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to the pagods, nor limited to Thibet, but settle where they please ; and soon acquire great riches, by the offerings of their numerous worshippers. One of them who resided among the Kalka Mongols, about the begioning of the last century, set up for himself, in opposition to his master, assuming all the privileges and powers which the Grand Lama pretends to : and, in all likelihood, others from time to time will follow his example.
For keeping up discipline and order in ecclesiastical matters there is a kind of hierarchy in Thibet, consisting of church officers, answering to the archbishops, bishops, and priests. They have also their priors, abbots, and abbesses, superiors, provincials, or such like degrees, for ordering what concerns the regular clergy. The Lamas, or priests, who preside over the temples throughout the country, are sent from the college of the Lama's disciples before mentioned. The other Lamas officiate as assistants at divine service in the churches and monasteries; or go abroad on the mission into foreign countries.
Regis says, the Lamas generally wear a woollen frize like ours, but narrower, and not so close; yet it is lasting, and retains its colour. They use, besides the hat, different kinds of bopnets, according to their several dignities ; one of which is somewhat remarkable, as it resembles our bishops' mitres, but they wear the slit before. - The Great Lama's colour is red; but as the Emperor of China has gained some footing in Thibet, those of his party, as well as all the Mongol and Kalka Lamas, wear yellow. Bentink, speaking of these latter, observes, that they go habited in long yellow robes, with great sleeves, which they bind about their waist with a girdle of the same colour, two fingers broad. They have the head and beard shaved very close, and wear yellow hats. They always carry a great pair of beads of coral, or yellow amber, in their hands, which they turn incessantly between their fingers, saying prayers to themselves after their manner. The nuns wear very nearly the same dress, excepting that they wear bonnets edged with fur, instead of hats, which the Lamas wear.
The multitude of Lamas in Thibet is incredible, hardly a family being without one, either out of their devotion, or expectations of preferment in the Grand Lama's service.
As to their character, if you will take it from their greatest adversaries, the missionaries, most of them are debauched ;
yet they govern Princes, who give them the chief place in as: -- semblies, and are blindly followed by their votaries, who give
the best of what they have. Some of them are tolerably skilledin medicine ; others have some notion of astronomy, and can calculate eclipses. Bernier met with one of these Lama physicians at Kasmir, who came in the train of an ambassador from Great Thibet. He had with him a book of recipes, which he would by no means part with.
Regis represents them as very ignorant, affirming that few of them can read or understand their ancient books, or even say their prayers, which are in an ancient tongue, and character, no longer spoken or known. But this charge must be unjust, if other writers may be credited. Besides, Friar Horace declares, that there are in Thibet universities and colleges for teaching the things relating to their law or religion.
RELIGION AND CEREMONIES
OF THE JAPANESE.
Liberty of conscience, so far as it does not interfere with the secular government, or affect the peace and tranquillity of the empire, has been at all times allowed in Japan, as it is in most other countries of Asia. Hence it is that foreign religions were introduced with ease, and propagated with success, to the great prejudice of that which was established in the country from remotest antiquity. There were formerly four religions, considerable for the number of their adherents :
1. Sinto, the old religion, or idol worship, of the Japanese.
2. Budsdo, the worship of foreign idols, brought over into Japan, from the kingdom of Siam, and the empire of China.
3. Siuto, the doctrine of their moralists and philosophers.
4. Devius, or Kiristando, that is the way of God and Christ, or Christian religion. · Of the two chief religions, the Sinto and the Budso, which now flourish and are tolerated in Japan, the Sintos must be considered in the first place, more for its antiquity and long standing, than for the number of its adherents.
Sinto, which is also called Sinsju, and Kamimitsi, is the idol-worship, as of old established in the country. Sin and Kami denote the idols which are the object of this worship. Jo and Mitsi, signify the way or method of worshipping these idols. Sin signifies faith or religion. Sinsja, in the plural Sidsju, the persons who adhere to this religion.
The more immediate end which the followers of this religion propose to themselves, is a state of happiness in this world. They have indeed some, though but obscure and imperfect, notions of the immortality of the soul, and a future state of bliss or misery. And yet, little mindful as they are of what will become of them in that future state, so great is their care and attention to worship those gods whom they believe to have a peculiar sbare in the government and management of this world, with a more immediate influence, each according to his functions, over the occurrences and vecessities of human life. And, although they acknowledge a Supreme Being, who, as they believe, dwells in the highest heaven, and though they likewise admit of some inferior gods, whom they place among the stars, they do not worship and adore them, nor have they any festivals sacred to them, thinking, that be. ings, which are so much above us, will little concern themselves about our affairs.
However, they swear by these superior gods, whose names are constantly inserted in the form of their oath : but they worship and invoke those gods, whom they believe to have the sovereign command of their country, and the supreme direction of its produce, its elements, water, animals, and other things, and who, by virtue of his power, can more immediately affect their present condition, and make them either happy or miserable in this life. They are the more attentive in paying a due worship to these divinities, as they seem to be persuaded, that this alone is sufficient to cleanse and to purify their hearts, and that doubtless by their assistance and intercession, they will obtain in the future life rewards proportionable to their behaviour in this. This religion seems to be nearly as ancient as the nation itself.
The priests teach their system of divinity to others for a proper consideration, and under an obligation of secrecy ; particularly when they come to the last article, which relates to the beginning of all things, they take special care not to reveal the same to the disciple, till he has obliged himself with an oath signed with his hand and seal, not to profane such sacred and sublime mysteries, by discovering them to the ig. norant and incredulous laity. The original text of this mysterious doctrine is contained in the following words taken out of a book, which they called Odaiki : “ Kai fakuno fasime Dsjusio Fuso Tatojaba Jujono sui soni ukunga Gotosi Tentsijno utsijni Itsi butsu wo seosu Katats Igeno gotosi fenquas ste sin to nar kuni toko datsno Mikoito to goos ;'' that is, “In the beginning of the opening of all things, a chaos floated, as fishes swim in the water for pleasure. Out of this chaos arose a thing like a prickle, moveable and transformable; this tbing became a soul or spirit, and this spirit is called Kunitokodatsno Mikotto.”
The Sinsju, that is, the adherents of the Sintos religion, call their temples, or churches, mia, which word signifies dwelling places of immortal souls. They come nearest to the fana of the ancient Romans, as they are, generally speaking, so many lasting monuments erected to the memory of great men. They call them also jasijro, and sia, or sinsja, which last takes in the whole court of the mia, with all other buildings and dependencies belonging to it. The gods, who are the subject of their worship, they call Sin and Cami, souls or spirits. Sometimes also they honour them with the epithet of Miosin, sublime, illustrious, holy; and Gongen, just, severe, jealous.
The mias, as indeed all convents and religious houses in general, as well of this as of their other sects, are seated in the pleasantest parts of the country, on the best spots of ground, and commonly within or near great cities, towns, villages, and other inhabited places. A broad and spacious walk, planted with rows of fine cypress trees, leads strait to the mia, or else to the temple-court, on which there are sometimes several mias standing together, and in this case the walk leads directly to that, which is reckoned the chief. The mias are, generally speaking, seated in a pleasant wood, or on the ascent of a fine green hill, and have neat stone stair-cases leading up to them.
The adherents of the Sintos religion do not believe the Py. thagorean doctrine of the transmigration of souls, although almost universally received by the eastern nations. However they abstain from killing and eating those beasts which are serviceable to mankind, thinking it an act of cruelty and ungratefulness. They believe that their souls, after their departure from the bodies, migrate to a place of happiness, seated just beneath the thirty-three heavens and dwelling places of their gods, which, on this account, they call Tkamanofarra, which signifies, “high and sub-celestial fields ;” that the souls of those who have led a good life in this world are admitted without delay ; but that the souls of the bad and impious are denied entrance and condemned to err, without a time sufficient to expiate their crimes. This is all they know of a future state of bliss.
They admit no hell, no places of torment, no Cimmerian darkness, no unfortunate state attending our souls in a world to
come. Nor do they know of any other devil, but that which they suppose to animate the fox; a very mischievous animal in this country, and so much dreaded, that some are of opinion, that the impious after their death are transformed into foxes ; which their priests call Ma, that is, evil spirits.
The chief points of the Sintos religion are, 1. Inward purity of heart.
2. A religious abstinence from whatever makes a man impure.
3. A diligent observance of the solemn festivals and holy days.
4. Pilgrimages to the holy places at Isie. To these some very religious people add,
5. Chastising and mortifying their bodies.
Let us speak of these severally :-To begin, therefore, with inward purity of heart, which consists in doing, or omitting those things which they are ordered to do, or to avoid ; either by the law of nature, the dictates of reason, or the more immediate and special command of civil magistrates.
As to external purity, the observance whereof, though less material in itself, has yet been more strictly commanded. It consists in abstaining from blood ; from eating flesh, and from dead bodies. Those who have rendered themselves impure by any of these things are thereby disabled from going to the temples ; from visiting holy places, and in general from appearing in the presence of the gods. Whoever is stained with his own or other blood, is fusio for seven days, that is, impure and unfit to approach holy places. No woman must come to the temple during monthly terms. It is commonly believed, that in the holy pilgrimage to Isje, the monthly terms do for that time entirely cease : which, it true, must be owing either to the fatigues of a long and tedious journey, or to their taking great pains to conceal it, for fear their labour and expenses sbould thereby become useless. Whoever eats the flesh of any four footed beast, deer only excepted, is fusio for thirty days. On the contrary, whoever eats a fowl wild or tame, water fowls, pheasants, and cranes excepted, is fusio but a Japanese hour, which is equal to two of ours. Whoever kills a beast, or is present at an execution, or attends a dying person, or comes into a house where a dead body lies, is fusio that day.
But of all the things which make us impure, none is reck. oned so very contagious as the death of parents and near relations. The nearer you are related to the dead person, se much the greater the impority. All ceremonies to be okia