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n as yet weak and emaciated, I benefactor. I need not tell you, all by and by do very well. My that on my emerging from captivity, ro friends, Puzy in particular, are my joy has been much embittered by orse than I am, but will, I hope, the unexpected and affecting accounts on recruit themselves.
of the difference between the United "vants, one only is in a dangerous States and the French republic. The ly; the otbers have suffered much, particulars are as yet unknown to i will soon regain their health me. This I certainly do know, that y daughters are pretty well ; my nothing can be more impolitic for fe has for more than fifteen months both, and that my warmest wishes en in a most deplorable state of are to see these disputes amicably alth. Fresh air and a little exer- settled, which ought never to have je out of the prison might have en. taken place. I hope it will be the red her life; but these indulgencies case ; would to God I might be able re constantly denied. She is ema to contribute to it ! ited and weak. Her arms have “Adieu, my dear Huger. Present en a prey to the ravages of dis- my compliments to all friends in se, the effects of which are now your part of the United States. iefly fixed in her leg, where she When can I hope for the delightful 8 a swelling and painful wound. pleasure to meet with you again, to. irtunately the internal parts have talk over the circumstances so hot been affected, except for a short nourable to you, so precious to me, ne, and the disease has caused it. of your noble, kind, and admirable F to attack the extremities. The conduct, in the most generous at. ictors have unanimously said, that tempt that I ever heard of; to 'exwould be madness in us to cross press to you at least a part of the e Atlantic until she has a little re veneration and gratitude which your vered. We are therefore going to personal character, your magnanirm an hospital in a retired place, mous friendship, your heroic exer. d there employ ourselves whol- tions in my behalf, have so highly de
to refit our constitutions. You served, and by which I am happy to e, my dear friend, that I set you be for ever bound to you by all the le example to be very minute, and sentiments that can attach the heart hope you will mention every parti- of your grateful and affectionate ilar relating to my hero and beloved
THE FRENCH ORDER OF BATTLE,
THE CAMPAIGNS OF BUONAPARTE
But see the hanghty household troops advance !
The unparalleled success of the the hcad of an army of invincible French arms under their present mi. rues. . Were these victories, and ! litary ruler, has thrown a glare over melancholy events which have the causes in which it originated, pe- lowed them, matter of remote histi culiarly unfavourable to cool investi- this romantic delusion would b gation. To account for the over. as little consequence as if its ! throw of ancient states, for the anni- nous yet delusive halo invested K hilation, not only of whole armies, brows of Cæsar or of Alexand but of the entire military power of but our safety as a nation is unfo : kingdoms in a single engagement, nately deeplyʻimplicated in the ju imagination demands causes adequate ment which we may form of in importance and in splendour to French armies, the genius of ? ! these dazzling consequences, and na. leader, and the causes of their suce turally figures forth a demi-god at One part of the spell Aung aro
them has been fortunately dissipa- presume to read our lecture on the ted by repeated practical experiment. art of war. But we humbly dediNo one for a moment is now tempt. cate our few and desultory observaed to doubt, that, man to man, and tions on the French tactics in the regiment to regiment, the French field of battle, to every desponding soldiers are, both in a moral and phy. statesman out of place, who seeks the sical point of view, so decidedly infe- character of wisdom by the presaging rior to the British, that the ancient notes of a screech-owl, and to all romantic proportion of two to one those worthy common.council men has in some instances scarcely put and burgesses, throughout the united them upon an equality. Still,' how. kingdoms, whose digestion is im. ever, another part of the charm ho- paired by reflecting upon the militavers around us. The general is in- ry skill of Buonaparte. When we vested with a double portion of that shall have stripped that skill of all merit which he formerly divided with exaggeration, enough will remain for his armies, and we now hear of no reasonable apprehension, enough to thing but the commanding genius recommend caution, and to discouof Buonaparte, which, supplying all rage presumption on the part of his deficiencies, making up for all dis- opponents; but, if our researches have asters, conquering all obstacles, ga. been correct, his system will be thers victorious laurels on the very found a simple one, neither implying hields from which every other gene- any transcendant genius in the discoral, ancient or modern, must have verer, nor necessarily conferring upon retired with defeat and dishonour. the general employing it, that deciWith this is combined a fearful and ded superiority which has been falscinaccurate apprehension, or rather a ly apprehended. superstitious terror, of some new-dis It is scarcely necessary to say, that covered and irresistible system of our observations only respect the tactics, devised and acted upon by French principle of distributing their this irresistible leader. Such opic forces upon the day of battle. Other nions, were they generally entertain- advantages, of a great and important ed, would forma bad omen for a nation nature, arise from the combination forced into collision, for all that they of the various corps of their invahold dear, with the very person of ding armies, maintaining their liaiwhose irresistible skill in arms such an son, or correspondence, by means of ineffable idea is held forth. We are not the etats-majors, or staff-establishhowever very apprehensive of this dis ments attached to every division, piriting creed becoming generalamong whose communication with each those whose opinion in such subjects other, and with the head-quarters of is of most consequence,-among the the emperor, is preserved at all risks, victors of Alexandria, Maida, Vimie- and with a consummate degree of ra, Talavera, Busaco and Barrosa. accuracy and address. Thus orders The doctrine of French invincibility are circulated, and combined moverequires no confutation among those ments achieved in consequence of who retreated with Moore, or are these orders, with the same ease and now advancing with Wellington ; nor facility through various corps-d'-aris it to them that, like the ancient mée, occupying positions or moving pedant in presence of Alexander, we upon lines of march an hundred
leagues asunder, as in other services those nations among whom archery through a single brigade. It is un was cultivated to a degree which esnecessary to notice the unity, firm- abled them to maintain a distant ber ness, and consistency which this re constant and effectual discharge of gularity and facility of intelligence arrows upon these solid bodies, thus communicates to the whole plan of was the worst order of battle that invasion. Another cause of success, could be imagined. Hence the sac. which may be shortly noticed, is cess of the Parthians against the their attention to the commissariat Romans. In the feudal armies, the and its dependencies. Every French archery of England maintained the general is qualified to provide for same superiority over the solid array the subsistence of his army; every of the French and Scottish, which French soldier is accustomed to presented a fair and slow-morieg lighten the general's labour, by look. mark to their arrows, and which its ing out for himself and his mess. own weight prevented from arengung mates ; and it must be owned, that if the injuries it sustained. The gente the united efforts of the general and ral introduction of fire-arms (a sub soldier prove unsuccessful, the latter more unerring and destructive species can sustain hunger and privation of missile ) necessarily changed the or with great patience and firmness. der of battle from depth to extension, None of these considerations are em. or from the mass to the line. "Sce braced in our present inquiry ; nei. No. 1. of the annexed diagram. ther do we mean to investigate the It was obvious, that, without some still more powerful causes of success, improvement upon the art, the long. which the French well name les grands extended line could not be easily moyens, which embrace espionage, moved without confusion ; and be bribery, political intrigue, and so fore such improvement was discorerforth. Our present subject is limit- ed, armies acting on the defensive ed to the consideration of Buona- usually took up some position, which parte and his troops arrived on the they neither did nor could attempt field of battle, and preparing for con- to alter, during a general engagement
, Aict. To estimate the extent of his without hazard of utter suin. This genius, it is necessary to see what ancient order may therefore be repro discoveries he has made in his pro- sented by a line without intervals
, as fession, what improvements upon that in No.l.; not that there were not those of his predecessors. This re- actually intervals in the ancient quires a momentary glance at the his- der, but because it was not subdivitory of the art of war.
ded for the purpose of facilitating In ancient times, when missile wea. motion. In like manner, we must pons were neither frequent nor for- be understood as speaking abstract: midable, the natural arrangement of edly and generally when we talk of armies was into masses, which might the line being stationary. The winga best support the shock of closing and centre were moved in retreat of with pikes or swords. Such was
Such was advance according to the vicissitude the Macedonian phalanx ; and such, of battle ; but it was without princ though more pliant and extended, ple or combination, which are necess and capable of subdivision, was the sarily implied in a modern military close array of the legions. Against movement. They advanced, if vic
torious, or retired, if discomfited; but In a word, the method of subthey did not attempt such manæu. dividing extensive lines with a view vres for the purpose of achieving to facilitate their movements, the conquest or avoiding defeat. principles and machinery by which
The genius of Frederick of Prussia these subdivisions, and consequently brought into practical use an im- the whole order of battle, can be acprovement upon this order of battle, curately moved and reunited upon the effect of which, whether applied new ground, either in the former, or to attack or defence, was to give the in any new relation, were brought to general the power of changing his perfection, if not in a great meásure array, and executing such movements, invented, by Frederick
the Second. even during the heat of action, as The Prussian tactics were transmust be decisive of the event, unless ferred to France by the writings of the same activity, pliability of dispo. Guibert; and although modified, as sition, and military talent, were dis- we shall presently see, to the circumplayed to counteract his purpose, as stances of their own armies, do at he brought to its execution. This present form the leading principle of grand step in the art military consist- all their movements. So little do ed in subdividing the long line (No. those know of the modern art of war, 1.) into a number of brigades, (No. who are daily exclaiming against the 2.) each of which could be easily mo- sluggish and heavy tactics of Fredeved and maneuvred without the risk rick, as incompatible with, and supof confusion or interference. By this planted by, the vivacious movements simple principle of subdivision, to and new discoveries of the modern which his troops and his officers were French school of war. The Austri. heedfully and regularly trained, the ans also adopted the new principle of King of Prussia, instead of making movement; but unfortunately they his dispositions before the action, and had not genius enough to discover, then trusting the event to fortune and that, like a mechanical power, it was the valour of his troops, was enabled capable of being applied in an endless totally to change his arrangement in variety of modes. They seem to have the very moment of advance, nay, even considered it as only applicable to the in the battle itself, and to gain such ancient order of an extended line, (as positions as must ensure the defeat of in No. 2.,) and to have overlooked the enemy, who found themselves the obvious consideration, that, having pressed probably on the very point, once divided the line of battle into
at the commencement of the moveable brigades, it became as easy
was least menaced, and which to reduce it into a column of those was proportionally ill provided for brigades, as it is to form a regiment
This is the guiding (prin- into a column of companies or half ciple of the Prussian tactics, to faci. companies. About the year 1793, litate which all their discipline tended, the Austrians might have been able and which repeatedly gave Frederick to engage Frederick upon somewhat conquest when employed against the resembling his usual application of most formidable armies ; which, how- the principle which he had invented ; ever brave, numerous, and skilful, but they were unfortunately unpredid not possess the principle of acti- pared for the tactics of a new enemy, vity thus maintained by the Prussi- who applied the same principle in a
TOL, II. PART II.