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HISTORY OF THE ATMOSPHERE

FOR 1809.

ence.

There is perhaps no branch of state of the air, during the period satural science which has been cul- which is fixed for this purpose. We tivated with less ardour and success expected to have had it in our power than that of Meteorology. The im- to lay before our readers an instruperfect nature of the instruments em ment of this kind, but as it has not ployed to measure the variation in yet obtained the sanction of experithe gravity, temperature, and dry- ence, we must reserve the description ness of the air, and the inattention of of it for our next volume. observers to many of the more im In measuring the quantity of rain portant, though perhaps the less ob- which falls upon the earth, no attenvious phenomena of the atmosphere, tion has yet been paid to the differare two of the leading causes of the ent heights above the level of the sea slow progress of Meteorological Sci- at which the guage is placed, though

The observations on the ba- it is a curious fact, that the higher rometer, thermometer, and hygrome- we ascend, the quantity of rain diter, at stated times of the day, are by minishes. A great degree of attenno means fitted to exhibit the chan- tion should likewise be paid to the ges which are so frequently going on size of the drops at different altiin the atmosphere, and therefore af- tudes ;-to the angle at which they ford us a very trilling assistance in fall;—to the force and direction of discovering their cause. The most the wind at different heights in the correct meteorological journals indeed atmosphere ;-to the nature and the do not even contain data for deter certainty of mists and fogs, one spemining the mean state of the atmos. cies of which obstructs the passage phere ; nor could we place any confi. of the most refrangible rays, while dence in the average results, though another transmits the light in its natu. the observations were greatly multi- ral state ;-to the transparency of the plied, and repeated after the shortest atmosphere, and to the undulations intervals. Hence it is an important and changes in its refractive power, desideratum in meteorology to have which often produce optical illusions an instrument which shall record, as of the most singular kind. The it were, at every instant, the changes height and the nature of the clouds in the atmosphere; and point out, at when the moon is surrounded with the end of any required period, the halos and luminous rings, ought also sum of all the changes, or the mean to be carefully marked, together with

VOL. II. PART. II.

26

the height of meteors and the state of phere at Edinburgh and London duthe atmosphere when such phenomena ring the year 1809. are seen.

The Meteorological Journal for Though accurate and multiplied Edinburgh, which is the most valua. observations on the various subjects ble and correct that has yet been which we have mentioned are abso- made in Scotland, was kept in the lutely necessary to the formation of house and under the superintendance a theory that pretends to account for of a philosopher of distinguished emithe numerous phenomena of the at- nence, to whom the writer of the premosphere, yet we can scarcely hope sent article is indebted for the liberty to find any private individual who has of making it public. It contains the both time and abilities to execute such height of the barometer to the thoua task ; and if such a plan is ever car- sandth part of an inch at 9 o'clock ried into effect, it must be done in in the morning ;-the state of the some national establishment, furnish- thermometer attached to the baromeed with the most delicate instruments, ter at the same instant ;-the height and conducted by the most able ob- of the mercury in the thermometer at servers.

8 o'clock in the morning, 12 o'clock

noon, and 10 o'clock in the evening ; In the following Meteorological the force and the direction of the Tables we have endeavoured to pre- wind; and the state of the weather

, sent our readers with an accurate ac- both in the forentoon and in the evencount of the changes in the atmos- ing of each day.

METEOROLOGICAL JOURNALS

KEPT

AT EDINBURGH AND LONDON

DURING THE YEAR 1809.

Meteorological Journal kept at Edinburgh.

JANUARY

Height of State of the Thermometer

Thermometer Days of Mercury in the Thermometer in the open Thermometer in the open

the Barometer at attached to Air at 8 in the open Air at 10 Month. 9 o'Clock in the the Barometer o'Clock in the Air at 12 o'Clock in the Morning at 9 o'clock in Morning. O'Clock Noon. Evening.

the Morning

Inch. Dec.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

29.780
29.732
29.728
29.978
29.878
29.414
29.080
28.768
29.122
29.100
29.404
29.644
29.834
29.984
29.940
30.066
30.000
29.862
29.740
29.550

Degrees. 45.0 44.0 42.0 43.0 42.0 42.0 44.0 44.1 45.0 44.0 45.0 44.0 42.0 44.0 38.0 37.0 36.0 38.0 34.0 36.0

Degrees.
36.0
34.0
32.0
32.0
31.0
33.0
37.0
36.
38.0
37.4
37.0
34.0
31.0
24.0
26.0
24.0
23.0
27.1
20.4
28.0

Degrees. 38.0 35.0 32.0 31.1 31.0 35.0 41.0 41.1 42.0 43.0 40.0 35.0 34.0 31.0 29.0 30.0 29.0 29.0 28. 35.0

Degrees.
35.0
32.0
33.0
31.0
30.1
$7.0
40.1
40.0
39.0
39.0
37.0
34.0
32.0
25.4
26.4
21.0
28.0
19.1
27.
29.1
21.0

[blocks in formation]

16.1 19.0 30.4 31.0 31. 43.0 44.0 39. 36.0 34.0

49.0 48.0 46.0

45.0 39. 36.1

Meteorological Journal kept at Edinburgh.

JANUARY

Days of

the Month.

State of the Wind and Weather at Edinburgh.

Wind.

Weather. 1 Gentle N. E., cloudy; evening do., snow. 2 Moderate S. E., snow; ev. clear, cold, 2 N. E. 3 Moderate E., snow; ev. cloudy.

Moderate E., snow; ev. 2 S. É., cloudy. 5 Brisk E., snow; ev. E., snow. 6 Moderate S. E., cloudy, mild. 7 Gentle S. E., cloudy, mild ; ev. rainy. 8 Moderate W.,

cloudy, mild; ev. rainy; night clear, mild, 1 S.W. 9 Gentle W., clear, mild ; ev. cloudy, do. 10 Gentle S. W., heavy rain ; ev. do. 11 Calm,

rainy ; ev. do. 12 Gentle W.,

cloudy; ev. do. 13 Gentle E.,

cloudy ; ev. a slight shower of snow. 14 Gentle N. E., clear; ev. 1 E., snow shower. 15 Moderate N. E., light snow showers ; ev. cloudy. 16 Gentle E., cloudy ; ev. clear, very cold. 17 Calm,

cloudy ; ev. do. 18 Gentle S. W., clear ; ev. N. E., clear, very cold. 19 Moderate S. E., clear ; ev. do. 20 Gentle S. E., clear ; ev. cloudy ; night snow. 21

,

cloudy; ev. clear. Therm. in Queen street, 10°

in the night. 22 Moderate N. W., clear, intense cold ; ev. do. 23 Gentle N. W., cloudy; ev. clear. 24 Calm,

cloudy; ev. do. 25 Gentle S. E., snow ; ev. cloudy.

Brisk N. E., snow; ev.cloudy. Mail arrived at 2 o'clock,p.m. 27

High S. E., thaw; ev. do., clear. 28 High S. W., heavy rain ; ev. cloudy. 29 Brisk S. W.,

showery ; ev. high S. W., cloudy. 30 Brisk S. W.,

heavy rain ; ev. cloudy. 31 Gentle N. W., clear; ev. do.

{ Gentle E.

26

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