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Religious Denominations, &c.

Present State of Religion, &c. ligious toleration and the general distribution of landed property, effected by the late changes in France, have given a spring to education among Ithat wealthy and active people which is likely to produce the happiest effects. The protestants are making great exertions to promote the interests of religion and education, with much encouragement and suc| cess. Here are 22,300“ Primary Schools.” Still the great majority of children are without education.


SPAIN. Catholics, without Toleration

The introduction of an Eng

lish army into these countries to any other Denomination.T'he late Cortes shewed a dis

had a tendency to weaken the position to enlighten the peo

prejudices of the people against ple, and tolerate Protestants ; /?

protestants as heretics, though

there is little to recommend but' Ferdinand VII. since his

true religion in the general return has re-established the

morals of the soldiers. Some order of Jesuits, and the Inqui

of the late Cortes were also fasition ; and liberal men have |

vourable to a reformation of been made the objects of persecution.-The Catholic Cler

religion, and of the priests, gy in Spain are estimated at

which has been lately given as 200,000, and in Portugal but

the true reason of their being little less. In Portugal the

so obnoxious to the present same bigotry and superstition

government, which is certainly prevails, but the assistance !

under the influence of the They have received from

church. The Spanish univer

the English inclines them to some-||

sities, which have heretofore what more liberality ; and

I been numerous, and all their English Protestants may live

literary institutions, are in a riniolested, though not belov

low state. The pernicious efed. Population, 13,000.000. fects of monastic influence have The Government of Spain is a

excluded the modern improve

ments in education. The limited hereditary monarchy,

" country appears to be getting the power of making laws is on fixed in the Cortes jointly with

into a settled state under the the King - The Government of

of ancient regimen ; and the late

commotions, it would seem, a Cortes like that of Spain.

must produce an activity favourable to true religion and education. The operations of the press are rapidiy increas. ing, and the effect is sure,

Religious Denominations, &c. T Present Stale of Religion, &c. ITALY, including Naples and

ITALY. Sicily, Sardinia, &c. A protestant congregation Rome is the metropolis of the has been lately formed at NaCatholic Church, and the Pope-ples; the government has dom. No toleration to Protest- granted them one of the unocants can be expected here, cupied churches for their worthough the Pope shews some ship, and there seems a great peculiar civilities to the Eng. disposition to listen to evangelsish nation, for which he has ical preaching. It is said also, certainly abundant reason : that the Pope has complained but he has complained of a of the protestant worship being protestant church being allow- tolerated at Venice. Catholic ed at Venice. There are 9 or bigotry has long had less influ10,000 Jews resident in Rome ence in Italy than in some othand its vicinity.

Jer countries. Little of reliThe inhabitants of Naples gion remains in this fine cours and Sicily (about six millions) try but the forms of the cathare also Catholics. In~ 1782 olic church. The state of there were counted in Naples education is very low. And, above 45,525 priests, 24,694 although inonastic influence is monks, 20,793 nuns ; but the declining, the indolence of the next year a decree passed to people prevents any great efdissolve 466 convents, which forts for its revival. must have greatly lessened them. Population 15,000,000. Government, monarchical. TURKEY in Europe, with the

TURKEY. Isles of the Archipelago. It is hoped among the Greek,

The Empire is Mahometan, as well as Protestant Chrisand Toleration is purchased by tians, thinly scattered over this the payment of a capitation empire, may be found the seed Tax. Of Christians, those of of a future Christian church, the Greek Church are far the whenever it may please God to most numerous, and are in some open a door for the gospel to parts (as in Moldavia and Wal- enter this country. Great eflachia) admitted to places of forts are made by the Greeks, trust and bonour. The Greeks, amid all the burdens of their in general, are subject to the oppressive war, to restore their Patriarch of Constantinople in ancient literature. Should they ecclesiastical matters ; but obtain their independence, of there are some Armenians, which the prospect is favouraCopts, Nestorians, &c. The ble, there is reason to expect Jews are very numerous, and the establishment of Christiansubject to a chief of their own ity among them, on gospel nation. Government despotic. principles, which may open the Population, 8,000,000. way for the restoration of the

church to the land of its nativity. From the indolent and dissolute Turk little is to be expected.

Religious Denominations, &c. Present State of Religion, &c. Russia in Europe.

RUSSIA. The Greek Church is the es- The emperor's patronage of tablishment in this country, bible societies in Petersburgh, with a free Toleration to Ras: Moscow, &c. cannot but have kolniks, or Dissenters, as well a favourable aspect to the cause as to Catholics, Protestants and of true religion. Mr. PinkerJews.

ton gives a pleasing account of The Church is governed, not the orthodoxy of the Greek by the patriarch of Constanti- | Church, as to the main points nople, as formerly ; but by a of the Christian religion, and grand national council of Ec- mentions several denominations clesiastics, in which the Em- of Raskolniks (or Dissenters) peror has a layman of bigb who discover much of the life rank as his representative. and power of religion. Under The church service is perform the munificent patronage of the ed in the old Sclavonian lan- emperor and the benevolent guage.-[Pinkerton.] Popu- exertions of many of the nobillation, 33,000,000. Govern- ity, the interests of education ment, a Constitutional mon-are much improving. But archy.

much is to be done, for the greater part of the peasantry are in a most ignorant and depressed state.


ASIA. RUSSIA in Asia, including Sibel RUSSIA in Asia.

ria, Kamschatka, &c. The United Brethren have The Greek Church is the es- long had a missionary estab. tablished religion in all the civ- lishment at Sarepta, and the ilized provinces ; but with a Russian government encourage general toleration throughout ed protestant settlements on this vast empire. A great part the banks of the Wolga. Some of the inhabitants of the Desert years since the Edinburgh misare Pagan Tartars of the Sam- sionary society also attempted inan religion. Some attach a mission at Karass, near Asgreat importance to the form trachan : but all were broken of their whiskers ; and the Al-up (at least for the present) by taians are so fond of military the calamitous effects of the show, that they dress up their late war. The missionaries of idol deity in the uniform ot an both settlements have, howevofficer of dragoons. The Kam- er, in the mean time been useschatkans have been converted fully and honorably employed to the Greek religion by a ten in translating the New Testayears exemption from all tax- ' ment, the one (whose work is ég ! Population, 3,000,000. already in circulation,) into the Government, inonarchical. Turkish language, and the

other into that of the Kalmuck | Tartars, many of whom have


Religious Denominalions, &c. Present State of Religion, &c.

embraced Chistianity in the Greek Church. A mission is also in contemplation to the Mongul, and Manjur Tartars, who reside in that part of Siberia which borders on the Chinese empire.

Bible societies have been formed, not only at Petersburgh and Moscow under royal patronage, but in the provinces of Esthonia and Livonia, for the express purpose of printing the New Testament and religious

tracts in those dialects. TURKEY in Asia.

TURKEY, Arabia, Persia, TarMahometans occupy Pales

tary.. , . tine, or the holy land, Syria, Me

No Mission has yet been atsopotamia, and other countries, tempted to these countries, but the scene of Scripture history: the way is preparing by printing but there are also many Jews the Scriptures in almost all the and Christians, of various de- / various languages of the East. nominations, who are indulged, A mission was attempted by the by paying for it, with living un

late Mr. Bloomfield at the Isle of der the ecclesiastical govern Malta, with a view to introduce ment of the respective patri the gospel into the Greek (sles, archs, whether of Jerusalem or and eventually into Turkey ; Antioch, Alexandria or Con.

but the pestilence which raged stantinople. The same may be there, and the death of that missaid of the Nestorians, Armeni. sionary, have hitherto retarded ans, and other reputed sectaries. the object. It is not, however, Population, 10,000,000. Gov forgotten. Dr. Naudi has been ernment, monarchical, and irreg. attempting to excite attention to ular, void of liberty.

it among the Christians residing

on the borders of the MediterraARABIA.

nean ; and mentions it as a proMahometans, Sabeans, and mising circumstance, that there Wahabees. Population, 8 inil have been of late many converlions. Government-Each in sions of Jews residing in those land tribe is under the govern parts. A late decree in Persia ment of petty princes.(orSheiks.) | has permitted the public reading They have no other laws than 1 of the scriptures. No part of those found in the Koran.

the world affords a more inviting


| 20*

Religious Denominations, &c. Present State of Religion, &ci PERSIA.

scene for Christian enterprise:: Mahometans of the sect of than western Asia. The truths Ali (who differ from the Turks of God, so long taught in those as to the true successor of Ma-extensive and populous counhomet ;) also Sufis and Gaurs, tries, by the labours of prophets or Guebres, the disciples of Zo- and apostles, cannot be wholly roaster. Population, 10 mil. obliterated from the traditions lions. Government, absolute of the people. Their present despotism ; frequently rigorous state, from all the facts which and tyrannical. The King is re- we obtain, clearly evinces a degarded as master of the lives gree of preparation for the reand property of his subjects. ception of the gospel.

TARTARY. Mahometans, Pagans, and worshippers of the Grand Lama.. [See Shamans.] Population 6,000,000. Governmentcontrolled by independent chiefs.


CHINA. Pagans of various sects, but The Jesuits undertook a misChiefly worshippers of Foe. sion to this country in the 16th There are some Catholics, century, on the plan of blending Greeks, and Jews among them, the catholic religion with that of rather by connivance than legal Foe and the philosophy of Contoleration. The Russians have fucius ; this however was disa church at Pekin, and the Jews approved by Pope Innocent X. a synagogue at Kai-song-fou. and he enjoined a renunciation The catholics notwithstanding of their idolatries. In 1788 it the persecution they have met was reported that the catholics with, boast of 60,000 converts had, in the course of 30 years, still in Pekin. Populatlon 250 made 27,000 converts in the millions. Government, patri- province of Sushchuen, and archal and despotic.

30,000 in Nankin ; bụt a storm

of persecution gathered soon afJAPAN.

ter this, and the name of ChrisPagans, particularly Sintoos, tianity became peculiarly obnoxBudsves, and a kind of moral ious in China. A Chinese philosophers. (See Japanese.] Edict has lately been issued

The celebrated Francis Za- against the introduction of Mis. vier, and other Jesuits, com- sionaries and their books into menced a mission here in 1549, this country, yet the late Dr. and!


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