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we have got it at last : prices will ac-1“ case ; and, after hearing the different commodate themselves to the quantity" statements, they discharged the men, of money in the country : the people considering that both parties were to are in the depth of misery : commotion “ blame. They further conciliated the is staring us in the face, owing to the “ poor, by assuring them that justice hunger of the people; and all the world should be done in attending to their knows that this arises from the over complaints, and advised them to return burden of the taxes. What, therefore, peaceably to their homes, which advice has the Parliament to do but to reduce was instantly complied with. This those taxes, and to let the King's coin“ prudent step taken by the worthy maremain that which it was for so many gistrates, it is believed, was the means ages.
“ of preventing much evil, as, from the As a specimen of the state of the excited state of feeling which precountry, I take the following article “ vailed among the assembled poor, from the Windsor Express, copied into“ had a different line of conduct been one of the London papers.
“On Wed-“ pursued towards them, it is more than "nesday last the village of North Mars-probable that consequences of the ton was thrown into a state of great " most serious nature would have ensued. "agitation, in consequence of a disturb- " At Aylesbury, Lord Nugent has sugance' amongst the labouring poor, “gested the propriety, as a temporary arising, it is said, out of the follow expedient of farmers paying a portion *ing circumstance :-One of the over “ of their rates in cori), and of paying, seers was paying the poor at his “ with the consent of the receiver, a house, when a young lad called for “ part of his allowance in produce in" his allowance, amounting to three “stead of inoney; the poor may thus shillings. The overseer refused to " get a third more, and the farmer finds pay him more than two shillings and “ a customer at home ; which would be three-pence. The pauper, however, “ easier to the latter than paying in " refused to leave the house unless he " money."
was paid the remainder. An attempt This is the fearful object to contemwas then made to turn him out, when plate! and this is precisely what I warn. some of the men interfered, and the con- ed the Duke of Wellington of on the stable, being present, eventually took Ist of March, 1828, soon after he came four of them into custody. This pro- into office. My words were these, “ My ceeding aroused the indignation of the “ Lord Duke, the history of the two
poor of the village, who, being joined by “ nations furnishes sufficient proof that " a number of the poor from the adjoin-" the English are not to be expected to "ing parish of Oving, declared that the "starve quietly; merely because the " men in custody should not be taken “ House of Commons has obtained " to prison unless they were all taken" proof that the Irish so starve. There " there. Such was the threatening as may be, and there are, some instances pect of affairs, that the other overseer, “ in which innocent and industrious "Mr. Kingham, fled for safety, under " individuals who have, of late years, the apprehension of his life being in “ been starved to death in England; “danger. Fifty of them, armed with " but these instances are partial; they sticks, proceeded to the house of a are very few in number compared with “ magistrate in the neighbourhood, the “ the whole number of the people.
Rev. Mr.Archer, of Whitchurch. Lord “ Never will you see a whole parishi * Nugent (who is highly respected by of the people of England quietly yield " the poor of the neighbourhood) being up their breath under the pangs of
at his seat at Lilies, about two miles" hunger. They will have food, by one distant, proceeded to Whitchurch, ac means or another ; and if the bill, companied by his brother-in-law, Cap- " which the newspapers ascribed to Mr. "tain Poulett, who, in conjunction " Slaney, and which was described as with Mr. Archer, investigated the “ taking relief away from all persons
farmers are unable to pay the rates“ knows that fire burns, that if your te the
“ able to work; if this bill were passed son bid them look for sustenance to the " to-inorrow, that which is now, that land which they till. They see nobodyshua
scanty portion which assistant-over- but the farmer interposing between the
seers and select vestries and contrac- them and what they deem their fair " tors for the keeping of poor-houses ; share of the food : on the farmer, there" if this scanty portion of relief which fore, they fall as their enemy. The “is now extracted from these, were farıner looks to bis landlord in vain ;
withheld; the next day, double the and thus these parties are left to cargy "amount of it would be taken by acts on the deadly strife with each other. “ which are denominated thefts. And, Lord Nugent's scheme for enabling is dan “ where are the means of suppressiog the farmers to pay the poor-rates in “ these thefts? We are not here talk- kind, while it shows the inexpressible
ing of robbers and thieves, who rob poverty of the latter, is well calculated " and thieve for gain or idleness : we to keep up in the people a correct idea
are not talking of the exception, but of their right to a share of the produce ; beraten " of the rule ; we are not talking of the and to produce, in their minds, a series " few, but of the many : not of the bun- of calculations with regard to the ex“dreds, but of the millions. It is not tent of that share. ere needed only “ here a factious party, or an insurrec- this one fact to prove to every man of “tion to be suppressed: it is the great any reason, the wretched situation of
mass of the people ; and, my Lord the country, the immediate cause of “ Duke, we are manifestly approaching which wretchedness is the arbitrary de Pari
very fast towards that state of things change which has been made in the “ which is a great deal more perilous value of money. This last change was " than a civil war, though that is peril. made by the bill of 1896; and how ous enough.
often have I had to repeat the memoraThe above account is from Bucking ble words of my petition, presented to hamshire, which is only a strong in the House while that bill was lying
bestance of what is going on all over the fore it and not yet passed, 'naniely
, country. Almost every where the “ Your petitioner" knows as well as he in sufficient amount to feed the poverty. “ honourable House shall pass that stricken labourers; but these latter will “ bill without reclucing the taxes to the be fed. They regard a supply of food “ amount at which they were before the as their right, and they justly so regard“ small paper-money was put out, you it. The poor receive only six millions “ will reduce the people of this country of taxes in relief; and while sixty mil- “ to a state of distress absolutely insup. lions of taxes are collected by the Go- “ portable.” Now, then, are not the vernment, surely a part of this might be words of this petition verified ? Is not deducted in order to add to the relief of the state of distress absolutely insupthe poor. It is a fact, enough to astound portable ? Upon turning to the petition the world, that the money paid for col- since I wrote the last sentence, I find lecting and managing the taxes; the the exact words to have been these : money swallowed up by the tax-ga- “ That, in the above-mentioned hill, therers themselves, amounts to as much " your humble petitioner sees a design as is expended in the relief of all the “io cause gold and silver to be the cir
“culating money of England; that he This is the matter for the House of“ knows, as well as he knows that fire Commons to take hold of: to meddle “ burns, that if gold and silver be the with this matter is their proper province: “ circulating money of England, more yet, not a word do we ever hear upon " than half the present amount of taxes the subject from the lips of any one of cannot be levied, without producing the members. As to the working “ ruin and wretchedness absolutely inpeople themselves, they see not the real" supportable; and that, therefore, he cause of their misery. "Nature and rea-“ most humbly, but most earnestly,
" prays your honourable House to re “nions of projects, of interests, and of "Juce the taxes to an amount not ex passions, will go to pieces like a ship "ceeding that which was their amount upon the rocks."
before the small paper-money, sup Before the publication of the next “ planted the coin of his Majesty Register, we may be able to discover
Such was my prayer when this bill the designs, and the probable powers of was passed. The ruin and the wretch- the parties engaged in this struggle. At edness are come, and they are abso- any rate, there can be no harm in getting lutely insupportable. Insolvencies, bank- gold. I observed, in the last Register, that ruptcies, suicides, battles in villages if the base paper-money were again rebetween overseers and paupers ; insub- sorted to, the banks must all be proordination every where ; such a state of tected against demands for gold; and things never witnessed before in any that, therefore, the thing must be done country upon earth ; all produced by by order in Council, and must come acts of the Parliament; and the Parlia- upon us like a thief in the night; for ment fully warned beforehand of the that, if done by act of Parliament, the danger of passing every one of those forms of the House would give so much acts. There is no remedy but in the time for runs, that there would not be a taking off of the taxes, and it is my single sovereign left in any bank, and decided opinion that this remedy, to any that all would be confusion even before thing like an efficient extent, will not the bill were passed. Now, it is very be adopted by the Parliament.
material to observe, that if the ParliaPeople of property, farmers, traders, ment beat the Minister, and carry this every body, that have pecuniary engage- measure in despite of him, the Parliaments or dealings, are full of anxiety as ment must proceed by bill, and not by to what will be done. In any last Re- order in Council ; let every one observe gister, I took particular pains to point this well. Mr. GOULBOURN seems to have out all the consequences of a return to hit upon this nail very neatly. In his the base paper-money. A great ma- answer to Mr. Artwood, he said that the jority of the people of property engaged delays which the form of Parliament in trade, abhor the thought of such re-would interpose, would create such a turo : nobody but insolvents, or hair- mass of confusion, that it would be imbrained speculators; nobody but men possible for Parliament to carry the mortgaged up to their eyes, or sharing measure of alteration into effect. This, largely in the emoluments of the system, without irony, was sensible, GOULBOURN, wish for a return to that gambling and So that, before such a measure can be swindling system. GOULBOURN, taking adopted, the Duke must be turned out; directly from the last Register, is right a new Ministry must be formed ; and for once; and the Duke is as strong as they may proceed with their order in Hercules if he stand on the basis of the Council; but, even this would be very King's coin. Indeed, it is impossible difficult work; for, if the Duke were for him to retract without covering ousted, the intention for ousting him himself with everlasting shame. If the would be known; and the vote which Parliament, on the contrary, abandon would compel him to retire, would be the silly project of a return to the base a signal for a general run upon the paper-money, and insist on a reduction banks. The Duke, therefore, is strong of the taxes, they will have all the coun- upon this ground still; and he is weak try with them ; but this I think they only in case of an attack upon the taxes. will not do. The chances are, there. He is happily bound to the King's coin: fore, that nothing efficient will be done ; nd, it is fair to believe, from a sense that we shall go drawling on from bad of duty; but he is bound and doubly to worse, till, at last, my old and thou- bound by his own safety; by his own sand-timez repeated prophecy will be tenure of place ; for, observe, if he be verified, and that the whole of the turned out by a vote of Parliament, he paper-system, “ amidst the war of opi- ! sinks for ever in the estimation of Eng.
land and of Europe too: he has to make barefaced issue of assignats. The things a stand for his fame : make a stand he could not circulate while the Bank was certainly will; and, if he make it on the open for payment in gold. It would be ground of the currency, he ought to be a bare-faced governraent paper-money, triumphant.
and would very soon blow the whole If I were in the Duke's place now, system up. The very proposition proves if I had been in his place in the month that there is no rational hope of saving of January 1825, if the King had ac- this system : a man could not have cepted of my offer at that time, there thought of such a thing until every rawould, at this day, have been no distress tional means had been viewed with de. in England. I would, long ago, have spair. Ah ! the THING is driven up into put in force the equitable adjustment as a corner at last : after all its shuffles and prayed for in the Norfolk Petition. All all its tricks, I have it now safe in the would have been tranquillity and har. corner : it has been trying to push by mony at home; the French would have me several times ; but, at last, I have been out of Cadiz, and the Russians it safe ; it has only just room to turn its would not have been in Turkey : LORD body about; and, in a very few months, Nugent would not have had to propose I shall have it safe by the head, and the payment of poor-rates in kind, and shall lead it to my shop and dose it as the workmen of Huddersfield would not easily as a nurse doses a child. be living upon two-pence halfpenny a That you, my friends, will rejoice day. The tax-eaters would, indeed, with me upon this occasion, I am certain. have ceased to revel while the labour. We can remember the time when this ers were starving, but Wilmot Horron, insolent thing shook the halter in our would have been spared the trouble of faces, and rattled in our ears the keys of projecting a mortgage on the poor the dungeon. One of my objects in my rates, in order to thin the population of tour to the North, was, to see, and to exthe country. But if I were in the situa- ult in company with, those who had so tion in which the Duke is now, this is long been suffering in common with me. what I would do : I would stick to the Let us now wait: let us see the next coin of the King; I would give no move that the THING will make, and countenance to paper-money of any de- be you assured, in the neanwhile, that scription, not even to the ingenious Wm. it can make no move which will not be MABERLY ; I would countenance the to its own discomfiture and to our ho. Parliament in the reducing of taxes ; nour. but if they got the small paper-money, I remain, my friends, they should get it by bill; and, if by
your faithful and obedient Servant, that bill they blew the system up, it
WM. COBBETT. should be their own work. I would object to no reduction of taxes; I would pay the dividends as far as I could with the taxes that were left me; I would NORTHERN TOUR. propose Parliamentary reform, I would follow with my equitable adjustment, On Monday, the 1st of February, I holding the Norfolk Petition in my delivered the third lecture at Sheffield ; hand; I would keep my place, and and, on Tuesday morning, or rather, would have, as I should deserve, the noon, set off for Nottingham through blessings of the country. I must not Chesterfield and Mansfield, carrying dismiss this address to you, my friends, with me the most grateful recollection without a word or two more on the pro- of the very kind treatment which I reject of Mr. Maberly; namely, putting out ceived at Sheffield ; and my son and exchequer bills to the amount of four or daughter not forgetting the beautiful five millions, so low as for one pound, sight which they had beheld in those making these bills a legal tender in all exhibitions, called the show-rooms, in respects whatsoever. This would be a that place of wonderful ingenuity and
; industry. The weather was very severe I felt the full weight of this upon my
when we left Sheffield, and we saw the mind, when I rose to say a few words poor partridges in the fields very hard in the way of thanks for the honour pushed for any thing to support life. I conferred upon me; in those few words, saw one covey amongst a flock of sheep, I observed that the mere getting upon living upon the seeds of the hay which the table was enough; that they, the had been given to the latter. The sheep company, were too well instructed to themselves do not mind cold and snow need instruction from me; that my busiif they have food, but, in many places, ness there was to show them the man they were scraping the snow in order to that had so long fought, and at last get at the grass. They are of the Lei- overcome, the hydra of stupidity and cester i seeii, and, in spite of the we:l- oppression; and that their business ther, seem to look very well.
there was to join me in rejoicing upon As we proceeded on towards Notting- the occasion. The breakfast itself, ham, we found the country more a upon any occasion, would not have been farming country, with large barns and of much value to the far greater part of ricks about them; and, until we came us; but it was, in all respects, worthy to Sherwood Forest, it seemed, as far of the donors, worthy of the town, as we could judge, to be a country which, in almost all respects that I can rather fertile than otherwise. We ar- mention, exceeds all the towns that I rived at Nottingham about six o'clock ever saw in my life. A fine, most exon Tuesday evening, and found a com- tensive and most beautiful marketmittee of gentlemen ready to receive us, place; lofty, strong, and neat buildings; and to give us an invitation to a public elegant shops, clean-dressed people, acbreakfast to be held the next morning at tive and intelligent men, and sprightly nine o'clock, in the Thurland Hall, which and beautiful women. The environs of is said to have been the banquetting-room the town are as fine as the town itself. of King Charles the First, and which, Open on all sides ; fine prospects; the in some sharing of the good things of town itself presents great inequality of this country, fell to the lot of the for- hill and dale; and all this without any tunate Duke of Newcastle, who is also, of that beggarly, any of that squalid it seems, the present owner of a fine misery, which to me has been the great tract, called Nottingham Park, and drawback in the merits of so many other of other formerly crown property places. As to my own treatment, and that in and about this ancient and of the members of my family who were beautiful town. The breakfast took with me, it would be invidious to make place at nine o'clock in the morning of distinctions, in a case where the kindness, Wednesday, the 3d of February. There the hospitality and generosity have been were present not much short of two uniform ; but, at Nottingham we had hundred gentlemen ; and this, never more leisure, the tour being, in some haring seen one of the parties before in sort, at an end; and the attentions my life to my knowledge, except two which we received were in proportion gentlemen from Derby and one from to that leisure ; and excited in a par. Manchester, I felt to be the greatest ticular manner, perhaps, by the hoarsebonuur that I had ever received in the ness which I still retain from my cold whole course of my life. Here was no caught in Yorkshire, and which seemed personal attachment at work; for none to require more than ordinary attention of the parties had ever seen me that 1 Where there are so many persons to knew of: it was purely the respect whom so many acknowledgments are shown by this number of sensible and due from me and my family, I am rewell-educated men, not to me personally, strained from naming any; but every one but to those exertions for which I had will be well assured that his or her endured twenty long years of calumnies kindness to me and my sons and daughfrom all the bribed and base reptiles ofter, have been duly appreciated, and will the country,
never be forgotten. After three lectures