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Schiller, especially the invaluable ones address a congenial soul, for a friend, whose sympathy ed to Goethe, were made public; but still his and warmth of feelings might assist to deadmirers were sensible of considerable voids in velope his great ideas; with whom he might their knowledge of his life; and this was the strive for a common object. Körner presented more painful, because it was precisely for that himself, and immediately he believed that he period, during which his great spirit entered had found that for which he longed - the upon a noble course of development, and rose ideal which he has described in several of his to the creation of its higher works, that the works with such bright, such glowing colors. smallest number of documents was in existence. Before we speak further of this friendship, We allude to the period in which Schiller quit- let us consider the situation in which the letter ted Manheim, went to Leipzig and Dresden, alluded to found Schiller.
It was a very and then lived, for a time, in private, at Wei- unhappy one. Having by a bold flight escaped
If we turn to the works which have just from oppression in Stuttgart, he fell at Manbeen named, we find ourselves painfully disap- heim into a position respecting which we are pointed in the hope of obtaining any informa- somewhat enlightened by a letter to Goethe, tion respecting such an important epoch in the in wbich he speaks of " theatrical life and life of the poet.
lore-affairs” in Wilhelm Meister, as someBut a pure and abundant source has, now thing“ with which he was better acquainted that we had ceased to hope, unexpectedly burst than he had reason to wish to be." His better forth; the correspondence, namely, with Kör- nature fell into danger; he experienced how ner, who, it was well known, had been the perilous is the leap from oppression into unpoet's intimate friend, and who by very sparing limited freedom. “One half of my early life," communications had long ago given some inti - he writes to Körner, when he wished to show mation of the treasure which was in his posses- himself to his friend as he really was,
“ one sion. We are not told why it is at so late a half of my early life was destroyed by a foolish period, (more than forty years have elapsed education, the other and better balf by mysince Schiller's death, and Körner died in self.” In another letter, he says: Carl 1831,) that we receive this collection ; we are Moor at the Danube speaks for me, where it not even told who is the editor. The first is evident what he means, and to what scene page of the book leads us immediately into the in the Robbers he is referring. He was filled correspondence, which commences with the with shame and remorse; his better nature, year 1781; and this first part, which is to be encouraged by the words of a noble friend, followed by three others, extends to the year gained the upper hand; he resolved to extri1788,—the very period respecting which we cate himself from his degrading position at have hitherto known so little.
Manheim, and from the influence of Dalberg. We were already made aware, by Caroline “In the strong fermentation of my feelings, von Wolzogen, how much the poet was surpris my head and heart have united in the Hercued and delighted by a letter sent to him in lean resolution to atone for the past, and to Manheim by Körner and Huber, together with begin anew the noble race for the highest of the affianced bride of the former and her sister, all prizes.” And it is friendship which is to expressing the greatest admiration and enthusi- give him strength in this contest. - Oh! how asm, and accompanied by various pleasing little beautiful and divine is the union of two souls, gifts. We knew, likewise, that out of this cir- which meet on their way to the Godhead.” cumstance arose an intimate friendship between Traces of the formation of this bond of friendKörner and Schiller, — the letter alluded to is ship are to be found in the Philosophical the first in the present collection, but the Letters,” among which those of Julius belong nature of this friendship, and how it served to to Körner, and those of Rafael to Schiller. extricate Schiller from a lamentable and al- We cannot deny that in this friendship there together unworthy position, - this is only now was somewhat of eccentricity and romantic made clear to us in the correspondence of enthusiasm ; Schiller himself acknowledges it which this is the commencement, and which in a subsequent letter. But who, that reads continued uninterrupted during a long series of these letters, does not rejoice to find a confirmyears. It is this friendship, describing itself, ation of that which he imagined, when he read as it were, in the most lively manner, which first the earlier, and then the later works of forms the principal portion of the work before the poet? And delightful is the conviction
that this enthusiastic friendship became in the Love belongs to nature, friendship to lib- course of a few years a genuine one, wbich erty. Schiller was made for liberty; the exercised its wholesome influence in the noblest, oppression which he felt in his youth did but the most beneficent manner. Two years after increase his enthusiasm for it. He longed for its commencement Schiller writes :
beginning and the outline of our union was granted to direct at pleasure the mechanism enthusiasm ; but enthusiasm would also, be- of his nature, and to make the clock-work feel lieve me, be its grave; sober reflection and that there is a free spirit to impel its wheels.” slow conviction must now give to it consis. These words invite us to the consideration of tency and confidence.” And Körner says: a very important point, which is elucidated in “ This is the period of the crisis; you must be this correspondence ; namely, the relation of tossed about in the world somewhat longer, the poet Schiller to nature. We are told by ere you are ripe for the ideal of our friend- Goethe, that it was principally the low estimate ship; and it is far better to await this period, in which nature, with reference to man, was than to endeavor by means of palliatives, to held by Schiller, which at first restrained him shorten the crisis.”
from seeking the acquaintance of the latter. If Schiller excels his friend in the powers Goethe was an ardent admirer of Nature, and, of the mind, and in genius, Körner, on the as a poet, was favored by her in a correspondother hand, has more common sense, a better ing degree; the creations of his genius are judgment in the every-day affairs of human in pure and perfect harmony with the laws life, and even as a critic often points out to his which are proclaimed in her works. Schiller, friend the right path. He is also unwearied on the other hand, had formed for himself in encouraging him, when now and then he ideals, and provided them with all the qualities hesitates, and does this not only by words, but which his imagination, devoted to liberty, but also, when there is occasion, by more active alienated from nature, acknowledged to be the assistance. Ard such assistance was needed. best and highest. It is evident how widely It is melancholy to see it recorded in these different must be the forms created by the two letters, that the man who at so early an age poets; there could not but be an immeasurable attracted by his works the attention of his distance between a “ Margaret” and an "Amawhole country, and soon became the favorite lia ;” but how much safer a guide is nature, of the entire German nation, was harassed than that liberty which Schiller worshipped ! during the period in which his powers were So likewise in * Don Carlos,” we can see developing themselves, by anxieties respecting how widely he erred from the truth, refusing the means of procuring a livelihood. But to acknowledge the rights of nature, seeing then we are also elated by the spectacle of even in the most gifted natures, nothing but true genius working its way, pursuing its path mechanism and clock-work; wbile Goethe diswith zeal and honesty, and finally reaching its cerned a fruitful soil, in which the highest goal.
spiritual powers could find room for their And as Körner encouraged Schiller, so, at development. times, did Schiller encourage Körner ; as, for How Schiller, during his intercourse with example, when he was disappointed in his Goethe, found his way back out of these errors, hope of obtaining a considerable office. “Do is shown in his correspondence with that friend you think that you are to form an exception to of his later years. But in the correspondence the thousands of human beings, who have to now published, we clearly see how great was earn their bread by toil ? You may still cal- the original difference between them. In 1787 culate upon an improvement in your circum- he writes from Weimar : “ The spirit of Goethe stances, if you continue to aim at perfecting has modelled all who belong to his circle. A yourself in your own department. But you strict philosophical contempt for all speculation will be convinced that hitherto we have done and inquiry, with an attachment to nature and little, and idled a great deal. If the times a resignation of himself to his five senses, during which we idled had been our happiest, which are carried even to affectation ; in short, we might be satisfied ; but the happiest have a certain childish simplicity, distinguish him been those in which we have been working.” and all his followers." To which Körner
Thus the two friends aid and support one replies : “To the great mass such a restriction another; and each, as he seeks to forward his (to nature) cannot but be beneficial, and to own improvement, his own happiness, labors make it more universal is a merit. But the also to conduct the other to the same end. great man must exclude himself, and those
In one of Schiller's earliest letters to Kör- who are like him, from its operation. ner, we read as follows : “ The life of thou as there remains for Goethe anything to be sands of human beings is nothing but circula- accomplished in the political or literary sphere, tion of juices, imbibing through the roots, dis- which is worthy of his genius, so long is it tilling through the vessels, and exhaling through unpardonable that he should be chatting about the leaves. I weep over this organic regularity the enjoyment of nature, and dribbling away of the greater part of the thinking creation, his time with herbs and stones.” and I consider that man happy, to whom it is What a misapprehension of the great poet,
of his manner of treating nature, and of his These remarks will suffice to call the attenunwearied activity! And how differently did tion of our readers to the rich contents of this Schiller think eight years later, when he had valuable work. And yet how little have we himself learned to know nature, and the power said, in comparison with what we might have which it exercised over the poet. Then, too, said. We will conclude with an extract from he learned that if it was love to which Goethe one of the last letters of Schiller, contained in was in the first place led by nature, its spirit this volume : allowed him to do homage likewise to friend
“I must marry
that is settled. All ship. He could not draw near to Schiller and my inducements to life and activity are worn Körner with that romantic enthusiasm with out; this is the only one which I have not which they formed their bond of union, but he yet tried. I must have a being ncar me which felt the truth of the words which he spake belongs to me, which I can and must make with reference, doubtless, to his friendship for happy. You know not how desolate is my Schiller : “Friendship can only show itself spirit, how melancholy my ideas. If I cannot practically True, active, useful friendship weave hope into my existence — hope, which consists in this : that we advance with equal has almost entirely deserted me — if I cannot steps in life, that he approves of my course, wind up anew the run-down machinery of my and I of his, and that we thus progress steadily thouglits and feelings, it will soon be all over together, whatever other differences there may with me.” When we compare with these be between our modes of thinking and living." words what Goethe said of him at a later pe
From this correspondence we derive also riod: “Nothing interferes with him, nothing much valuable information respecting the other stops the flight of his ideas; all the noble sendistinguished literary personages of that period. timents which he entertains flow freely forth, It is Körner especially, hitherto so little known, without doubt or calculation ; he truly was | for whose character we learn to entertain the what every man ought to be ;” when we read highest esteem. Of Charlotte von Kalb we this, we cannot but acknowledge that a great read enough to know that she must have been change had taken place in Schiller. a superior woman, who exercised a strong in- thod by which his marriage exercised this fluence over Schiller. Goethe had not yet strong and happy influence, will, we hope, be returned from Italy, but all the other members sufficiently described in the remaining portion of the Weimar coterie are brought before us in of this very remarkable correspondence. - Blätlively colors, especially Wieland, Herder, Ein- ter für Literarische Unterhaltung. siedel, Corona Shröter, and Bertuch.
EASTERN LIFE, PRESENT AND PAST.*
Recent years have produced many works of While the wanderer is often led to return great merit on the East; and the Western back to his starting point, and to make his World, ever reverting to the native land of grave beside his cradle, may it not be true man, is insatiable in its demand for informa- also that the world, ripening into age, and tion on Oriental customs and Oriental society. revolving towards great changes and the fulIf it be true that, in the strength of manhood, filment of old predilections, is naturally turnthe hearts of those who earn their bread afar ing to the birth-place of society in Asia Minor, from boyhood's banks and braes, forget them and yearning towards that home of its youth amid anxieties and struggles, only to remember and of its simplest days? Something more them more acutely in the mellowed season of than a love of science, or natural curiosity, a well-spent life, when the matured intellect is causes the demand for Oriental works in this still clear, and the purposes of existence, its and in other countries, and perpetually envalue, and its character, are most distinctly larges the stream of pilgrims that seek the discerned — may it not be also true that the banks of the Nile, the Jordan, and the Sea of race of men in this, the most advanced stage Galilee. They are the scenes of those wonof the world's history, remember more fondly drous stories that first awaken inquiry in the than even when Europe's might was cast in infant mind — the centres of thrilling tradimartial array on Asia's plains, the homes of those great ancestors, common alike to the * By Harriet Martineau. 3 vols. London: Eddemocracy and the aristocracy of nations ? | ward Moxon.
tions that are evermore clinging to our path, The party of tourists, whose journey is reand telling on our actions. The lands are corded by Miss Martineau, met all the annoyround them of patriarchs and prophets, of ances that travellers from the days of Bruce priest and king, and of the mightiest King of have encountered in Egypt, and visited all the all, his humble apostles, and his first confes- common lions of the Nile.
The scholar seeks the East, as the cen * We cannot expect much new information tre of early literature; the man of science on Egyptian antiquities, until,” says Miss pays it his homage, as the nursery of know- Martineau, “the sand of the Desert, that ledge and the arts; the politician looks covers over the ruins of cities and palaces, be amongst its ruins, for the rudiments of gov- cleared away.” That event she considers ernment; the political economist regards with practicable by posterity, and with some agency sorrow its neglected mines of wealth; the that we do not at present employ, or at a cost Christian acknowledges it as an earthly home which we are unwilling to incur. In the of his heart, because it was his Master's home, meantime, the sand has salted up, and preand where his Lord was revealed in the low serves the monuments of the past to teach the liest, humility with the mightiest love, for the future. In the place of new facts, the tourgreatest ends. These are some of the reasons ist furnishes us with numerous speculations. that give Oriental works their large preference Some of them are based on very unsatisfactory over Occidental in the market, and have car- evidence. The characteristic of one modern ried the “ Crescent and the Cross” through class of philosophers is credulity. Miss Maran edition annually since its publication.
tineau is marvellously credulous on many toIn the autumn of 1846 Miss Martineau was pics, especially such as seem to average intelvisiting at Liverpool, when some friends pro- lects involved in doubt. Still she has proposed that she should accompany them to duced a good work; and although the Nile Africa and Asia. Within a month their jour- will soon become as hacknied as the Rhine, ney was commenced. In a “lurid November yet her descriptions of contemporaneous existevening, the travellers saw first the African ence are fresh and vigorous better than her land, being” part of “the island of Zembra, romantic ideas regarding the kings and priests and the neighboring coast of Tunis.” They of Egypt, that have slept in their graves for reached Alexandria on the evening of the twenty thousand years; that is to say, four20th of November; but notwithstanding the teen thousand years prior to the time of Adam kindness of the English merchants, and the and Eve. We certainly prefer her descriptions bustle arising from the arrival and departure of a sugar manufactory to her speculations on of the overland mail, they do not seem to have a pyramid ; and, from the following statement been greatly pleased with Alexandria, although (page 47, vol. i.), we are induced to expect Miss Martineau gives it a chapter. They left imports of low browns, or “ very good grays,' that city on the 25th, and began their ascent from Alexandria, in course of a few years. of the Nile. Miss Martineau mentions an Egypt, in the hands of an European power atmospheric phenomenon on the Nile that is those of Britain, for example would raise not yet explained :
its head among the nations, and, though the
sand should never be scraped away from old “I do not remember to have read of one monuments, yet the doom that overhangs the great atmospheric beauty of Egypt — the after- peasantry would be dissipated, and the valley glow, as we used to call it. I watched this of the Nile assume its old importance in the nightly, for ten weeks, on the Nile, and often afterwards in the Desert; and was continually
world's transactions : more impressed with the peculiarity, as well as the beauty, of this appearance. That the sun
“ On our return, we visited the sugar manuset in Egypt is gorgeous, everybody knows ; condition and prospects of the manufacture.
factory at Hou, and learned something of the but I, for one, was not aware that there is a renewal of beauty some time after the sun has Pasha, whom we met here at seven in the morn
The Hou establishment belongs to Ibraheem departed, and left all gray.. This discharge of color is here much what it is among the Alps, children were employed in the unfinished part,
ing. It is quite new; and a crowd of little where the flame-colored peaks become ghastly as the last sunbeam leaves them. But
carrying mortar in earthen bowls, for id. per here everything begins to brighten again in day. The engineers are French ; and the entwenty minutes — the hills are again purple or
gine, one hundred and twenty horse power, was
made at Paris. golden — the sands orange — the palms verdant
The managers cannot have the moonlight on the water a pale green rip- here the charcoal they use in France, for clariple, on a lilac surface, and this after-glow con
fying the juice. From the scarcity of wood, tinues, for ten minutes, when it slowly fades charcoal is too dear; and burnt bones are emaway."
ployed instead, answering the purpose very well. We saw the whole process, which seemed clev
erly managed; and the gentleinen pronounced funeral howl, worthy of Ireland." Miss Marthe quality of the sugar good. An Englishman tineau does not seem to remember that the employed there said, however, that the canes peculiarity has been often noticed. Upon that were inferior to those of the West Indies, for want of rain. There were a hundred people at
and some similar evidence, travellers given to work in this establishment; their wages being,
speculation have argued that the Irish were besides food, a piastre and a quarter (nearly
descended from the Egyptians. Without re3d.) per day. If, however, the payment of ference to this particular point, there is a biswages is managed here as I shall have to show torical tradition that Ireland was originally it is usually done in Egypt, the receipts of the peopled by Egyptians, under the rule of a work people must be considered much less than Pharaoh's daughter. With the view of being the people at having to buy, under
compulsion, special and particular, some persons say that coarse and dear sugar, that it is clear that much
this lady was the same princess who, in her improvement in management must take place, young years, wrought a great revolution in the before Eyypt can compete with other sugar-pro- fortunes of Egypt, while, wandering by the ducing countries; but still, what we saw of the sedgy banks of Nile one morning, she found extensive growth of the cane, and the quality of the infant Moses in the ark amongst the bulthe produce, under great disadvantages, made rushes; and, in direct disobedience to her us look upon this as one of the great future in- father's orders, and in treason, of course, to dustrial resources of Egypt.”
the state and its laws, saved the child alive. The boat passed Randa, Melamce, the caves
Some parties, we think, would even go further of Benee Hasan, and many other places cu
still ; that is, would be more precise, and rious in the eyes of voyagers on the Nile, assure Miss Martineau that Pharaoh's daughgetting on very well with their native boat
ter abandoned all her honors in Egypt out of men, by exercising the simple law of kind- pure vexation at the conduct of her adopted ness, until they reached Asgool, the residence
son, when he abandoned the court of Memof the governor of Upper Egypt. Selim Pa- phis, or whatever city was then the metropolis sha, who held this office when they went up
of the Nile, and fled into Midian to pursue a the river, met a melancholy adventure in his shepherd's life. It would be possible to supyouth.
pose å still more romantic explanation of
have been banished at “ Selim Pasha is he who married his sister, that time, for her supposed connivance in the and made the terrible discovery while at supper
deeds of her adopted son ; who, it may be on his wedding day, in his first interview with remembered, would stand accused of murder his bride. Both were Circassian slaves : and he
when he passed into Midian, and not improbhad been carried away before the birth of his sister. This adventure happened when the now
ably, also, of high treason. He was, most was young; but it invests unquestionably, a fugitive for freedom, and him with interest still, in addition to that in
suffered under the suspension of the habeas spired by his high character. We passed his
For whatever reason the Egypgarden to-day, and thought it looked well — the tian princess filed to Ireland — which, by the palace being embosomed among palms, acacias, by, might have stood very well in place of a and the yellow-flowering mimosa ; which last, Botany Bay to the Egyptians - there can be when intermixed with other trees, gives a kind of autumnal tinge to masses of dark foliage. We cal with the deliverer of Moses, that she must
no doubt, supposing her to have been identiwere much struck by the causeway, which would have been a staid and matronly lady when she be considered a vast work in England. It extends from the river bank to the town, and arrived at Galway or the Cove of Cork. This thence on to the Djebel (mountain), with many princess was named “Scotia.'
From her, limbs from this main trunk. In direct extent, 1 Ireland was originally called Scotland; a title think it can hardly be less than two miles, but ultimately transferred to the land that has of this I am not sure. Its secondary object is held it so long and so honorably. Miss Marto retain the Nile water, after the inundation the water flowing through sluices which can be tion ; but the funeral dirge is circumstantial
tineau may either accept or reject this tradieasily closed. The land is divided by smaller evidence in its favor, and it stands upon at embankments, within this large one, into compartments or basins, where the most vigorous least as good authority as the 345 colossal crops of wheat, clover, and millet, were flourish- wooden statues of priests
, descending in the ing when we rode by.”
regular succession of father and son, men
tioned by the priests of Amun, to Hecatæus On their way to the caves of Djebel, the of Miletus, on his visit to Thebes, 500 years tourists “met a funeral procession coming before the Christian era, and which Miss Marfrom the cemetery that lies between the town tineau records at pages 150 and 151 of her and the hills. The women were uttering a first volume. The credulity displayed in this