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(including Norway,) in which the form of ecclesiastical government that preceded the Reforination is retained; purged, indeed, from the superstitions and abuses that rendered it so odious.
“This constitution of the Lutheran hierarchy,” says Dr. Mosheim, “will not seem surprising, when the sentiments of that people, with respect to ecclesiastical polity, are duly considered. On the one hand they are persuaded that there is no law, of divine authority, which points out a distinction between the ministers of the gospel with respect to rank, dignity, or prerogatives ; and therefore they recede from Episcopacy. But, on the other hand, they are of opinion, that a certain subordination, a diversity in point of rank and privileges among the clergy, is not only highly useful, but also necessary to the perfection of church communion, by connecting, in consequence of a mutual dependence, more closely together, the members of the same body ; and thus they avoid the uniformity of the Presbyterian governments. They are not, however, agreed with respect to the extent of this subordination, and the degrees of superiority and precedence that ought to distinguish their doctors ; for in some places this is regulated with much more regard to the ancient rules of church government, than is discovered in others.
The constitution of the Lutheran church in Sweden bears great resemblance to that of the church of England. However, neither in Sweden, nor in Denmark, is that authority and dignity attached to the Episcopal office, which the church of England bestows upon her dignitaries. '
Lutheranism is the established creed and form of religion in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, in a great part of Germany. particularly in the north, and in Saxony ; in Livonia, and Esthonia, and the greatest part of Prussia. There are also Lutheran churches in Holland, Courland, Russia, Hungary, North America, the Danish West India Islands, &c. In Russia, the Lutherans are at present more numerous than any other sect, that of the Greek Christians excepted. In Poland are several Lutheran churches ; and in Hungary, the Lutherans have 439 churches ; and 472 pastors, who are elected by the people, and regulate among themselves their church government.
The Lutherans have too long cherished in their breasts that spirit of intolerance and bigotry, from which they themselves had suffered so long, and so much ; and this spirit has often impeded among them the progress of science and enlightened inquiry, and frustrated many attempts of the reformed party towards a re-union. But this bigotry is by no means characteristic in them; and during the last thirty-five or forty years, learning has been cultivated, and liberality of sentiment and doctrine practised by them, in at least an equal degree with any other Christian party.
Calvinists are those who embrace the doctrine and sentiments of Calvin, the celebrated Reformer of the Christian church from Romish superstition and doctrinal errors.
John Calvin was born at Noyon, in France, in the year 1509. He first studied the civil law, and was afterwards made professor of divinity at Geneva, in the year 1536. His genius, learning, eloquence, and piety, rendered him respectable even in the eyes of his enemies.
The name of Calvinists seems to have been given at first to those who embraced not merely the doctrine, but the church government and discipline established at Geneva, and to distinguish them from the Lutherans. But since the meeting of the synod of Dort, the name has been chiefly applied to those who embrace his leading views of the Gospel, to distinguish them from the Arminians.
The leading principles taught by Calvin, were the same as those of Augustine. The main doctrines by which those who are called after his name are distinguished from the Arminians, are reduced to five articles : and which, from their being the principal points discussed at the synod of Dort, have since been denominated the five points. These are, predestination, particular redemption, total depravity, effectual calling, and the certain perseverance of the saints.
The following statement is taken principally from the writings of Calvin and the decisions at Dort, compressed in as few words as possible.
1. They maintain that God has chosen a certain number of the fallen race of Adam in Christ, before the foundation of the world, unto eternal glory, according to his immutable purpose, and of his free grace and love, without the least foresight of faith, good works, or any conditions performed by the creature ; and that the rest of mankind he was pleased to pass by, and ordain to dishonour and wrath, for their sins, to the praise of his vindictive justice.
In proof of this they allege, among many other Scripture passages, the following : “ According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy, and without blame before him in love.-For he saith to Moses, I will have mercy on whom I will have inercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion. So, then, it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God, that showeth mercy. Thou wilt say, then, Why doth he yet find fault ; for who hath resisted bis will ? Nay, but o man ! who art thou that repliest against God? Shall the thing forined say to bim that formed it, Wby hast thou made me thus ? Hath not the potter power over the clay, of the same lump to make one vessel unto honour and another unto dishonour y Hath God cast away his people whom he foreknew? Wot ye not what the Scripture saith of Elias ? Even so at this present time, also, there is a remnant according to the election of grace. And if by grace, then it is no more of works What then? Israel hath not obtained that wbich he seeketh for, but the election hath obtained it, and the rest are blinded.-Whom he did predestinate, them he also called.--We give thanks to God always for you brethren, beloved of the Lord, because God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation, through sanctification of the Spirit and belief of the truth. As many as were ordained to eternal life, believed.” Eph. i. 4. Rom. ix. xi. 1-6. viii. 29, 30. 2 Thess. ii. 13. Acis xiii. 48. They think also that the greater part of these passages, being found in the epistolary writings, after the pouring out of the Holy Spirit, who was promised to guide the apostles into all truth, is an argument in favour of the doctrine.
They do not consider predestination, however, as affecting the agency or accountableness of creatures, or as being to them any rule of conduct. On the contrary, they suppose them to act as freely, and to he as much the proper subjects of calls, warnings, exhortations, promises, and threatnings, as if no decree existed. The connection in which the doctrine is introduced by the divines at Dort, is to account for one sinner's believing and being saved rather than another ; and such, the Calvinists say, is the connexion which it occupies in the Scriptures.
With respect to the conditional predestination admitted by the Arminians, they say that an election upon faith or good works foreseen, is not that of the Scriptures ; for that election is there made the cause of faith and holiness, and cannot, for this reason, be the effect of them. With regard to predestination to death, they say, if the question be, Wherefore did God decree to punish those who are punished ? the answer is, On account of their sins. But if it be, Wherefore did he decree to punish them rather than others ? there is no other reason to be assigned, but that so it seemed good in his sight. Eph. i. 3, 4. John, vi. 37. Rom. viii. 29, 30. Acts, xiii, 48 1 Pet. i. 1. Rom. ix. 15, 16. xi. 5, 6.
2. They maintain that though the death of Christ be a most perfect sacrifice, and satisfaction for sins, of infinite value, abundantly sufficient to expiate the sins of the whole world; and though on this ground the gospel is to be preached to all mankind indiscriminately; yet it was the will of God that Christ, by the blood of the cross, should efficaciously redeem all those, and those only, who were from eternity elected to salvation, and given to him by the Father.
Calvin does not appear to have written on this subject as a controversy, but his comments on Scripture agree with the above statement. The following positions are contained in the resolutions of the synod of Dort, under this head of doctrine :
66 the death of the Son of God is the only and most perfect sacrifice and satisfaction for sins, of infinite value and price, abundantly sufficient to expiate the sins of the whole world. The promise of the Gospel is, that whosoever believeth in Christ crucified shall not perish, but have everlasting life ; which promise, together with the command to repent and believe, ought promiscuously and indiscriminately to be published and proposed to all people and individuals, to whom God in his good pleasure sends the Gospel. Whereas many who are called by the Gospel do not repent nor believe in Christ, but perish in unbelief ; this proceeds not from any defect or insufficiency in the sacrifice of Christ offered on the cross, but from their own fault. As many as truly believe, and are saved by the death of Christ from their sins, and from destruction, have to ascribe it to the mere favour of God, which he owes to no one, given them in Christ from eternity. For it was the most free counsel, and gracious will and intention of God the Father, that the quickening and saving efficacy of the most precious death of his Son should exert itself in all the elect, to give unto them only instifying faith, and by it to conduct them infallibly to salvation ; that is, it was the will of God that Christ, by the blood of the cross, whereby he confirmed the new covenant, should efficaciously redeem out of every people, tribe, nation, and language, all those, and those only, who were from eternity elected to salvation, and given to him by the Father.”
These positions they appear to have considered as not only a declaration of the truth, but an answer to the arguments of the Remonstrants.
In proof of the doctrine, they allege among others the following Scripture passages : “ Thou hast given him power over all flesh, that he should give eternal life to as many as thou hast given him. The good shepherd giveth his life for the sheep. I lay down my life for the sheep. He died not for that nation only, but that he might gather together in one the children of God that are scattered abroad.—He gave himself for us, that he might redeein us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works. He loved the church, and gave himself for it, that he might sanctify and cleanse it and present it to himself, &c. And they sang a new song, saying, Thou art worthy ; for thou wast slain and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood, out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation.” John, xvii. 2. x. 11, '15, xi. 52. Tit.'ii. 14. Eph. v. 25–27. Rev. v. 9.
3. They maintain that mankind are totally depraved, in consequence of the fall of the first man, who, being their public head, his sin involved the corruption of all his posterity, and which corruption extends over the whole soul, and renders it unable to turn to God, or to do any thing truly good, and exposes it to his righteous displeasure, both in this world and that which is to come.
The explanation of original sin, as given by Calvin, is as fol. moms lows : “ Original sin seems to be the inheritable descending perverseness and corruption of our nature, poured abroad into all parts of the soul, which first maketh us deserving of God's wrath, and then also bring'eth forth those works in us, called, in Scripture, the works of the flesh. These two things are distinctly to be noted, that is, that, being thus in all parts of our nature corrupted and perverted, we are now, even for such corruption only, holden worthy of damnation, and stand convicted before God to whom nothing is acceptable but righteousness, innocence, and purity. And yet we are not bound in respect of another's fault ; for where it is said that by the sin of Adam we are made subject to the judgment of God, Rom. v. 18. it is not so to be taken, as if we, innocent and undeserving, did bear the blame of his fault ; but as, in consequence of his offence, we are ultimately clothed with the curse, therefore it is said that he hath bound us. Nevertheless from him not the punishment only came upon us, but also the infection distilled from him abideth in us, to the which the punishment is justly due.”
The resolutions of the divines at Dort on this head, contain the following positions. “ Such as man was after the fall, such children did he beget-corruption by the righteous judgment of God being derived from Adam to his posterity-not by imitation, but by the propagation of a vicious nature. Wherefore all men are conceived in sin, and are born the children of wrath, unfit for every good connected with salvation, prone to evil, dead in sins, and the servants of sin ; and without the Holy Spirit regenerating them, they neither will nor can return to God, amend their depraved natures, nor dispose themselves for its amendment.”
In proof of this doctrine, the Calvinists allege, among other Scripture passages, the following : “ By one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin ; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned. By one man's disobedience many were made sinners. I was born in sin and shapen in iniquity. God saw that the wickedness of man was great upon the earth, and that every imagination of his heart was only evil continually. God looked down from heaven upon the children of men, to see if there were any that did understand, that did seek God. Every one of them is gone back : they are altogether become filthy; there is none that doeth good, no not one. And you hath he quickened who were dead in trespasses and sins. Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world among whom also we all had our conversation in times past, in the lust of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the inind ; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.” Rom. v. 12-19. Ps. li. 5. Gen, vi. 5. Ps. liji. 2, 3. Rom. ii. Eph. ii. 1-3.
4. They maintain that all whom God hath predestinated unto life, he is pleased, in his appointed time, effectually to call by his word and Spirit out of that state of sin and death in which they are by nature, to grace and salvation by Jesus Christ.