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tu also appears as a terrible monster, and makes a noise like a warrior when about to rush to battle. Sounds terrible as thunder are heard, ordering punishments to be inflicted on the offenders. At length Yumu orders the criminals into his presence, and thus addresses them :- Did you not know that I am placed above all, to award happiness to the good, and punishment to the wicked ? Knowing this, have you lived in sin ? have you never heard that there were different hells for the punishment of the wicked ? Have you never given your minds to religion ? To-day, with your own eyes, you shall see the punishment of the wicked.- Froin yoogu to yoogu stay in these hello ;- You have pleased yourselves in sinful practices ; endure now the torments due to these sins. What will weeping avail ? Yumu next directs Chitru-gooptu to examine into the offences of the criminals, who now demand the names of the witnesses : let such, say they, appear, and give their evidence in our presence. Yumu smiling, though full of rage, commands Sooryu (1), Chundru (2), Puvunu (3), Ugnee (4), Akashu (5), Prithivee (6), Vuroonu (7), Tithee (8), Didu, (9), Ratree (10), Pratu-kulu (11), Sundhya-kalu (12), and Dhurma (13), to appear against the prisoners, who, hearing the evidence, are struck dumb, and remain trembling and stupified with fear. Yumu, then gnashing his teeth, beats the prisoners with his iron club till they roar with anguish ; after which he drives them to different hells.
Of future happiness.--The shastrus teach that there are four kinds of happiness after death : 1. That possessed in the heavens of the gods ;-2. That when the person is deified ;
3. That which arises from dwelling in the presence of the gods ;--and, 4. In absorption. In the three first, the person is subject to future birth, but not in the last. The three first are obtained by works ; the last by divine wisdom.
The descriptions which the Pooranus give of the heavens of the gods are truly in the eastern style ; all things, even the beds of the gods are made of gold and precious stones. All the pleasures of these heavens are exactly what we should expect in a system formed by uninspired men : like the par. adise of Mahomet, they are houses of ill fame, rather than places of rewards for the pure in heart. Here the vicious
(1) The Sun. (2) The Moon.
(3) Wind. (4) Fire. (5) Æther. (6) Earth. ()'Water. (8) a lunar day. (9) Day. (10) Night. (11) Morning.
(12) Evening. (13) A representative of Yumu. All the elements, and the divisions of time, are thus called upon to witness against the prisoner.
passions are personified, or rather deified :—The quarrels and licentious intrigues of the gods fill these places with perpetual uproar ; while their importunities are described with the same literality and gross detail, as similar things are talked of among these idolaters on earth. It would be a flagrant insult to compare these heavens with the place which our Saviour went to prepare for his disciples ; but the serious inquirer after truth will be struck with this additional proof that the Christian religion is worthy of all acceptation.'
The Hindoos profess to bave a great reliance upon the merit of their works, though they do not depend upon any one ceremony to procure future happiness ; one Hindoo travels to the south, another to the north, to obtain some salvationgiving charms: but, after all, he listens to any new nostrum with as much eagerness as though he had hitherto done nothing towards obtaining heaven. As a person's continuance in heaven depends on the quantity of his merit, this may be another reason why a Hindoo performs so many different works to obtain the same thing.
Of future punishment.-The Shree-bhaguvutu contains the following account of the punishment endured in different hells :-The persons guilty of adultery or fornication, the thief, and the stealer of children, are to be cast into the hell Tamisru, and continually famished and beaten. He who defrauds others, is to be cast into a hell of darkness. The proud person, who also neglects the ceremonies of religion, is to be tormented by the animal Rooroo. The glutton, who has also been guilty of destroying animals, is to be thrown into a hell of boiling oil. He who disregards the vedu and Bramhuns, is to be punished in a hell of burning metal for 3,500,000 years. He who injures a man of superior order, is to be torn by swine. The unmerciful are to be tormented by snakes, fies, deer, birds, lice, wasps, &c. The Bramhuns, Brambunee, Brumhucharee, voishyu, a king, who drinks spirits, shall be thrown into paps of liquid fire. He who despises a reli. gious devotee, shall be punished by sticking fast in mud, with his head downwards. He who kills a man, and offers him to the gods ; and he who devours any animal, without having slain it in sacrifice, are to be fed on flesh and blood. He who betrays and afterwards destroys a person, is to be pierced with spears and arrows. The person who causes sorrow to others, is to be bitten by snakes with five heads. He who is in hospitable to guests, must have his eyes torn out by. vultures and other ravenous birds. The covetous are to be fed with impure substances. He who cohabits with a woman of another
cast, or a virgin, or the wife of another man, is to be inclosed in the arms of an iron female image made red hot. The person who professes different religions, and is familiar with all casts, is to be punished by being continually cast down from lofty trees. The bramhun who commits adultery with the wife of a bramhun, is to be fed with blood. Highway robbers, those who burn houses, or poison others, are to be bitten by dogs with enormous teeth. False witnesses are to be cast from rocks 800 miles high.
The number of Hindoo Mendicants is said to be very great. The regular sects are only three already noticed; but there are some who are a kind of irregular tribes or casts, as the Bouddhus, the Joinus, the Shikhs, and the followers of Cheitunyu, &c. The religious notions of all these sects, are, in substance, the same--one great mass of idolatry and mysti. cism. The object of worship is the same throughout India, Tartary, China, Japan, the Burman Empire, Siam, and the Indian Isles, with only some unimportant variations in the forms. Some of the Hindoo sects, however, have a few doctrines peculiar to themselves.
The following is an Analysis of all the Hindoo sects extracted from the Vidwunmodu-Turunginse, a work by Chirunjeevu :
This work begins with the followiug invocation to Doorga : - May she who removes the darkness of the mind, who is revealed from everlasting, who, though invisible, exists on the earth, who enlightens the ignorant, whose forehead is adorned with the crescent, the fixed rays of whose body resemble the lightning, whose body is like the clouds--descend into my mind.'
Then follows an account of the author's family, after which the author introduces the reader to the court of Dukshu,king of Gouru, where the priest of the king, and a number of learned men, are assembled in the presence of the monarch.
In the first place, the master of the ceremonies announces to the monarch the approach of a Voishnuvu, in the following words : ' May it please your majesty, the person now approaching wears the mark of his sect, extending from the tip of his nose to the centre of his head; has the representations of the weapons of Vishpoo impressed on his body ; is clothed in yellow garments, and wears a necklace of toolusee beads : he has purified his body by bathing, &c. and repeats the name Huree, Huree, as he comes. The Voishnuvu now approaches the king, and says, “May Vishnoo enter thy mind ;he on whom Shivu and all the gods, sitting as yogees, medi. tate ; be who dwells in Voikoont'ho; he who 6lls the universe, but remains invisible ; and whose body resembles that of Brumha.'-Saving this he takes his seat in the assembly.
The master of the ceremonies, seeing a Shoiva approaching mentions him to the king in these words :- The excellent person who is now coming, bas his bair bound up as a tur. ban round his head : is girt round the waist with a tiger's skin ; is covered with ashes ; and his head, neck, and arms, are surrounded with roodraksha bead-rolls. The Shoivu, entering the presence of the king, pronounces the following blessing :--- May Shunkoru, who instructs the world; whose praises are celebrated in the vedus, tuntrus, and the poora. Dus; who is the object of meditation to the yogee; who directs the gods in the work of creation ; wbo, though invisible, for the preservation of the world becomes visible; who meditates on his own qualities may he preserve thee.' After wbich, he takes his place in the assembly.
The pundit next announces a Shaktu, thus:--He who now approaches, comes like the full moon, with a java flower in the air, a garland of mullika flowers encircling his neck ; a crescent, the mark of his sect, on bis forehead; he comes meditating on Doorga.' The shaktu then addresses the king : - May she, on whom Huree, Huru, and Brumha depend in the work of preservation, destruction, and creation ; she who destroys the fear of future birth ; who saves the three worlds ; who destroys the enemies, and fulóls the desires of her disciples-may this goddess preserve thee.' After this, he sits down.
The same person next annonpces a Huree-Hura-dwoituvadee:-He who now advances, is adorned with a toolusee necklace, is covered with ashes, meditates on Huree-Huru, and invites others, for the sake of their salvation, to become the disciples of this god.' He thus blesses the king :- May both Shunkuru and Vishnoo dwell in their heart, the ball of whom is engaged in the devotions of a yogee, and near the other half sits Lukshmee ; he who encircles himself with Ununtu, (the king of serpents,) who rides on Gurooru-may he, entering thy mind, preserve thee.' Saying this he sits down.
A Noiyayiku and a Voisheshiku, come hand in hand, and are thus announced These come viewing the assembly with the utmost contempt, the goddess of learning dancing on their tongues.' They then salute the king :-May God preserve thee ; he wbo, taking the forms of Brumha, Vishnoo, and Shivu, creates, preserves, and destroys the world ; he
who influences all to good and evil; he whose will, whose work, and whose wisdom, are irresistible; he who exists as separate from animal life, and who is fulness itself.'
The next person introduced is a Meemangsuku, who is thus described :- This man approaches with the marks of vows and of a sacrificer upon him, teaching his disciples the forms of religion. He thus blesses the monarch ;– May your Majesty always be engaged in religious services, which raised Indru to his throne, Sooryu to be monarch over the hosts of heaven ; and the merit of which indeed, descending to thee from a former birth, has now raised thee to a kingly throne.' Having pronounced this blessing, he sits down.
The master of the ceremonies next introduces a Vedantee thus :- This person comes as one who has renounced all pleasure ; his apparel is painted with earth from the mountains, and in his hand he holds a dundee's staff ; having ascended the vessel which is to carry him across the ocean of this world, he approaches as though he were coining to preserve from destruction this whole assembly.” Addressing the king, the Vedantee says, “May the glorious Being, who is wisdom and joy, who is omnipresent, the only one, the everlasting, who is free from passion, in whom the universe exists as a shadow of the sun in the water, may he give thee the knowledge, that thou art the same with him.' Having said this, he sits down.
The next persons announced, are followers of the Sankhyu, and another of the Patunjulu school. They are thus described :— These come with bodies bulky towards the head, and lean at the extremities ; professing similar sentiments, and meditating on realities. Being introduced, he of the Sankhyu sect thus addresses the monarch :-May nature, (unaffected by spirit, as the water-lily by the water,) by whom, beginning with greatness, the universe was made, prosper thee.' The Patunjula thus blesses the king :- May the king pursue pleasure communicated by the vein through which the soul of the yogee, ascended to the bisilar suture, from the body, and obtains final deliverance.' He then sits down.
A Pouraniku next approaches, and is thus described :Here comes a person full of words, with a mind fixed on God, instructing others in religious duty.' He thus addresses the king :- May Narayunu preserve thee; he who in the form of a fish brought up the vedus : who in that of a boar, saved the earth ; in that of a tortoise supports the universe ; in that of a lion destroyed a giant ; in that of a dwarf, carried