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ing any of the attending boats, a cir- the rock is extremely doubtful; it eumstance which, if unprovided for, must at any rate have required a would have involved the safety of much longer period for its accomplishevery person upon the rock. As the ment, and without the beacon-house work could only be proceeded with there would in all probability have at low water of spring tides, and as been the loss of many lives. three hours were considered a good The operations of the second year tide's work, it became necessary to were commenced at as early a period embrace every opportunity of favour as the weather would permit ; and to able weather, as well in the day tides avoid the great personal risk, and exas under night by torch-light, and cessive fatigue of rowing the boats upon Sundays ; for when the flood to the floating light, an additional tide advanced upon the rock, the vessel was provided solely for the purworkmen were obliged to collect their pose of attending the work. This tools and go into the attending boats, vessel could be loosened from her which often, not without the utmost moorings at pleasure, and taken to difficulty, were rowed to the floating the lee-side of the rock, where in foul light, where they remained till the weather she might take the artificers rock began to appear next ebb-tide. and attending boats on board, which Happily no accident occurred to could not be done by the floating check the ardour of working, and by light. This tender was a very fine the latter end of October the opera- schooner of eighty tons, named the Sir tions were brought to a close for the Joseph Banks, in compliment to the season. A beacon was now finished, illustrious president of the Royal consisting of 12 large beams of tim- Society, who, ever ready in the cause ber ranged in a circle, having a com- of public improvement, had lent his mon base of 30 feet, and rising to à aid in procuring the loan from goheight of 50 feet; at the top the vernment for carrying the work into beams were gathered together, and execution. Thus provided with a terminated in a point ; below they place of safety on the rock in the were strongly connected with the beacon-house, and a tender always rock by iron batts and chains. The ready in case of necessity, the work #pper part, which in moderate wea went forward even in pretty blowing ther stood above the reach of the sea, weather, and by struggling both duwas afterwards fitted up, and possessering day and night tides, early in July ed during the working months as a the scite of the light-house was cut barrack for the artificers, a smith's sufficiently deep into the rock, and shop, and other necessary purposes; wrought to a level

. Part of the castand being situated near the stone iron railways was fixed for conveying building, it was at last connected with the large blocks of stone along the it by a bridge, or gang-way, which, rock, and other necessary preparain the progress of the work, was like- tions being made, the foundation-stone wise of great service in facilitating was laid upon Sunday the 10th July, the raising of the materials. Unless 1808. By the latter end of Septem . such an expedient as this beacon-house ber, the operations of a second seahad been resorted to, the possibility son were brought to a fortunate conof at all erecting a light-house upon clusion, by the finishing of the faur

VOL. II. PART II.

first and heaviest courses of the build- mentioned, was then unmoored and ing, which brought it to the height of removed. five feet six inches.

We have now given a general hisIn the spring of the following year, torical account of the erection of the the operations were again resumed, Bell Rock Light-house, and shall and it was no small happiness to those next mention its principal dimensions

, concerned to find, that of the four and state some interesting circumcourses built upon the rock, not a stances connected with it. single stone had in the least shifted, The foundation stone of the lightafter a long and severe winter. The house is nearly on a level with low arrangements previous to the landing water of ordinary spring tides, and of any materials on the rock, were to consequently at high water of these lay down moorings for the various tides the building is immersed about vessels and praam boats employed in fifteen feet ; but during the progress the service of the rock ; to erect ma- of the work, the sea spray has been chinery for receiving the stones from observed to rise upon the light-house the praam boats, and cranes for ta. to the height of 90 feet, even in the king them from the railways and month of July. The building is of laying them into their places on the a circular form, composed of blocks building With an apparatus thus of stone, from one half ton to between appointed, the light-house was got to. two and three tons weight each. The the height of 30 feet by the month ground course measures 42 feet dia

. of September, 1809, which completed meter, from which it diminishes as it the solid part of the building, and in rises ; and at the top, where the mathis state things were again left for son-work finishes and the light-room the winter months.

commences, it measures 13 feet diaFrom the much greater height to meter. Here the cornice forms a which the materials were to be raised walk or balcony round the outside of as the work advanced, and the small the light-room. The stone building accommodation for keeping any stock measures 100 feet in height; but the of building-materials on the walls, total height of the light-house, itwhile the landing of the stones from cluding the light-room, is 115 feet. the boats was still confined to be the As far up as the entrance door, which work of a few hours at low water of is 30 feet from the ground course, spring tides, it remained a matter of the building is entirely solid, except. great uncertainty, whether it were ing a small hole cut in the centre possible to overtake the raising of stones for the drop of the weight of the whole 50 feet above the solid, in the machinery. The ascent to the one season. The work was there. entrance-door is by a kind of rope ladfore begun as early in the third sea- der, which is hung out at ebb tide, son as possible ; and, by unremitting and again taken into the building exertions, and a train of fortunate cir. when the water covers the rock. A cumstances, the building of the light. narrow passage leads from the door house was brought to a conclusion to the stair-case. The stair-case oc: in the month of December, 1810, and cupies 13 feet of the building imme. lighted up for the first time on the diately above the solid part. Here evening of the 1st February, 1811. the walls are seven feet' thick, but The floating light vessel, formerly they regularly become thinner all

the way to the top. The remain- constructed chiefly of cast-iron, with ing 57 feet of mason-work is di- a dome roof of copper ; and the winvided by five stone floors into rooms dow sashes all round are glazed with for the light-keepers and stores, polished plate glass, which is one which communicate with each other quarter of an inch in thickness. In by wooden ladders. It being proper one of the lower apartments, or the to have nothing of a combustible na- kitchen, there is an iron grateor open ture about the light-room, the lade fire-place, with a metal tube for conders there are of iron. The three veying the smoke to the top of the lower apartments have each two small light-room, which heats the several windows, and the upper rooms have rooms through which it passes. This each four windows ; the whole be grate and chimney merely touch the ing provided with strong shutters to building, without being included or defend the glass against the sea in built up in the walls. storms.

The light is very powerful, and The two first courses of the build. has been seen from a ship's deck fully ing are entirely sunk into the rock. 20 miles from the rock. It is from The stones of all the courses are oil, with argand burners, placed in the dove-tailed, and let into each other in focus of silver-plated reflectors, holsuch a manner, that each course forms lowed to the parabolic curve. That one connected mass from the centre the Bell Rock light may be readily to the circumference; and the suc distinguished by the mariner from all cessive courses are attached to each others on the coast, the reflectors are other by joggles of stone, upon the ranged upon a frame, which is made plan of the Eddystone Light-house to revolve upon a perpendicular axis formerly alluded to; and while the once in three minutes. Between the

was still amongst the wa- observer and the refectors, on one side ter, two trenail holes were bored of the frame, shades of red glass are through each stone, and entering six interposed, in such a manner, that duinches into the course below : Oaken ring each entire revolution of the trenails of two inches diameter were frame with the refectors, two disdriven into these holes, which effec- tinctly different appearances are protually kept the stones from shifting duced, the one a common bright till the stones of the next course were light, and the other, or shaded side, laid

. The cement used at the Bell having the rays tinged red ; and these Rock was a mixture of lime, pozzo- lights alternate, with intervals of dark. lano earth, and sand; and that it might ness. as much as possible resemble the mor As a further warning to the maritar used at the Eddystone with so ner, two large bells are tolled day and much success, the lime was brought night during the continuance of fogfrom the very same quarry in Wales. gy or snowy weather, by the same

Round the balcony of the lights machinery which moves the lights. room, there is a cast-iron rail, curious. As these bells in moderate weather ly wrought like net-work, which rests may be heard considerably beyond upon batts of brass ; and the rail has the limits of the rock, a vessel may. a massive coping of the same metal. by this means be prevented from runThe light-room is of an octagon form, ning upon the rock during fogs, a 12 feet diameter, and 15 feet in height, disaster which might otherwise hap

building

pen, notwithstanding the erection of stores, provisions, and fuel to the the light-house.

light-house. This vessel is about 40 Amidst the various inauspicious register tons, and is therefore capa. forebodings regarding this building, ble of carrying a boat of sufficient either prior to or about the time of its dimensions for landing on the rock in commencement, the following was moderate weather. The master of very, prevalent :-" That no one the attending vessel acts as superinwould be found to possess so dread tendant, and has the charge of the and dreary a dwelling ; and if ever building and stores kept at Arbroath

. erected, its projectors would be left The expence of this undertaking themselves to pass the first winter has not yet been ascertained, but it under its roof." But the first aspect is supposed to amount to about fiftyof every thing of this kind is general- five thousand pounds sterling. Whely by much the worst ; for, as the ther, therefore, we consider the magbuilding got up, and was found to nitude of this most useful work, or withstand the storms of two succes. the success which has attended the sive winters in an incomplete state, operations, from their commencement confidence seemed to increase ; and, in 1807 till their completion in 1810, by the time it was ready for being in this work will be found to do equal habited, the applications for a keep-honour to the spirited exertions of er's birth were more numerous than the Hon. Board of Commissioners the situations; and it is no less strange for Northern Lights, to the talents, than true, that applicants on both activity, and perseverance of the esides of the Tweed were disappoint- gineer, and to the resources of a ed in their suit. The establishment country which, while struggling with of keepers consists of a principal unparalleled difficulties in the field of light-keeper and three others. Each war, yet enjoying the most perfect keeper, at the end of six weeks, in his security at home, is able and ready to turn is relieved, and is at liberty to pursue the works of industry, and 10 go upon his own affairs for a fort. attend to the calls of humanity. night. Their pay is about fifty We are happy to understand that pounds per annum, with provisions a detailed account of the erection of while at the light-house." At Ar. the Bell Rock light-house, illustrated broath, each of the light-keepers has with engravings of the building in its a house provided by the commissione different stages, the apparatus, &c., ers for his family. Connected with is to be published by Mr Stevenson, these houses, there is a signal tower, engineer ; and with pleasure we have where an excellent telescope is kept, heard, that the Hon. Board of Comand a set of signals arranged with the missioners have liberally expressed a people at the light-house for the desire to preserve the particulars of attending vessel, which carries off the this memorable work.

4

1

ORIGINAL LETTERS

OF

SHENSTONE, DAVID HUME, AND JOSEPH SPENCE.

you

From the Poet Shenstone, to Mr ing! Dr Roebuck goes to-morrow, MacGowan, late of Edinburgh.

and must accept of an irregular

disjointed letter, in which I find it The Leasowes, Sept. 24, 1761.

my duty to acknowledge so many difDear Sir,—I have indeed been ferent favours. guilty of the most absurd hypocrisy The Scotch press,* of which you that ever was, having suffered an ap- sent me so many agreeable specimens, pearance of neglect to rob me of has, I think, not a rival in the world, the pleasure of your correspondence, unless it be that of my neighbour when no one living could have been Baskerville. Here I find myself unmore sensible of the obligation it laid able or unwilling to decide the preme under. Sure I am that I must be ference. Amongst friends, however, greatly indebted to Mr Roebuck's I would whisper, that Baskerville's representation for the place I still impressions are more striking to the retain in your esteem, and which I eye, either on account of his ink, his should utterly have given up for lost, paper, or his type ; yet, at the same had not your goodness, by many our time, it may be much doubted whevert acts, lately convinced me of the ther the Scotch editions will not be contrary.

deemed the best for use. Martial 'Twas indeed the view of accom has expressed what may prove the panying my letter with something case at the close of one of his epiworthy of your acceptance, that has grams : kept me silent so long, in spite of all your friendly provocations. I want.

“ Laudant illa, sed ista legunt." ed to transcribe one or two pieces As to correctness, the Scotch seems of greater length than the trifles to have hitherto the advantage ; but I inclose. Alas, that I have not, if Baskerville find encouragement to even now, an opportunity of so do- print many Latin books, he purposes,

* That of the Foulis' of Glasgow, and Murray and Cochrane of Edinburgh. The former house is now extinct; the latter still sabsists, and still honourably characterized by attention and accuracy.

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