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“ week; being 18. 10 d. for each ! The very great, diminution in the amount of “ total amount of parish relief received the taxes.

by these 352 individuals was 1/.0s. 9d.! The farmers and the country trades"In Broom - house - lane, Mr. Potter men and shopkeepers will, in great “ visited 37 families, consisting of 187 part, soon be unable to pay the rates, more of “ individuals, whose total income (in- which rates are not all for the poor,

pa cluding parish relief) amounted to observe; and it is probable, and even 161. 78., or ls. 9d, each per week ! certain, that great numbers of them The parish relief received by these will very soon side with the discontented individuals, was only 17s. 6d.! Mr. poor, and will begin to think about Potter also informed the meeting that living rent-free. The pressure will then “ he made his visits generally about fall upon the landlords; and this in“ the time the people were preparing deed, is the natural course of events. “ dinner; and that among the 105 fa- There is not the means in the country “milies which he visited, he found only to pay sixty millions of taxes, seven or “four cooking any portion of butcher's eight millions of rates, and to pay rents “ meat ; and these four were only pre- besides. Landlords will find, that it is

paring a few pieces of bacon. The useless for them to sell up tenants ;

remaining 101 families were unable finding that, they will endeavour to find « to afford even that humble luxury, new tenants; but will fail. Thus the " and had to subsist only on potatoes whole will be swallowed up by the « and salt."

poor and by the Government, and the This Mr. Potter is, as I was informed them quiet. When taxes begin and grow Listesi at Manchester, one of the most benevo- heavy, they descend with augmented steel where lent men, and most active in his exer- weight from class to class, till at last tions that ever lived in this world. Pray, they press the labourer down to the attend to the pittance which was afford- earth. When they become insupport the al ed by the means of parish relief; and able, the working class shakes off the think of this gross defiance of the law. load by flying at the farmer for subThe law is the same in Lancashire as it sistence, and they demand back, in the is in Sussex and in Kent. The law says, shape of relief, that which they have that no human being shall suffer from paid in taxes. If the law be of sufficient want; and how dare the administrators force to restrain them, they continue to of the law to permit such suffering suffer ; but when that force is insuffiwhile there is one single man in their cient, they suffer no longer. The farmers district who possesses money or money's and tradesmen, thus pressed by the worth things, beyond his own imme- poor, fly at the landlord, and refuse him diate necessities?

rent. The landlords, if unchecked by In the end, if this state of things any undue influence of superior power, were to go on increasing the suffering, fly at the Government, and make it dewhole flocks of people would migrate sist from its oppressive demands. But, from the barren districts, and come into here they find a bar in the fillers of the the countries where the food is to be seats; for these have their best estate obtained : the law of settlement becomes in the taxes; and thus those landlords, a reed, a mere rush, when men go for who have no estate in the taxes, and relief with cudgels in their hands. This who are the greater number, beconie is the serious part of the prospect. All totally powerless; and their estates may, the rest might be looked at with some pretty nearly be taken from them at degree of indifference; but this matter once; for an estate without rent, is, cannot be blinked: it is not to be over- in fact, no estate at all. And I am percome by votes or by any other means than fectly serious when I say, that I should that of real and substantial and general not at all wonder, if great numbers of relief; and that is to be afforded by no these landlords, with their families, means other than that of a great, and were to sink down into abject poverty,

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and have, all the while, apparently, are fellow-sufferers along with them ; estates in their possession. The poor that our cause is their cause ; and that will be fed. The farmers will, in time, we must all be relieved, or all continue join the poor; and the landlords, such to suffer, together. For my own part, I as have no share of the taxes, will gra- shall take with me every man and every dually sink into poverty, unless the boy in my husbandry service, and I do thing go to pieces in a convulsion. As hope that the greater part of you will to those whose estates are mortgaged do the same. deeply, they will speedily possess no I am, Gentlemen, thing; they can pay no interest on their

Your most obedient, mortgages; their estates will be taken

and most humble servant, away; they will shift about for awhile

WM. COBBETT. from friend to friend; but at last, they will become paupers themselves, which has already been the case in not a few

COBBETT-LECTURES. instances.

Now, in conclusion, let me beseech As it is likely that there will be a you, my friends, to think well of all county meeting in Surrey, in the course these things. This march of events,

of ten days, and as it is my bounden which is absolutely inevitable, ad- duty to attend that meeting if I possimonishes you to be continually on the bly can, this is to apprise my friends at watch; to be prudent, to waste nothing, Norwich and Bury St. Edmond's, and to make no sacrifice to show, to abstain also my friends at Eye, that I shall susfrom all unnecessary expenditure ; to pend my journey to the East until after consider of what value a single sove

that meeting. Before the publication reign may become, to owe no debts, of the next Register, I shall probably and to have no debts owed to you if

be able to ascertain the precise time of possible: above all things, to get pos- my departure from London : until then session of SOME GOLD, and to keep the time must remain unfixed; for Surit.

rey is my vative county, and I perceive WM. COBBETT.

that my native town of Farnham has at last sent a petition to Parliament complaining of its state of distress. It is too far for many persons to come

from that place to Epsom ; but let the THE FARMERS AND TRADERS whole town petition, rich and poor, for

a repeal of the malt tax. Let them

give me notice of the time of their COUNTY OF SURREY. holding a meeting for such a purpose, Barnes, 15th Feb., 1830.

and I will attend at that meeting, and GENTLEMEN,

put my hand, amongst others, to such UNDERSTANDING that there is soon to petition. Of one thing, however, they be held a meeting of our county, I take may rest assured ; and that is, that they the liberty to offer you my advice with will never again see the face of prosa regard to one part of our conduct on perity until they see a reform of the this important occasion. We may be Commons House of Parliament. Let assured, that there will be no real re- the rich be convinced, that the poor dress of our manifold grievances, unless will never lie down and starve quietly : we obtain a radical reform of the Com- let them be convinced, that as I told mons' House of Parliament. Therefore, the hop planters once at Andover, the it appears to me, that we ought, as far rich and the poor have one common as we possibly can, to take our labourers cause; and that, to obtain relief, they with us to the meeting, and there let must cordially co-operate together: let them learn, that it is not we who are those who pay poor-rates be ashamed the cause of their sufferings : that we to complain of the six millions a year

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to the poor, who do their work for he had already observed, he trusted that them, while they complain not of the the meeting would contine itself to the sixty millions a year which they pay to immediate subjects now before it; the Government.

though he had seen in a Norwich Paper Wv. COBBETT. an intimation that the game laws would

be touched upon; if there were to be

such a requisition, he would be one of NORFOLK COUNTY MEETING. the first to put his name to it (cheers); (Continued from page 160.)

and if the meeting, in any respect, went

beyond the consideration of the malt STILL, however, while any duty on tax, he would move for the game laws the article remained, the farmer was being the subject. (Cries of "No, no!") unable to make use of it; for there BIr. WODELOUSE, M.P.for the county, were so many restrictions connected (then presented himself to the meeting, with it; so many accounts were to be and was received with applause mingled kept, of how much for the bullocks, with a few hisses. The Honourable how much for the sheep, and how much Gentleman began by observing, that on in store, that a man who employed it, all former occasions it had been his unialways ran the risk of getting into the form practice to wait almost till the last Exchequer through it; but when the moment, and till every one bad declared tax was entirely taken off he began his opinion. There were, however, parto use salt, and had continued to do so ticular circumstances which induced successfully to that day. (Applause.) him to press himself on their attention

There was another matter which re- thus early; and he should feel obliged quired attention, with respect to the if they would allow him to take that op inalt tax. He hoped that there were portunity of expressing his sentiments. some gentlenen present connected with (Applause.) In what he had to say, he the malting business, for to them he would begin by alluding to some cir. would appeal, whether, if the duty were cumstances which had taken place in taken off, the mait would be not only the course of the last session of Parliamuch cheaper but also of a much better ment, and also to others which were to quality? He would ask any one who be brought forward in the course of the knew the business, whether, if the har- next session. He was anxious that his vest was as favourable as could be constituents shổuld, one and all, thus wished, if there was not a drop of rain early be made aware of the sentiments to spoil the in gathering, the malt re- by which his mind would be governed. turned from thai barley would not vary Every one who heard him, was aware much as to quality ? Surely, then, if the that he had not sufered a year to pass, barley was so diferent, it must require in which he had refrained from pressing a diferent treatment when being made on the attention of Government (whointo malt; but this, under the present ever might form its nembers) the provision, the maltster was not allowed evils arising from the malt tax to give it. From all these respective (applause); but with that conviction circumstances, he was prepared to con- pressing on his mind, he niust be tend, that if the duty were taken away, allowed to go at once into a short it would have the best possible effect for statement of the points on which he the community at large. In answer to agreed, and of those on which he disone part of his statement, it might, per- agreed with the resolutions which had haps, be said, that as the poor had no been proposed to the meeting by Mr, brewing utensils, they cculd not brew Bulwer. . The first, second, third, and their own beer; this, however, he fourth resolations were all of them of thought entitled to very little weight, a general nature ; for they all applied for he himself had known many who, to the general influence of taxation on when they could get the barley, were the country. These four, therefore, were always able to brew it into beer. As in their spirit, and in every syllable of

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them, undeniably true ; but they would necessarily be a high penalty, and the be so good as to recollect that the fifth argument therefore applied generally to and sixth resolutions applied to one all exciseable commodities. (Hear, hear.) article only. And what was that arti- There was one material subject connectcle? Malt! But then, why not also ed with this and every other tax, which the article of beer? (Applause and up- the meeting was bound to take into conroar.) Why was not the tax on tea sideration. He had, for a long time specified, or that on sugar, and still (and was never more impressed with it more that on coals ? (Cries of “Bravo!” than now) been of opinion that it was and confusion.) If he were asked why mere childishness, and both nugatory he wanted to include those also, his an- and delusive, to enter into a consideraswer was, that the high rates of these tion of the present state of the country, taxes must necessarily press upon the either as compared with what it had people, now that they were labouring been in past time, or with "what it would under the difficulty of low wages. probably be in future, without constant

(Cheers.) It was evident, therefore, ly bearing in mind its relation to the that by this high rate of taxation the overwhelming and paramount question comforts of the lower classes were of the altered value of money.(Applause.) abridged; and while things remained in In his opinion the legislature, when they this state, it was a scandal to the aristo- meddled with that question, had no adecracy of the country. (Cheers.) The quate conception of the importance of seventh resolution was of a different na- the work they were taking in hand. ture again, for it applied to the vexations (Hear, hear.) He knew that he held restrictions that the malt trade experi- this opinion in opposition to the noble enced. At his request the Chancellor of Duke at the head of his Majesty's Gothe Exchequer, in the course of the last vernment; and he deplored the circumsession, acceded to a proposal for ex- stance; but he also knew that he had a amining into the affair, according to a duty to discharge to his country, and suggestion that was transmitted to him he was resolved to execute it fearlessly. by his friend Mr. Crisp Brown, and pro-|(Applause.) The time was now come cured the appointment of three experi- when public men of all kinds must not enced excisemen and three experienced pride themselves on being able to talk maltsters, as a sort of commission of about their consistency, for, to all that inquiry, in order that it might be ascer- wished that, he would recommend them tained whether these vexatious restric- to borrow a leaf from Lord Grenville, tions were necessary or unnecessary, in where he said that it was far more for order that those only which were neces- the benefit of the country for a man to sary might be retained. What was the be led to the ready abandonment of a result of this commission ? He himself preconceived error (cheers); and by an not being able to attend, his friend Mr. undisguised avowal of such alteration, Portman attended for him, and the con-he best evinced his sense of his public clusion arrived at was, that the malt- (uty: - (Cheers.) As allusions had been sters were perfectly satisfied with the made by the speakers who preceded conduct of the Government. (Hear.) him, to the probability of something It had been observed by Mr. Postle, that like a property tax being introduced, he wished the malt tax to be extinguish- perhaps the meeting would allow him ed altogether, as otherwise the same to read an extract from a work, written army of excisemen would be kept up for by no ordinary man, living in no ordiits collection. But let them look at the nary times; it was a passage from other high taxes, the enormous one Hampden's Considerations repecting the upon spirits, in particular, and they most proper way of raising Money, and would see that there was little hope, was to the following effect :while that continued, for the decrease “That a great parliament-man had of the number of excisemen; in short, undertook to make it out, that granting while there was a high duty there must to King Charles a moiety of excise in

lieu of the wardships, was equivalent to the Duke of Wellington and the Governgiving away the whole of the barley ment to persevere in the course already land of England. Alluding to the excise; commenced, and God grant that he when the serpent once gets his head night go on rejoicing, and so sink down into a hole, it is no hard matter for him to a happy rest; and he was sure that to draw his whole body after it. If an if the plan had been earlier adopted, excise should be laid on malt, where there was not one impost which the will the burden lie? It is evident that people had to pay, that would not have this tax will fall very hard upon the been lighter than at present. (Hear.) He, poor farmers ; and those who are best however, said that gentlemen appeared able to pay it will be most spared. The to be seized with a sort of shivering fit price of it will certainly sink in the at all notion of a property tax ; and he country for want of consumption, by should therefore content' himself with reason of the new imposition. There reading some resolutions, which he had will, doubtless, be many proposals; but drawn up, for the sake of recording when all is done, I humbly conceive what his sentiments were, and that he there will be nothing upon the whole might stand before them clear. (Hear.) matter found so safe and so much for The following were the resolutions :the good of the nation, as a land-tax. “ That the state of depression in Other things may help, but this will be which every interest throughout the the main resource; it is true this will empire is placed, demands the most smart whilst it lasts, but then we are serious attention of the legislature. sure to have an end of it. The mem “ That one great and primary object bers of Parliament themselves will be for consideration is, the extent to which obliged, in interest, to take it off when the comforts of the poor and industrious the occasion ceases; and besides, the classes of the people are abridged by the freeholders of England will never endure continuance of a high rate of taxation the continuance of a land tax longer under a low rate of wages, as applied to than there is an evident necessity for it. the necessaries of life, such as nalt,

“ This is the way in which our ances- beer, tea, sugar, and coals. tors acted upon these occasions, and this “ That with respect to the real weight is the safe and sure way. It has been of taxation, the legislature does not aplaid down as a good rule in Parliament, pear to have entertained an adequate to support the Government in time of conception of the effects that were likely peace, by taxes upon trade, and in time to be produced by the partial restoration of war to have recourse to the land, be- of the present standard of gold, even as cause that tax will not be in danger of far as regards England; Scotland and being continued when the war is over." Ireland being hitherto exempted from

This was the way that our ancestors its operation. had proposed to step in, and certainly it “That the evils of an unlimited paper was the only sure way on which to pro- currency, are such as no right-minded ceed (hear, hear); as he looked at the person should ever seek to renew ; question, it was a good rule for Parlia- that every practicable suggestion for ment to tax trade in the time of war, allevating the evils of a too contracted and in the time of peace to alter the currency, ought to be calmly and steaditax to land; and he believed that if the ly pursued, with a due regard both to Parliament of 1815 had not been the safety of the state, and the general actuated by the greatest selfishness, welfare of the community.” there would then have been a rate levied Lord SUFFIELD wished to know wheupon property (applause); he did not by ther Mr. Wodehouse intended to more this mean an inquisitorial sort of tax, these resolutions hy way of amendment? but a general duty upon land, houses, If he did, his Lordship would be happy and personal properiy, to a certain ex- to second them. tent. If this course were now adopted, Mr. WODENOUSE : If your Lordship he had no doubt that it would enable will move them, I will second them.

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