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except the mere labouring classes, about afloat (paper and coin taken together) whose fate I am bound to care one single than there was during the war; when

straw. I am very desirous, however, you hear them say, that the retail te that you should be preserved amidst the traders are in a flourishing state ; when

turmoil which must come, unless the you hear them say, that the country is measures suggested in the above peti- in a fitter state to go to war than at any tion, be adopted in time. I have only former period : when you hear them say to tell you here, that I have, in the these things, and when you open your above petition, exaggerated nothing. eyes, see the number of shops shut up, You know well that the facts that I and look at your numerous insolvent hare stated are true : you know that I neighbours, can you be weak enough foresaw every thing that has happened, still to pay attention to what comes from and that I duly warned the Parliament the lips of these persons ; can you

be | at every stage : you know that every weak enough to think, that all is safe

prediction has been fulfilled to the very because they discover no symptoms of letter: and, in the predictions which I fear? have now expressed, I have only to tell If any thing further were necessary you that I am perfectly sincere; that I to convince you of the necessity of being believe in the truth of every word that constantly upon your guard, and preI have put into this petition; that I am paring yourselves for the worst, the proconvinced that the consequences must ceedings in the House of Commons ensue ; that every thing that I antici- ought to be quite sufficient for that purpate must happen, unless prevented by pose.

You can see that every man, measures such as those which I have even in that House, anxiously wishes that suggested. I believe as firmly as I be something should be done ; and yet you lieve that the month of May will come, must be blind indeed if you do not that all that desolation which I appre- perceive that nothing will be done ; or, beod will take place, unless prevented at least, nothing that will have the by the measures which I have pointed smallest tendency to relieve the nation

from its distress and danger. On the I declare this to you in this solemn first day of the meeting, it was manifest manner, in order that you may be pre- that there existed, in the breasts of a pared ; in order that you may make all majority of the members, a design to

preparation in your power, against compel the Ministers to return to the the day when events so terrible shall small paper-money. There was, in fact, arrive. I beseech you not to be deluded a majority quite ready for that purpose. by the apparent tranquillity and care- What, then, prevented this majority lessness of those who oughi to foresee from bringing forward this measure and the dangers here spoken of: I beseech carrying it? Why, the strange fear pou not to be deceived by this : I be- that the Duke; that this soldier would

you not to believe, that the danger quit the concern, and leave the triumdoes not exist, because they do not see phant voters to carry it on themselves. it . They have never foreseen the dan- This was the consideration that gave get; never foreseen any one of the mis- the first check to the majority. But, chiefs which their measures have pro- when there had been time to reflect a duced; never had any apprehension little ; when the consequences of bringuntil the moment when the evil stared ing in a bill to return to the small

If they were to look paper-money ; when these consequences well at the state of the country at this began to be understood; when it was moment, they would be convinced that seen that, beforç a bill could be

passed a great change must speedily take place; for the purpose, à rùn upon the banks but

, when you hear them say that there must take place, a run upon all debtors are more five-pound notes afloat than at the same tiine, a general panic, and there were three years ago ; when you a complete blowing-up of the system ; hear them say, that there is more money when the partisans of small paper




them in the face.

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moncy perceived this, they grew cool, a bright sword, had nothing to propose
drew themselves off one by one, and even beyond a puling resolution, and
left foor Mr. Western and Westmin- that he even gave up that, and suffered
ster's Pride, with their teacher, Locke, the ministry to supplant it by a resolu-
in the lurch ; and before the end of the tion which really meant that not one
session, not a man will be left bold farthing should be deducted.
enough to open his mouth as the par-

Three years ago

this same Sir James tisan of the small paper-money. What Graham published a pamphlet, to which reliance, then, ought you to put in the he put his name, recommending the notions or the motions of men who are taking of thirty per cent from the in. thus situated, and who appear not to terest of the Debt. I gave him such a know, for two hours together, what strapping upon that occasion ; having they shall say or do with regard to any caught him "out of doors”; having one subject ?

caught him straying beyond the fence The next step that was taken in the of "the noblest assembly of free men in House of Commons. was a motion by the civilized world"; having caught Sir James Graham, intended to pledge him straggling out of the privileged the House to a revision of the salaries ground, and without his protection which had been augmented; a motion against contempt; I strapped him, I which, insignificant as it was, was set whipped him, I cuffed him and kicked aside for one still more insignificant him, I bundled him and trundled him made by the ministry, in the following about, till, if he did not look like a words : '"Resolved, that in all the esta- bunted devil, he certainly would have “blishments of the country, whether made the world laugh if he had ex“ civil or military, every saving ought claimed, " I am one of the noblest as, “ to be made which may be made sembly of free men in the civilized “ without a violation of existing en- world."

gagements, and without detriment to However, this drubbing appears to " the public service.

have done him good, for it has not only If one could possibly be in a laugh- kept him out of print, but has restrained ing mode, at a time like the present, him, apparently, from any suggestion here would be laughter for a month, relative to our old friend, the Debt; especially as Sir Janes Graham, at the our best, and, indeed, our only friend; conclusion of his speech, had called that friend that will finally give us all the House, “ THE NOBLEST AS-Ithat we want in spite of the workings SEMBLY OF FREE MEN IN THE of the flagitious ruffians who buy and CIVILIZED WORLD,”!!! It is a no- sell the seats, and who thrive by the ble body, to be sure; but really, Sir traffic. In this debate, Lord Morpeth James Graham, being such a noble body is reported to have said, that “some of free men, they ought not to have a “ honourable members advised an equilaw to banish people for uttering words " table adjustment with the public crehaving a tendency to bring them " ditor. In his opinion, any proposal into contempt. However, my friends, " of measures of that kind, would noblest or noblest not, here they were coine before them with a better grace debating for a whole night, and at last " after every just and honourable means coming to a resolution that all possible of relief had been exhausted"! So savings ought to be madle that could say we, my friends; and we say, that be made, withont any reduction of the this good and trusty old ally of ours, present expenditure ; for that was the the Debt, shall not be attacked until real meaning of the resolution. What pensions, sinecures, double salaries, will Nir. Beckett Denison, of Doncaster, double pay, have been demolished, and think of this ? Ile called for the prun- until a good pull has been taken from ing-knife or the sponge : how he must that imwense mass of property comhave been disappointed, when he found monly called church property. We join that even the descendant of John with with Lord Morpeth here'; we must have


a little patience, but two things will return to the small paper-money would give us all that we want, and these two be; or as any other scheme, not exthings are, first, gold payments at the cepting that imputed to Mr. Maberly, Bank, according to the present stand- of issuing exchequer bills to be made a ard; and second, a payment of the in- legal tender. In short, my friends, the terest on the Debt in full tale, and in system is driven up into a corner: a that standard gold.

bill to relurn to the small paper-money; Now, mind, it is utterly impossible a sweep at the taxes, like that proposed for us not to have that which we want, by Joseph; a repeal of the malt tax if these two be rigidly adhered to. The alone; any measure, no matter what, next little amusing attempt in Parlia- that would indicate a serious intention ment was a motion made by Mr. Hume, to diminish the amount of the revenue, who, at the end of a speech which, if it would cause an instant run upon the had been put into a cannon, and fired off Bank. Who would be fool enough to hold by the Greeks at the Turks, would have stock in the funds, if he saw the army frightened the heathens a great deal taken away, or saw the taxes taken away, more than Joseph's large and liberal without which the army cannot exist ? subscription to the Greek loan ; at the The whole, taxes, places, pensions, sineend of this tremendous speech, he made a cures, grants, army, navy, church, law, motion as follows : “ That this House law-offices, debt : the whole is one and “ will forthwith proceed to the repeal the same system : these are all so many " and modification of taxes to the largest parts of one whole and entire thing, and “possible extent that the civil, military, each part is necessary to the existence " and naval establishments of the country of the rest. The seat-system arose with “ will admit, as the means of affording the paper-system: they are twins, or, “ general relief to the country.” Jo- rather, they are body and soul : they seph's resolution might have been a little have grown up together; they have more grammatical, but, being Joseph's, flourished together, they are now in and being tendered to "the noblest as- jeopardy together; and they will die sembly of free men in the world,” who together. Many years ago I said, and have a law to protect them against the I say still, that one of these systems contempt of the people, the want of a cannot exist without the other; and that little grammar is hardly worthy of both will exist as long as they possibly notice. The debate ended in a division, can no man will doubt. which presented sixty-nine for Joseph's Believe not, therefore, my friends, in motion, and a hundred and eighty-four any thing that you hear about a design against it, leaving the worthy Joseph in to lessen the amount of the taxes, una minority of a hundred and fifteen. less you hear at the same time of a

If I had been in the House, I should design to make a reform in the Parliacertainly have voted against Joseph. ment; and to believe that such reform First, on account of the absence of all will take place with the consent of distinct meaning in the words of the those who have an interest in preventing resolution; and next, because I look it, is to believe a great deal more than upon such a motion as leading to no- any, the most credulous men upon earth, thing but committees, and shumlings, ever believed. and delays, and disappointments. If a Be not amused by any talk about the man were in earnest, why not propose reducing of expenses. Of what use is the abolition of a specific tax. Joseph, the reducing of expenses if the tares all in the course of his very trying speech, remain ; and remain they must, until said that there were wild schemes afloat the time when the whole system shall about the country; but his scheme was go to pieces. Sir Francis Burdett, just as wild as any that he had ever heard though he made a very strange speech of; for, to adopt the reductions of on Mr. Hume's motion, was perfectly which he spoke, would be just as right, when he said that even reductions effectual in blowing up the system as a to the extent proposed by Mr. Hume

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would produce no sensible effect in re-they turn it into malt without any re-
lieving the distresses of the country. peal of the malt tax ! Pay them in
Nothing short of those things which are kind once; and they will take in kind
prayed for in the above petition can the second time : there being no law to
yield any real relief to the country. I fix the quantity, they will be sure to
beg you to look at the state of the mil- take enough, whether in corn or in meat.
lions at this time, and particularly to What fold will hold a sheep, what stye
look at the temper and conduct of the will hold a pig, what stall will hold an
agricultural labourers. They are the ox, in such a state of things? Talk-
millions, and the formidable millions too. ing a little further with my Sussex
I have always said, that they would not friend, we both agreed that the over-
lie down and starve quietly. You saw, seers would screen themselves by saying,
my friends, in the last Register, that the that they could not collect the rates ;
labourers of a parish in Buckingham- that the next thing would be, that the
shire had proceeded, armed with cudgels, labourers would make them give up
to the house of an overseer ; that they the names of the defaulters, and go
bad forcibly resisted the peace-officers; and collect the rates themselves. And
that they had insisted upon a certain that then the country would be but
amount of relief; that the strife had one remove, one small remove, from
drawn together labourers from the being abandoned to the law of nature ;
neighbouring parishes; that the parties that is to say, the law of the strongest;
taken into custody were discharged by and that all property, beginning with
the magistrate, Lord Nugent, who or the victuals and drink, and proceeding
dered the relief to be given according to objects of clothing and so forth,
to the men's demand, and who, by his would cease to receive the protection
very wise and laudable conduct, pre- of the law of the land.
vailed on the labourers quietly to dis To-day is Wednesday, the 17th of

February; and the Morning Herald of
In a large parish of Sussex, a week this morning brings me the following
or two ago, the assistant overseer, hav- paragraph, taken from a paper pub-
ing refused to comply with the demands lished at Rochester, I believe, called
of the poor, they proceeded, armed the Kent and Essex Herald. It is a
with cudgels, to his house; dragged paragraph which would make a sensible
him from his house ; carried him be- winistry lose not an hour in proposing
fore a neighbouring magistrate, who not to the Parliament, not the discharging
only ordered him to pay the money of a few custom-house clerks, but those
demanded, but who further conciliated very measures which I have been so
the assailants by treating them to bread long recommending in vain.
and cheese and beer. I had this ac A few days since, we hear, a party
count from a respectable farmer (living " of labourers, 70 in number, applied
in the neighbourhood), on Monday “ to the overseers of a parish near Maid-
morning last ; and in conversation with stone for their usual weekly relief.
him I observed, that the poor would " The men were informed that, in con-
collect the rates themselves. From sequence of the great pressure of the
the account in Buckinghamshire, we “ rates, every shilling of money was
find that the overséer laid the fault « expended, and, therefore, their soli-
upon the rate-payers, from whom he “ citations could not be complied with.
was unable to obtain the rates ; and the “ One and all declared that they were in
Aylesbury paper stated that the magis a starving state, and unless relief were
trales had recommended that the far- “ granted, their existence would be at
mer should be permitted to pay the" an end, and demanded to know ichose
rates in kind ! In kind, gracious God!" rates were due. The officers, to get
And what are the poor to do with the “ quit of their importunities, informed
produce ? Pay them in barley, good "them of one gentleman, and accord-
farmers, and I will pledge my life that " ingly the whole proceeded to his res.

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idence, and required his presence, sembled in great masses, as in Lanca" and then stated their object, adding, shire and the West Riding of Yorkshire, " that they had knives, and, if the money they are more easily managed. The were noi forthcoming, they would pos- knowledge that there are a few soldiers

sess themselves of what the house af- in the neighbourhood, keeps them quiet " forded, and divide it. The gentleman, under the most poignant of sufferings : " however, to prevent unpleasantness, it is, in fact, a numerous flock of sheep, "offered a check, but this they refused, kept in awe by the most trifling of

adding that money would suit them means. It is not thus with the country " best. He then dispatched his servant people. The manufacturers, thousands to Maidstone, where the check was upon thousands, talks well, think well, "cashed, and the money, when brought are sprightly and full of intelligence ; back, was equally divided.

but they live in crowds, their hands and Thus, then, we have specimens from their skins are soft; they live before three counties ; well attested specimens good fires, and are contented in a state of this progress, of something very of unwholesome warmth. The country nearly approaching to a dissolution of people, less intelligent, and less talkasociety; and this, too, observe, before tive, are accustomed to all that hardens the One-pound Note Bill has been in full man: their hands are hard as sticks; operation above four or five months. they bear cold like cattle; they live deFrom going thus to collect the poor tached in lanes or amongst woods; they rates in particular instances, the suffer- are accustomed to move about in the ing parties will proceed to the general dark, and are not easily frightened at collection; and, from this general col- the approach of danger ; they have been lection, how short is the step to a gene- used to eat meat, they are thoughtful

, ral taking of just what they please from and are rendered resolute by suffering: anybody. And, while this is going on, Each man lives near about where his Mr. Slaney is, as the newspapers tell grandfather lived; every one hears of us, coming on with his Poor-law Bill, the change that has taken place; and, the tendency of which was to narrow, above all things, every man and woman in some way or other, the granting of and child old enough to understand any relief. I wish to God (though it is beg- thing, looks upon his parish as being ging very hard for custom) Mr. Slaney partly his; and a sufficiency of food and would lay out a shilling upon my little raiment he looks upon as his inheritbook called the Poor Man's Friend, in ance. Never, let what will happen, will the three middle nuinbers of which he these people lie down and starve quietly. will find all the principles and all the I assured my hearers that this would be law, canon law, public law, common the case at every place where I delivered law, and statute law, relating to the a lecture in the North; and I used to rights of the poor; and if that book do tell the poor creatures at Preston, that not convince him, that he ought to they would not get a Sussex labourer to touch this subject with a very tender live in the manner that they livet, unhand, particularly at the present time, less they first broke every limb in his conviction is not to be produced in his body:

It is curious enough, that, in the same Now, my friends, readers of the Re- Morning Herald from which I take the gister, observe, that the above petition above paragraph, I found the following, was written before I had heard of this taken from the MANCHESTER Courier, case in Kent. I wanted no such instance giving an account of the state of the to convince me, that the like must be poor in the neighbourhood of that town. the case in a very short time ; because It appeared that Mr. Potter viI know the country people well; and 1 " sited, at Irlam, os families, conknow that they will not lie down and sisting of 352 individuals, whose starve quietly, and God Almighty forbid“ united income (including parish relief) that they should. When njen are as- " amounted only to 331. os. 6d. per


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