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obliged to learn of the other Lamas ; who only know the child appointed by the preceding Grand Lawna to succeed him.

To keep up this opinion of his immortality, the Lamas after his death, seek, throughout the whole kingdom, for another person, as like unto him, in all respects, as may be, to supply his place ; and thus he has undergone a new resurrection, or incarnation, seven times since his first appearance. Bernier relates the matter thus, as he had it from a Lama physician. When the Great Lama is old, and ready to die, he assembles his council, and declares to them, that now he was passing into the body of a little child, lately born ; that when this child, who was bred up with great care, was six or seven years of age, they (by way of trial) laid before him a parcel of household goods mixed with his own, which yet he could distinguish from the rest ; and this he said, was a manifest proof of the transmigration.

Grueber says, that this belief is propagated by the policy of their kings, and those who are in the secret of this cheat, in conjunction with the Lama Konju. The Romish missionaries rail heavily at this imposture calling it wicked and diabolical, as it, besides transubstantiation, which is worse, they had no other impostures in their own religion. But it is done, doubtless, out of envy ; because they have none which redounds so much to the honour and wealth of themselves.

Grueber says, the Great Lama sitteth in a remote apartment of his palace, adorned with gold and silver and illuminated with lamps, in a lofty place like a couch, covered with costly tapestry. In approaching him, his votaries fall prostrate with their heads to the ground, and kiss him with incredible veneration. Thus, adds the Jesuit, hath the devil, through his innate malignity, transferred to the worship of this people that veneration which is due only to the pope of Rome, Christ's vicar, in the same manner as he hath done all the other mysteries of the Christian religion.

The same author farther observes, that he always appears with his face covered ; letting none see it but those who are in the secret : that he acts his part extremely well, while the Lamas, or priests, who are perpetually about him, attend him with great assiduity, and expound the oracles that are taken from his mouth. Here it must be noted, that Grueber learns all he writes concerning the Great Lama from the citizens of Barantola ; for the missionaries could not see him, no Christian being admitted into his presence, nor, indeed, any body of a different religion, without adoring the pretended deity ; however, they took an exact copy of his picture, as it was

exposed to view in the entrance of the palace ; to which they paid the same veneration as to himself in person.

Bentinck tells us, that at the foot of the bigh mountain near Putala, whereon the Dalay Lama resides, about twenty thousand Lamas dwell in several circles round it, according as the rank and dignities which they possess, render them more worthy to approach the person of their sovereign pontiff.

According to the account transmitted by Regis, the Grand Lama sits cross-legged on a kind of altar, with a large and magnificent cushion under him ; where he receives the compliments, or rather adorations, not only of his own subjects, but of prodigious multitudes of strangers ; who make long journies to offer him their homage, and obtain his blessing. Some even travel there from India, who never fail to enlarge before him upon their own merit, and magnify the sufferings they have undergone in their painful pilgrimage. But next to the people of Thibet, the Tartars are most devoted to the Grand Lama, some of whom resort to Lasa from the most distant corners. When the Eluths-Dsongari invaded Thibet, the sister of Ayuki, Khan of the Eluths-Torgauti, with her son, was at Lassa upon the like errand.

Princes are no more excused from this servile adoration than the meanest of their subjects ; nor do they meet with more respect from the Grand Lama, who never moves from his cushion, nor any other way returns the salute. He only lays his band upon the head of the worshippers, who then think all their sins pardoned. The Lamas who drew the map observed, that in receiving the Emperor's ambassador, he did not kneel like the Tartar princes ; but when he inquired after Kang-ki's health, resting upon one hand, he only made a small motion, as if he intended to rise from his seat. He was at that same time dressed in a red habit of woollen frize, such as the common Lamas wear, with a yellow hat, gilt.

Grueber assures us that the grandees of the kingdom are very eager to procure the excrements of this divinity, which they usually wear about their necks as relics. In another place, he says that the Lamas make a great advantage by the Targe presents they receive for helping the grandees to some of his excrements, or urine ; for by wearing the first about their necks, and mixing the latter with their victuals, they imagine themselves to be secure against all bodily infirmities. In confirmation of this, Gerbillon informs us, that the Mongols wear his excrements pulverized in little bags about their aecks, as precious reliques, capable of preserving them from all misfortures, and curing them of all sorts of distempers.

When this Jesuit was on his second journey into Westero Tartary, a deputy from one of the principal Lamas, offered the Emperor's uncle a certain powder, contained in a little packet of very white paper, neatly wrapped up in a scarf of very white taffety ; but that prince told him, that as it was not the custom of the Manchews to make use of such things, he durst not receive it. The author took this powder to be either some of the Great Lama's excrements, or the ashes of something that had been used by him.

Trophies are erected on the tops of the mountains in honour of the Great Lama, for the preservation of men and catlle. All the Kings, who profess the religion of the Great Lama, before they are inaugurated, send ambassadors with very rich presents, to crave his benediction, as a means to render their reigns happy.

Formerly, the Dalay Lama, was merely a spiritual prince ; but he is now become a temporal one also, with a large patrimony ; the Chian of the Eluths, who conquered it in the 17th century, having made him a present of it, which is a much larger patrimony than that called St. Peter's, usurped by the Popes. Yet for all this, Bentink informs us, that he does not meddle, in any sort; with the temporality of his dominions, or suffer


of his Lamas to meddle with it; but puts all secular matters under the government of two Khans of the Kalmucks, who are to furnish him with all things necessary for the maintenance of his family. When he has any political affairs to transact, it is the Deva (or Tipa, a sort of plenipotentiary,) who acts under his orders.

The religion of the Great Lama seems to be more extended than any other in the world ; for besides Thibet, which is its pative seat, it has spread itself over all the Indies, China, and Western Tartary, from one end to the other. It is true, the provinces of the Indies and China, bave many ages ago thrown off his jurisdiction, and set up chief priests of their own, who have modelled the religion of their respective countries, according to their different fancies, or interest. But Thibet, and the greater part of Tartary, are still subject to him in spirituals. The better to govern this vast dominion he constitutes deputies, or vicars, to officiate in his stead. These are called Hutuktus, or Khutuktus; which, according to Regis, are chosen from among the disciples of the Great Latia. It is esteemed a real happiness to be admitted inte the number of these last, which never exceeds two hundred ; and, they on whom the honour of Hutuktu is conferred, are considered as so many lesser Fos; they are neither confined

to the pagods, nor limited to Thibet, but settle where they please ; and soon acquire great riches, by the offerings of ibeir numerous worshippers. One of them who resided among the Kalka Mongols, about the begioning of the last century, set up for himself, in opposition to his master, assuming all the privileges and powers which the Grand Lama pretends to : and, in all likelihood, others from time to time will follow his example.

For keeping up discipline and order in ecclesiastical matters there is a kind of hierarchy in Thibet, consisting of church officers, answering to the archbishops, bishops, and priests. They bave also their priors, abbots, and abbesses, superiors, provincials, or such like degrees, for ordering what concerns the regular clergy. The Lamas, or priests, who preside over the temples throughout the country, are sent from the college of the Lama's disciples before mentioned. The other Lamas officiate as assistants at divine service in the churches and monasteries ; or go abroad on the mission into foreign countries.

Regis says, the Lamas generally wear a woollen frize like ours, but narrower, and not so close; yet it is lasting, and retains its colour. They use, besides the hat, different kinds of bopnets, according to their several dignities ; one of which is somewhat remarkable, as it resembles our bishops' mitres, but they wear the slit before.

The Great Lama's colour is red; but as the Emperor of China has gained some footing in Thibet, those of his party, as well as all the Mongol and Kalka Lamas, wear yellow. Bentink, speaking of these latter, observes, that they go habited in long yellow robes, with great sleeves, which they bind about their waist with a girdle of the same colour, two fingers broad. They have the head and beard shaved very close, and wear yellow hats. They always carry a great pair of beads of coral, or yellow amber, in their hands, which they turn incessantly between their fingers, saying prayers to themselves after their manner. The nuns wear very nearly the same dress, excepting that they wear bonnets edged with fur, instead of hats, which the Lamas wear.

The multitude of Lamas in Thibet is incredible, hardly a family being without one, either out of their devotion, or expectations of preferment in the Grand Lama's service.

As to their character, if you will take it from their greatest adversaries, the missionaries, most of them are debauched ; yet they govern Princes, who give them the chief place in assemblies, and are blindly followed by their votaries, who give the best of what they have. Some of them are tolerably skilledin medicine ; others have some notion of astronomy, and can calculate eclipses. Bernier met with one of these Lama physicians at Kasmir, who came in the train of an ambassador from Great Thibet. He had with him a book of recipes, which he would by no means part with.

Regis represents them as very ignorant, affirming that few of them can read or understand their ancient books, or even say

their prayers, which are in an ancient tongue, and character, no longer spoken or known. But this charge must be unjust, if other writers may be credited. Besides, Friar Horace declares, that there are in Thibet universities and colleges for teaching the things relating to their law or religion.




Liberty of conscience, so far as it does not interfere with the secular government, or affect the peace and tranquillity of the empire, has been at all times allowed in Japan, as it is in most other countries of Asia. Hence it is that foreign religions were introduced with ease, and propagated with success, to the great prejudice of that which was established in the country from remotest antiquity. There were formerly four religions, considerable for the number of their adherents :

1. Sinto, the old religion, or idol worship, of the Japanese.

2. Budsdo, the worship of foreign idols, brought over into Japan, from the kingdom of Siam, and the empire of China.

3. Siuto, the doctrine of their moralists and philosophers.

4. Devius, or Kiristando, that is the way of God and Christ, or Christian religion.

Of the two chief religions, the Sinto and the Budso, which now flourish and are tolerated in Japan, the Sintos must be considered in the first place, more for its antiquity and long standing, than for the number of its adherents.

Sinto, which is also called Sinsju, and Kamimitsi, is the idol-worship, as of old established in the country. Sin and Kami denote the idols which are the object of this worship. Jo and Mitsi, signify the way or method of worshipping these idols. Sin signifies faith or religion. Sinsja, in the plural Sidsju, the persons who adhere to this religion.

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