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same numerical body which did fall shall rise ; that this resurrection shall be universal, no man excepted ; that the just shall be raised to a resurrection of life, and the unjust to a ressurrection of damnation; and that this shall be performed at the last day, when the trumpet shall sound.
Exposition. I believe that the just, after their resurrection and absolution, shall, as the blessed of the Father, receive the inheritance, and, as the servants of God, enter into their Mas. ter's joy, freed' from all possibility of death, sin, and sorrow, filled with an inconceivable fulness of happiness, confirmed in an absolute security of an eternal enjoyment in the presence of God and of the Lamb forever.
Thus far the profession of the Catholic faith is perfectly conformable to doctrines of the Church of England, as laid down by the Apostles' and Nicene creeds. The remaining twelve articles, with the expositions, exhibit a portion of the faith of the Roman Catholics, somewhat repugnant to the Protestant Churches.
ARTICLE XIII. I most firmly admit and embrace the apostolical and ecclesiastical traditions, and all other observances and constitutions of the same church. • Exposition.—The Roman Catholic Christians say, that the whole doctrine, to be delivered to the faithful, is contained in the Word of God, which Word of God is distributed into scripture and tradition; scripture signifies simply writing ; tradition, that which has been preserved and handed down to us by words, from generation to generation ; and the Catholics have many arguments in favour of tradition, as forming part of the word or revealed will of God.
ARTICLE XIV. I do admit the Holy Scriptures in the same sense that our Holy Mother Church doth, whose business it is to judge of the true sense and interpretation of them ; and I will interpret them according to the unanimous consent of the fathers.
Exposition. --The Roman Catholics hold that the church, which is alone infallible, possesses the power of judging of the right sense of the holy scriptures, and of the traditions ; this church being always under the same divine influence that inspired the prophets and apostles of old. The apostolical traditions are those which are supposed to have had their origin. or institution from the apostles, such as infant baptism, the Lord's Day, or first day of the week, receiving the sacrament, &c.
Ecclesiastical traditions are such as received their institution
from the church, after the first age of the apostles ; such as holidays, feasts, fasts, &c.
They tell us, that the way by which we are to judge of what really are apostolical and ecclesiastical traditions, is the same as that by which the faithful judge of all matters of faith and doctrine, (viz.) the unerring authority of the church, expressed in her councils, and preserved in her universally admitted for mularies and constant practice.
ARTICLE XV. I do profess and believe, that there are seven sacraments, truly and properly so called, instituted by Jesus Christ our Lord, and necessary for the salvation of mankind, though not all of them to every one, (viz.) baptism, confirmation, eucharist, penance, extreme unction, orders, and matrimony, and that they do confer grace, and that of these things, baptism, confirmation, and orders, cannot be repeated without sacrilege. I also receive and admit the received and approved rites of the catholic church, in her solemn administration of all the aforesaid sacra. ments.
Exposition. A sacrament is supposed to be an institution of Christ, consisting of some outward sign or ceremony, by which grace is given to the soul of the worthy receiver.
Of these several sacraments, though they might appear rather to belong to the ceremonial part of the subject than to the doctrinal, it will be proper to give some account in this place, inasmuch as they form so essential a portion of the catholic faith. The accompanying cuts will assist the reader in understanding the forms used in their administration.
1. BAPTISM, according to the Roman Catholics, is an institution of Christ of a very important nature. The mode in which it is administered is somewhat similar to that observed by the Church of England. In this particular, however, the Church of Rome appears to have the advantage, in point of liberality, if I may so term it: should an unbaptised infant fall sick, and there be no priest at hand to administer this holy sacrament, the nurse, or any other person, of the congregation of the faithful, may perform the sacred office : for, argue the Catholics, it were a sad thing that the soul of a child should be damned eternally for want of this essential rite, through the unavoidable necessity of the priest's absence ; and it is clear that the Roman Catholics do hold the indespensible necessity of baptism, from the 10th Article of Pope Pius's Creed, which enjoins this rite " for the remission of sins ;' including, of course, original curruption as well as actual transgression.
The ceremonies now used in the administration of baptism, according to several approved authors, are as follows : First, they consecrate the water with prayer, and pouring in oi oil three times : Secondly, they cross the party on the eyes, ears, nose, and breast : Thirdly, he is exorcised with a certain charm, or exsufflation, or breathing : Fourthly, they put corse
crated salt into his mouth: Fifthly, they put spittle into his nose and ears : Sixthly, they add imposition of hands, and the sacerdotal blessing : Seventhly, they anoint him with holy oil on the breast : and, Eighthly, they anoint him on the crown of the head, using perfume, &c.
It was anciently the practice to give the party the kiss of peace ; to put a lighted taper in bis hand ; give him milk and honey to drink ; and then clothe him with a white garment; but these practices are now, I believe, universally laid aside. The words used, and the rest of the form, are similar to those in the protestant episcopal churches.
Baptism, amongst the Roman Catholics, is not confined to infants, nor to adults ; but, properly speaking, they may be ranked amongst the supporters of infant baptism ; for in this respect, like other Christians, they have varied in their practice, though not in their opinions on the subject.
2. CONFIRMATION, is a sacrament wherein, by the Invocation of the Holy Ghost, and the imposition of the bishop's hands, with the unction of holy chrism, a person receives the grace of the Holy Spirit, and a strength to enable him to make profession of his faith. In this sacrament the Roman Catholics make use of olive oil, and balm ; the oil to signify the clearness of a good conscience; and the balm as the savour of a good reputation. They use the following form : “ I sign thee with the sign of the cross, and confirm thee with the chrism of salvation, in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost."
Calmet says, the Confirmation is that which makes us perfect Christians, and impresses an indelible character after baptism, and imparts to us the spirit of fortitude, whereby we are enabled to profess Christianity, even at the hazard of our lives ; and is thereby deemed a sacrament of the church.
3. The EUCHARIST, or Lord's SUPPER, is a sacrament of infinite importance in the catholic church, and has given rise to more controversy and dispute than all the rest put together. These Christians believe and assert, that the Eucharist signifies that sacrament which really and in truth contains the very body and blood of our Saviour, transubstantiated, or transformed, into the appearance of bread and wine, when consecrated and set apart at the sacrifice of the mass, which shall be fully explained farther on. It is called the Eucharist, because Jesus Christ, in the institution of this divine sacrament, gave thanks to God, broke the bread, and blessed the cup: Eucharistia, in Greek, signifies thanksgiving, and answers to the Hebrew word Barach, to bless, or Hodah, to praise.
The administration of this sacrament must be explained when we come to treat of the Mass more particularly.
4. PENANCE, or Infliction, the art of using or submitting to punishment, public or private, as an expression of repentance for sin, is deemed one of the seven sacraments. It includes confession of sins to the priest, which, if accompanied with sin
cere contrition, and a promise of future amendment, with restitution, upou absolution received, on these conditions, from the priest, puts the penitent into a state of salvation.
Penance and absolution are so intimately connected in the catholic church, that it will be necessary to give some further explanation of this sacrament. This, the Council of Trent has decreed to consist of some outward sigo or ceremony, by which grace is given to the soul of the wortby believer. li was, they add, instituted by Christ, when, breathing upon the disciples, he gave them the Holy Ghost, with power to remit or retain sins ; that is to reconcile the faithful fallen into sin, after baptism. It differs from baptism not only in matter and form, but, also, because the minister of baptism is not a judge in that ordinance ; whereas, after baptisın, the sinper presents himself before the tribunal of the priest as guilty, to be set at liberty by his sentence. It is, however, as necessary as baptism. The form consists in the words “I do absolve thee.” Contrition, confession, and satisfaction, are parts of penance, and the effect of it is reconciliation with God. Contrition is griet of mind for sins committed, with purpose to sin no more, and was necessary at all times, but especially such as sin after baptism. It is a preparation to remission of sins. By penance the church has ever understood that Christ hath instituted the entire confession of sins, as necessary by the law of God, to those who fall after baptism : for, having instituted the priests his vicars for judges of all mortal sins, it is certain that they cannot exercise this judgment without knowledge of the cause ; but, when this is done, the priest, who has authority, delegate, or ordinary, over the penitent, remits his sins by a judicial act; and the greater priests reserve to themselves the pardon of some fauts more grievous ; as does the Pope ; and there is no doubt the every bishop may do this in his diocese ; and this reservation is of force betore God. In the hour of death any priest may absolve any penitent from any sin. What the satisfactions are, as iniposed by the priests, are too well known, concludes the Council of Trent, to require any description.
But, as this may not be quite so clear to my reader, I think it proper briefly to state, that satisfactions here mean, restitution to the parties sinnert against, bodily mortifications, charity, or alms-giving, and sometimes donations to the church. I think it more proper to give this explanation, because, I know there exists a very common opinion amongst my brother Protestants, that Roman Catholic priests affect to pardon sins of the deepest dye for money : or, in other words, that the faithful, as they are called, may purchase an indemnity for the commission of all sorts of crimes; this is a great slander, and ought not to be repeated, nor kept alive ; if any priests have been wicked enough to take such an advantage of the ignorant, on their own heads be it ;-the church, of which such priests are a disgrace, disavows any such sordid and impious practices. But of this more, when we come to treat of Indulgencies.
5. EXTREME UNCTION is a sacrament of a very singular nature, and is only administered to persons in imminent danger of immediate death ; it is the office of religion applied to the soul. A well known book, entitled “Grounds of the Catholic Faith,” says that we have a full description of this sacrament in James v. 14, 15, where it is said, “Is any sick among you, let bim call for the elders the priests of the church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord ; and the prayer of faith sball save the sick, and the Lord shall raise him up ; and if he have committed sins, they shali be forgiven him.”
It is evident, therefore, that extreme unction consists in prayer, and in anointing the body with oil. It is called extreme unction, because administered in the last extreinity.
6. ORDERS. The Council of Trent is very severe upon those who say that orders, or holy ordination, to the office of priests, is not truly and properly a sacrament, instituted by our Lord Jesus Christ A dreadful anathema is denounced upon all such, and against all those who say that the Holy Ghost is not given by holy ordination. Orders are a sacrament instituted by Cbrist, hy which bishops, priests, &c. are consecrated to their respective functions, and receive grace to discharge them well; if this be true, it is certainly a sacrament of great value.
7. MATRIMONY, or Marriage, is also a sacrament conferring grace ; and those who say to the contrary let them be an anathema, decrees the Council of Trent. But this is not all : “if any man says, a churchman in holy orders may marry, or contract marriage, and that, when it is contracted, it is good and valid, notwithstanding any ecclesiastical law to the contrary, or that any who have vowed continence may contract marriage, let him be an anathema.” This is a singular sentence ; but the church has so decreed.
As to the form of marriage in the catholic church, it differs pothing materially from that performed in the church of England; it is performed either in private or in public, in the open church or in a private dwelling, as may suit the wishes or designs of those who are to receive the grace of this holy sacrament.
Such is a brief description of the seven sacraments of the Roman Catholic Church. We now proceed with Pope Pius's ereed.
ARTICLE XVI. I embrace and receive every thing that hath been defined and declared by the holy council of Trent, concerning original sin and justification.
Exposition.-Good works, says the council, do truly deserve eternal life ; and whosoever holds the contrary is accursed.