation more disposed than ourplace as a matter of course in 1847. The selves to treat with contempt the opinions that sovereigns of two of the best administered foreigners venture to express on our governItalian states, Piedmont and Tuscany, deter- ment and social policy : while there is none mined on following the steps of Pius IX. more disposed to pass judgment on those of They wisely resolved that there should be no foreign states. A foreigner paying us a flying room for invidious comparison, when the con- visit and judging only from appearances, might dition of their subjects and that of their neigh- have been inclined to think that Great Britain bors should come to be considered side by was wantonly and wilfully risking her happiside. Austria put herself, as of old, at the ness and liberties by the Reform Bill; or puthead of the stationary faction which would hear ting her landed as well as her commercial inof no change ; and which was as ready now, terests in needless jeopardy, when she reas in former times, to stir up all passions, lay pealed her corn laws, threw open her ports, hold of all instruments, and go all lengths, at and with all the zeal of a recent convert whatever risk to their own honor or the public denounced restrictions upon trade. Where good. The imbecile and cruel Bourbon who abroad could we hope to find a person compestill sits on the throne of Naples — the Duke tent to sit in judgment upon the actual state of Modena, Francis V., the worthy son of of Ireland—on the degree to which the presFrancis IV., — and the libertine cracked- ent generation is responsible for it--on the brained Duke of Parma, took the Austrian nature of the evil and the nature of the cure ? side. From that moment, and for the first M. von Raumur did not find a few days in

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Dublin sufficient for the purpose. The opin- ficulties, against printing or importing printed ions that we hear daily repeated by our own foreign books'; it persecuted and entrapped tourists, touching the excellence of the Aus- our most distinguished men, and raised to hontrian government in Italy, carry the same or slavish understandings; it systematized the weight as the opinions of a foreigner speaking sale of conscience, and organized an army of of England, her government, and her domes- spies; it encouraged secret informations, and tic politics.

made suspicion the rule of its proceedings; it To make the grievances of the Lombards gave the police full power over liberty, life, known, we cannot do better than translate a and property; and threw the patriot into the part of their recent manifesto to the European same prison with the forger and the assassin.” nations after the expulsion of the Austrians A nation which can prefer such a bill of infrom Milan.

dictment against a government has, surely, The Austrian government levied immod- abundant reason to get rid of it; and there erate taxes on our property, on our persons, can be no doubt, but that the millions of inand on necessary articles; it extorted from us habitants who bear witness to the truth of these the means by which alone it was saved from charges, and are putting every thing in peril that bankruptcy, to the brink of which it was in support of them, are worthy of belief, spite brought by its bad and dishonestly administer of a few witnesses to character. Among Enged financial system; it forced on us shoals of lishmen, those most capable of forming an foreigners, avowed functionaries, and secret opinion, are not backward in coming forward spies, eating our bread, and administering our in justification of the Lombards. We find the affairs, judging our rights without knowing following testimony in a pamphlet which has either our language or our customs; it im- just reached us, the last among

those enumerposed on us foreign laws, inextricable fromated at the head of our article. The writer is their multiplicity, and an intricate endless Mr. Bowyer, a gentleman who has lived twenty system of proceeding in criminal cases, in years in Italy, and who, by education, by birth, which there was nothing either true or solemn, and by social position, is eminently entitled to except the prison and the pillory, the execu a hearing :- It is, indeed, the fashion," he tioner and the gallows; it spread round us observes, “ with some people, to say, that ensnaring nets of civil and ecclesiastical, mili- Lombardy was well governed by Austria. tary and judicial regulations, all converging to What would those persons say to being govVienna, which alone engrossed the monopoly erned in the same way, by the brutal force of of thought, of will, and of judgment; it for foreign military despotism ? Austria might, inbade the development of our commerce and deed, without difficulty, have governed Lomour industry, to favor the interest of other bardy well. The Lombards are a remarkably provinces and of government manufactures- peaceable, well-conducted people, and of an the speculations of Viennese oligarchs; it sub- easy disposition. But they were ruled at the mitted our municipal institutions, the boast of point of the bayonet. Civil rights they had our country and the proof of national good none; and every man held bis personal liberty sense, to a petty, harrassing control, conceived and his property at the discretion of an infor fiscal purposes, and tending only to fetter quisitorial political police, and subservient or us; it enslaved religion, and used her as the corrupt magistrates. Even the amusements instrument of its ignoble fears; it deprived and daily habits of the Italians were subject even public benevolence of its free course, to a strict and pedantic discipline. But it is making it subject to administrative interfer- not necessary to dwell on specific grievances. ence, and turning it into an engine of govern- Are the Italian feelings of nationality entitled ment. It was after endless difficulties, and to no respect ? True, the Italians have never, only after having recourse to the lowest pre- in modern times, been united into one state. cautions, that private individuals were permit- But what then? Is community of language ted to help the public wants, and preserve and literature nothing? Is community of trafrom contagion and corruption the poor, aban- ditions and history nothing? And is comdoned to themselves in the streets, in their munity of race no bond of union? The Italians hovels, or in prison. It seized the property of feel as one nation ; and there are few Fnglishminors, by forcing guardians to invest it in men who do not sympathize with them, and public securities, which were to be dealt with cordially desire their deliverance by their own arbitrarily and mysteriously by secret agents valor from their foreign masters. of the government; it subjected the liberal | 22.) arts to the most vexatious restraints; it perse

The first public symptoms of the unanimous cuted native knowledge; it raised the most feelings of the Lombards, subsequent to the ridiculous objections, and the most odious dif- declared division of the rulers of Italy into

(pp. 21,

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