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lations. In case of disagreement sult may be brought in the district court of the Canal zone against the Governor of the Panama Canal. The hearing and disposition of such cases shall be expedited and the judgment shall be immediately paid out of any moneys appropriated or allotted for canal operation.
The remainder of the section provides for the method of adjusting all claims arising out of Injuries to employés. Section 6 provides for radio-communication at suitable places along the Panama Canal and adjacent coasts and for the establishment and maintenance of dry docks, repair shops, warehouses, etc., for the use of the vessels using the canal.
DUTIES OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL.
Sec. 7. That the Governor of the Panama Canal shall, in connection with the operation of such canal, have official control and jurisdiction over the Canal zone and shall perform all duties in connection with the civil government of the Canal zone, which is to be held, treated and governed as an adjunct of such Panama Canal. Unless in this act otherwise provided, all existing laws of the Canal zone referring to the civil Governor or the civil administration of the Canal zone shall be applicable to the Governor of the Panama Canal, who shall perform all such executive and administrative duties required by existing law. The President is authorized to determine or cause to be determined what towns shall exist in the Canal zone and subdivide and from time to time resubdivide sald Canal zone into subdivisions, to be designated by name or number, so that there shall be situated one town in each subdivision, and the boundaries of each subdivision shall be clearly defined. In each town there shall be a magistrate's court with exclusive original jurisdiction co-extensive with the subdivision in which it is situated of all civil cases in which the principal sum claimed does not exceed three hundred dollars, and all criminal cases wherein the punishment that may be imposed shall not exceed a tine of one hundred dollars, or Imprisonment not exceeding thirty days, or both, and all violations of police regulations and ordinances and all actions involving possession or title to personal property or the forcible entry and detainer or real estate. Such magistrates shall also hold preliminary investigations in charges of felony and offences under section ten of this act, and commit or bail in ballable cases to the district court. A suficient number of magistrates and constables, who must be citizens of the United States, to conduct the business of uch courts, shall be appointed by the Governor of the Panama Canal for terms of four years and until their successors are appointed and qualified, and the compensation of such persons shall be fixed by the President, or by his authority, until such time as Congress may by law regulate the same. The rules governing said courts and prescribing the duties of said magistrates and constables, oaths and bonds, the times and places of holding such courts, the disposition of fines, costs, forfeltures, enforcements of judgments, providing for appeals therefrom to the district court, and the disposition treatment, and pardon of convicts shall be established by order of the President. The Governor of the Panama Canal shall appoint all notarles public, prescribe their powers and duties, their official seal, and the fees to be charged and collected by them.
Sections 8, 9 and 10 provide for a judiciary for the Canal zone, and prescribe its dutles, and Section 11 provides for jurisdiction by the Interstate Commerce Commission in matters of competition by common carriers through the canals involving disputes as to facts. The remaining sections of the act are as follows:
Sec. 12. That all laws and treaties relating to the extradition of persons accused of crime in force in the United States, to the extent that they may not be in conflict with or superseded by any special treaty entered into between the United States and the Republic of Panama with respect to the Canal zone, and all laws relating to the rendition of fugitives from justice as between the several States and Territories of the United States, shall extend to and be considered in force in the Canal zone, and for such purposes and such purposes only the Canal zone shall be considered and treated as an organized Territory of the United States.
THE CANAL IN TIME OF WAR.
Sec. 13. That in time of war in which the United States shall be engaged, or when, in the opinion of the President, war is imminent, such officer of the army as the President may designate shall, upon the order of the President, assume and have exclusive authority and jurisdiction over the operation of the Panama Canal and all of its adjuncts, appendants, and appurtenances, including the entire control and government of the Canal zone, and during a continuance of such condition the Governor of the Panama Canal shall, in all respects and particulars as to the operation of such Panama Canal, and all duties, matters, and transactions affecting the Canal zone, be subject to the order and direction of such officer of the army.
Sec. 14. That this act shall be known as, and referred to as, the Panama Canal act, and the right to alter, amend, or repeal any or all of its provisions or to extend, modify, or annul any rule or regulation made under its authority is expressly reserved.
America's Twenty Best Customers.
(From American Consular Report.)
THE following table is arranged to show the twenty heaviest buyers of American goods, as indicated by the value of exports from the United States during the fiscal years 1909-10 and 1910-11:
Territorial Expansion of the United States.
THERE have been thirteen additions to the original territory of the Union, including Alaska, the Hawaiian, Philippine, and Samoan Islands and Guam, in the Pacific, and Porto Rico and Pine Islands, in the West Indies, and the Panama Canal zone. (years 1783-1817) comprised 894,407 square miles. The area of the original thirteen States
The additions to the territory of the United States subsequent to the peace treaty with Great Britain of 1783 are shown by the following table:
ADDITIONS TO THE TERRITORY OF THE UNITED STATES FROM 1800 TO 1900.
TERRITORIAL DIVISION. Year Louisiana purchase.. 1803 824,607 Gained through
TERRITORIAL DIVISION. Year Added.
TERRITORIAL DIVISION. Year Added.
Purchase from Texas
1848 529,543 Philippine Islands... 1898
114,958 cluding original 13 States, 3,743,344 Total United States in
Payments for above were made by the United States as follows: Louisiana purchase, $15,440,000; Gadsden purchase, $10,000,000; Alaska. $7,200,000; Florida, $5.000,000; Hawaiian Islands, public debt assumed to the amount of $4,000,000.
By treaty of February 2, 1848, a payment of $8.250,000 was made to Mexico in consideration of the extension acquired by the boundaries of the United States, as defined in that treaty.
The treaty of Paris, of December 10, 1898, terminating the Spanish-American war, provided for a money payment to Spain (for relinquishing claim to Porto Rico, Guam and Philippine Islands) of $20,000,000, and a subsequent treaty of November 7, 1900, provided for a further payment of $100,000 for other Philippine Islands.
By the first treaty the Philippine Islands were ceded to the United States, and the later treaty of November 7, 1900, ceded certain outlying islands of the Philippines not included in the first cession. A payment of $10,000,000 was made to the Republic of Panama under treaty stipulations governing the control of the Panama Canal strip.
No money payments were made upon the acquisition of the other territories mentioned in the list.
The United States did not acquire, by the Isthmian Canal Convention of November 18, 1903, any title to territory in the Republic of Panama, but merely a perpetual right of occupation, use, and control of and over a zone of land ten miles in width. For this privilege it paid to the Republic of Panama the sum of $10,000,000, and undertook to pay the sum of $250,000 annually so long as such occupancy continued, such payments beginning on February 26, 1913.
The Territory of Alaska.
THE Sixty-second Congress, Second Session, enacted a law which was approved August 24, 1912, "to create a Legislative Assembly in the Territory of Alaska, to confer legislative power thereon and for other purposes.
The first section provides that "the territory ceded to the United States by Russia by the treaty of March 30, 1867, and known as Alaska, shall be and constitute the Territory of Alaska under the laws of the United States; the government of which shall be organized and administered as provided by said laws.
The second section constitutes the city of Juneau as the capital of the Territory.
By other sections of the act the legislative power and authority of the Territory is vested in a Legislature, to consist of a Senate of eight members (two from each of the four judicial districts into which Alaska is now divided) and a House of Representatives of sixteen members (four from each judicial district). It is provided that the election for members of the first Legislature shall take place the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, 1912, and subsequent Legislatures shall be elected blennially. and continue in session not longer than sixty days. The veto power is invested in the Governor, The Legislature shall be convened biennially on the first Monday of March but laws vetoed by him may be passed over his veto by a two-third vote of all the members of each House. All laws passed by the Territorial Legislature shall be transmitted by the Governor to the President of the United States and by him submitted to Congress, and if disapproved by Congress, shall be null and vold.
The following section of the act creates a Railroad Commission for the Territory:
"Section 18. That an officer of the Engineer Corps of the United States Army, a geologist in charge of Alaska surveys, an officer in the Engineer Corps of the United States Navy, and a civil engineer who has had practical experience in railroad construction and has not been connected with any railroad enterprise in said Territory, be appointed by the President as a commission hereby authorized and instructed to conduct an examination Into the transportation question in the Territory of Alaska; to examine railroad routes from the seaboard to the coal felds and to the interior and navigable waterways; to secure surveys and other information with respect to railroads, including cost of construction and operation; to cbtain information in respect to the coal fields and their proximity to railroad routes; and to make report of the facts to Congress on or before December 1, 1912, or as soon thereafter as may be practicable, together with their conclusions and recommendatlons in respect to the best and most available routes for railroads in Alaska which will develop the country and the resources thereof for the use of the people of the United States: Provided further, That the sum of twenty-five thousand dollars, or so much thereof as may be necessary, is hereby appropriated out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated to defray the expenses of said commission."
Ensular Possessions of the United States.
THE Philippine group, lying off the southern coast of Asia, extending almost due north and south from Formosa to Borneo and the Moluccas, between longitude 1160 40 and 126° 34', and latitude 40 40 and 210 10 approximately number about 3,141 islands and islets, of which 1, 668 are listed by name, while 1,473 are, so far as known, without names. The actual land area is about 115, 026 square miles. The six New England States, New York, and New Jersey have about an equal area, The island of Luzon, on which the capital city (Manila) is situated, is the largest, most populous, and wealthiest member of the group, being about the size of the State of New York. Mindanao is nearly as large, but its population is very much smaller. There are two islands with areas exceeding 10,000 square miles each, namely, Luzon with 40,969, and Mindanao with 36, 292. There are nine islands each of which has an area of more than 1,000 square miles and less than 10,000. There are twenty between 100 and 1,000 square miles, seventy-three between 10 and 100 square miles, and two hundred and sixty-two between 1 and 10 square miles. The remaining number. 2,775, or seveneighths of all, have areas less than a square mile each. The areas of the largest islands are: Luzon, 40,969; Mindanao, 36, 292; Samar, 5,031; Panay, 4,611; Mindoro,3,851; Leyte, 2,722; Negros, 4,881; Cebu, 1,762.
The islands with large populations are: Luzon, with 3,798,507 inhabitants, of whom 223.506 are ancivilized; Panay, 743, 646 (14,933 uncivilized); Cebú, 592,247 (all civilized); Mindanao, 499, 634 (252.940 uncivilized); Negros, 460,776 (21,217 uncivilized); Leyte, 357,641 (all civilized); Bohol, 243,148 (all civilized); Samar, 222,690, (688 uncivilized). The capital of the Archipelago is Manila, with 234,409 inhabitants. Other towns are: In Luzon, Bauan (39,094), Lipa (37,934), Laoag (34,454), Batangas (33, 131), San Carlos (27,166), Tabaco (21,946); in Samar, Calbayog (15,895); in Panay, Janiuay (20,738), Miagao (20,656), Iloilo (19.054); in Cebu, Argao (35,448), Cebú (31.079), Barili (31,617), Carcar (31,895), Sibonga (25,848); in Leyte, Baybay (22,990), Ormoc (16,128).
A census of the Philippines was taken by the United States Government in 1903 under the auspices of the Census Office. The population returned was 7,635, 426. Of this number almost seven millions are more or less civilized. The wild tribes form about 9 per cent. of the entire population. Racially the inhabitants are principally Malays. The civilized tribes are practically all adherents of the Catholic Church, the religion being that introduced into the country by the Spaniards when they took possession of the islands in 1565. The Church has since then been a strong ruling power and the priesthood is numerous. The Moros are Mohammedans and the other wild peoples have no recognized religious beliefs. The total number of non-Christian peoples is 647.740.
The density of population in the Philippines is 67 per square mile. In Continental United States it is 26 per square mile. Foreigners number about 50,000, of whom nearly three-fourths are Chinese. Exclusive of the army there are 8, 135 Americans in the islands, nearly one-half being located in the city of Manila, There are about twenty-five different tribes in the islands, speaking fifteen or sixteen distinct dialects, the largest tribe being the Visayans, who form nearly one-fourth of the entire civilized population (3,219,030). The Tagalogs, occupying the provinces in the vicinity of Manila (1,460,695) rank second in numbers, and the Ilocanos (803,942) the third. Education has been practically reorganized by the Americans. The total annual enrolment is 440,050. One thousand additional primary schools, largely increasing the total enrolment, have been opened during the current year. Seven thousand six hundred and seventy-one teachers are employed, of whom 658 are Americans and 7,013 Filipinos. English is very generally taught, and the next generation of Filipinos will probably speak that tongue. Pauperism is almost unknown in the islands. In 1902 there were only 1,668 paupers maintained at public charge. Vital statistics are as yet restricted to Manila. The death rate in the city of Manila is 24. 20 per thousand. The birth rate is 36.51 per thousand. In 1912 there were 70 newspapers and periodicals published in the islands, 19 being in English, 16 in Spanish, 15 in native dialects, 7 in Spanish and English, 11 in Spanish and native dialects, and 2 in. Spanish, English, and native dialects. The assessed real estate property value in 1912 was 484,037.327.10 pesos. The reported value of church buildings, mostly Catholic, is 41,698, 710 pesos.
The climate is one of the best in the tropics. The islands extend from 50 to 210 north latitude, and Manila is in 14° 35'. The thermometer during July and August rarely goes below 79° or above 850. The extreme ranges in a year are said to be 610 and 970, and the annual mean 810. AGRICULTURE.
Although agriculture is the chief occupation of the Filipinos, yet only one-ninth of the surface is under cultivation. The soil is very fertile, and even after deducting the mountainous areas it is probable that the area of cultivation can be very largely extended and that the islands can support population equal to that of Japan (42, 000, 000).
The chief products are hemp, rice, corn, sugar, tobacco, cocoanuts, and cacao, hemp being the most important commercial product and constituting 43 per cent. of the value of all exports. Coffee and cotton were formerly produced in large quantities-the former for export and the latter for home consumption; but the coffee plant has been almost exterminated by insects and the home-made cotton cloths have been driven out by the competition of those imported from England. The rice and corn are principally produced in Luzon and Mindoro and are consumed in the islands. The cacao is raised in the southern islands, the best quality of it at Mindanao. The sugar cane is raised in the Visayas. The hemp is produced in Southern Luzon, Mindoro, the Visayas, and Mindanao. It is nearly all exported in bales. Tobacco is raised in many of the islands, especially Luzon and Negros.
IMPORTS AND EXPORTS.
In the year ending June 30, 1913, the exports of domestic merchandise from the United States to the Philippines were $25,360,646, and the total imports from the Philippines for the same period were $21,010, 248.
The imports of merchandise from foreign countries, year ending June 30, 1913, were $30,948,498, and the exports were $33,834,438. The principal foreign countries trading with the Philippines are Great Britain, French East Indies, China, and Spain.
CIVIL GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILIPPINES.
On July 1, 1902, Congress passed (chapter 1369) "An act temporarily to provide for the administration of the affairs of vil government in the Philippine Islands and for other purposes." Under this act complete civil government was established in the Archipelago, except that portion inhabited by Moros, comprising part of Mindanao and the Sulu Islands, and the office o Military Governor was terminated. Wm. H. Taft was appointed Civil Governor by the President, the title being subsequently changed to that of Governor-General, Governor Taft was succeeded by Luke E. Wright in Dec., 1903, by Heury Clay Ide in 1905, James F. Smith in 1906, W. Cameron Forbes
INSULAR POSSESSIONS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.
in 1909, and Francis Burton Harrison in 1913. The government was composed of a Civil Governor and seven commissioners, of whom four were Americans and three Filipinos. By act of Congress approved May 11, 1908, the commission was increased by one member, to be appointed by the President, making the commission nine members in all, including the Governor-General, who is President of the Philippine Commission. There are four executive departments-Interior, Finance, and Justice, Commerce and Police, and Public Instruction. There are thirty-eight provinces, each with a Governor, a Treasurer, and prosecuting attorney (provincial fiscal). Local governments have been established in about 725 towns. and Councilmen (the latter varying in number according to the population) and are elected by the The officials consist of a President, Vice-President, qualified voters of the municipality and serve for four years. The Judiciary consists of a Supreme Court, with seven Judges; Courts of First Instance, Justice of the Peace Courts, and a Court of Land Registration. There are seventeen Judicial Districts. In each province there is a Court of First Instance and a Court of the Justice of the Peace in each organized municipality in every province where there is a Court of First Instance. In March, 1907, the President in accordance with the act of Congress, directed the Commission to call a general election of delegates to a Philippine Assembly. War Taft. It was politically divided as follows: Nacionalists, 31; Progresistas, 16; Independents, The new Assembly was chosen July 30, and was opened October 16 by Secretary of 20; Immediatistas, 7; Independistas, 4; Nacional Independiente, 1; Catolico, 1. The total vote recorded at the election for delegates was 104.000, which is only 1.4 per cent, of the population. The second election was held on November 2, 1909. The number of persons registered was 208, 845 and the number of votes cast 192,975, which is 2. 81 per cent. of the population. The third election was held on June 4, 1912. Incomplete returns showed 248,154 registered voters and 235,786 votes cast. By act of February 15, 1911, the members of the Philippine Assembly are elected for four years from the 16th day of October following their election, and the resident commissioners for four years, their term of office beginning on March 4 following their election. The next election will take place about June 1, 1916. approved August 5, 1909, readjusting the customs duties on imports from all countries, including At the first session of the Sixty-first Congress an act was passed and the United States, on the basis generally of reductions. section four of the act of Congress approved July 1, 1902, entitled "An act temporarily to provide for the administration of the affairs of civil government in the Philippine Islands, and for other purBy act of Congress approved March 23, 1912, poses, " was amended to read as follows:-That all inhabitants of the Philippine Islands continuing to reside therein who were Spanish subjects on the eleventh day of April, eighteen hundred and ninety-nine, and then resided in said islands, and their children born subsequent thereto, shall be deemed and held to be citizens of the Philippine Islands and as such entitled to the protection of the United States, except such as shall have elected to preserve their allegiance to the Crown of Spain in accordance with the provisions of the treaty of peace between the United States and Spain, signed at Paris, December tenth, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight: Provided, That the Philippine Legislature is hereby authorized to provide by law for the acquisition of Philippine citizenship by those natives of the Philippine Islands who do not come within the foregoing provisions, the natives of other insular possessions of the United States, and such other persons residing in the Philippine Islands who could become citizens of the United States, under the laws of the United States if residing therein.'
The Philippine Constabulary, which is distributed throughout the Archipelago in 119 stations, consists of 323 officers and 4,157 enlisted men.
There are in operation 587 post-offices, free delivery municipal letter-carrier service in 397 municipalities, 253 money-order offices, and 437 postal-savings banks, with 35,802 accounts. Of the 35,751 depositors, 29,555 are Filipinos.
The total kilometreage of telegraph and cable lines on June 30, 1912, was 9,010. 84, and the number of telegraph offices 267. There are also four wireless stations operated. The total kilometreage of railroads in operation is 1,014.3.
Of the legislation enacted by the legislative authority in the islands during the last two years might be mentioned that fixing the gold-standard fund at a sum equal to 35 per cent. of the money of the Government of the Philippine Islands in circulation and available for that purpose, exclusive of the silver certificates in circulation protected by gold reserve; that providing for the apportionment between the insular, provincial and municipal governments of taxes paid by grantees of franchises; that embodying certain provisions concerning the building and operation of railroads, and that providing for the establishment of an irrigation system.
The island of Porto Rico, over which the flag of the United States was raised in token of formal possession on October 18, 1898, is the most eastern of the Greater Antilles in the West Indies and is Separated on the east from the Danish island of St. Thomas by a distance of about fifty miles, and from Hayti on the west by the Mona passage, seventy miles wide. Distances from San Juan, the capital, to important points are as follows: New York, 1,411 miles; Charleston, S. C., 1,200 miles; Key West. Fla., 1,050 miles; Havana, 1,000 miles.
The island is a parallelogram in general outline, 108 miles from the east to the west, and from 37 to 43 miles across, the area being about 3,600 square miles, or somewhat less than half that of the State of New Jersey (Delaware has 2,050 square miles and Connecticut 4,990 square miles). The population according to an enumeration made by the United States Government in 1900 showed a population of 953,243, of whom 589,426 are white and 363.817 are colored. The density was 260 to the square mile in 1900; 83.2 per cent, of the population could not read. reported as 1,118.012. The population in 1910 is
Porto Rico is unusually fertile, and its dominant industries are agriculture and lumbering. In elevated regions the vegetation of the temperate zone is not unknown. varieties of trees found in the forests, and the plains are full of palm, orange, and other trees. The principal crops are sugar, coffee, tobacco, and maize, but oranges, bananas, rice, pineapples, and many There are more than 500 other fruits are important products. The largest article of export from Porto Rico is sugar. is tobacco. Other exports in order of amount are coffee, fruits, molasses, cattle, timber, and hides. The principal minerals found in Porto Rico are gold, carbonates, and sulphides of copper and The next maguetic oxide of iron in large quantities. Lignite is found at Utuado and Moca, and also yellow amber. A large variety of marbles, limestones, and other building stones are deposited on the island, but these resources are very undeveloped. There are salt works at Guanica and Salina on the south coast, and at Cape Rojo on the west, and these constitute the principal mineral industry in Porto Rico. The principal cities are Mayaguez, with 16,939, Ponce, 35, 027 inhabitants; and San Juan, the capital, with 48,716. Rico, year ending June 30, 1913, were $32,223, 191. The exports of domestic merchandise to the The shipments of domestic merchandise from the United States to Porto
INSULAR POSSESSIONS OF THE UNITED STATES—Continued.
United States were $40,529,665. $3,745.057; exports, $8,564,942.
The foreign trade, year ending June 30, 1913, was: Imports,
An act providing for a civil government for Porto Rico was passed by the Fifty-sixth Congress and received the assent of the President April 12, 1900. A statement of its provisions was printed in THE WORLD ALMANAC for 1901, pages 92 and 93. President Roosevelt in his message to Congress in December, 1906, recommended the granting of United States citizenship to the Porto Ricans, and a bill was introduced in the Sixty-second Congress providing for the same, but failed to reach a final vote. Under this act a civil government was established, which went into effect May 1, 1900. There are two legislative chambers, the Executive Council, or upper house." composed of the Government Secretary, Attorney-General, Treasurer, Auditor, Commissioner of the Interior, and Commissioner of Education, and five citizens appointed by the President, and the House of Delegates, or lower house," consisting of 35 members, elected by the people. The island is represented in the Congress of the United States by a Resident Commissioner.
The Legislature of 1912 enacted a sanitation law establishing an insular board of health, and a general sanitary organization, provided a bureau of labor, and authorized investment by the treasurer of $200,000 in first mortgage bonds of a corporation to be organized for the construction of a modern hotel in San Juan. It also authorized a bond issue of $500,000 in connection with port improvements at San Juan. The Legislature of 1913 provided for the retirement on pay of the Justices of the Supreme Court of the island after ten years' service, and upon reaching 65 years of age, and ordered the establishment of an insular hospital in each of the seven districts in which the island is divided, for those suffering from transmissible and contagious diseases.
The island of Guam, the largest of the Mariana Archipelago, was ceded by Spain to the United States by Article 2 of the Treaty of Peace, concluded at Paris December 10 1898. It lies in a direct line from San Francisco to the southern part of the Philippines, and is 5,044 miles from San Francisco and 1,506 miles from Manila. It is about 30 miles long and 100 miles in circumference, and has a population of 12,517. The inhabitants are mostly immigrants or descendants of immigrants from the Philippines, the original race of the Mariana Islands being nearly extinct. The prevailing language is English. Spanish and Chamorro are also spoken. Nine-tenths of the islanders can read and write. The island is thickly wooded, well watered, and fertile, and possesses an excellent harbor. The productions are tropical fruits, cacao, rice, corn, tobacco, and sugar cane. The island of Guam was discovered by Hernando de Magallanes on March 6, 1521.
The island was captured by the U.S.S. Charleston, Captain Henry Glass commanding, June 21, 1898, the American flag raised over Fort Santa Cruz, and a salute fired. Later the island was made a naval station, and Commander E. D. Taussig, of the U. S. S. Bennington, took possession February 1, 1899. The Governor is a naval officer, and the island has a marine garrison as well as a station ship. During the year ending June 30, 1911, the imports, general cargo, were as follows: From United States, $28,112, 69, Hawaiian Islands, $17,406.16, Philippines, $815.71; Japan, $89, 469.07; Saipan, $3,115. 76; Great Britain, $1,088.86; Germany. $197.83; total imports, $140,326.08. Exports, all copra, to Japan, $51,058. 80.
TUTUILA (AMERICAN SAMOA).
Tutulla, the Samoan island which, with its attendant islets of Manu'a, Olosega, Ofu. Aunuu and Rose, became a possession of the United States by virtue of the tri-partite treaty with Great Britain and Germany in 1899, covers, according to the Bureau of Statistics of the Department of Commerce and Labor, fifty-five square miles, and has (by census of February 1, 1912) 7,251 inhabitants, possesses the most valuable island harbor, Pago-Pago, in the South Pacific, and perhaps in the entire Pacific Ocean. Commercially the island is unimportant at present, but is extremely valuable in its relations to the commerce of any nation desiring to cultivate trans-Pacific commerce.
Ex-Chief Justice Chambers, of Samoa, says of l'ago-Pago that "The harbor could hold the entire naval force of the United States, and is so perfectly arranged that only two vessels can enter at the same time. The coaling station, being surrounded by high bluffs, cannot be reached by shells from outside.'' Capacity of coaling station, 4,200 tons. The Samoan Islands, in the South Pacific, are fourteen in number, and lie in a direct line drawn from San Francisco to Auckland, New Zealand. Tutuila is 4. 160 miles from San Francisco, 2,263 miles from Hawaii, 1,580 miles from Auckland, 2,354 miles from Sydney, and 4,200 miles from Manila. Germany governs all the group except the part owned by the United States. The inhabitants are native Polynesians and Christians of different dénominations.
The civil government is administered by a Governor, a naval officer nominated by the Navy Department and appointed by the President. All civil affairs are under the jurisdiction of the Navy Department.
WAKE AND OTHER ISLANDS.
The United States flag was hoisted over Wake Island in January, 1899, by Commander Taussig, of the Bennington, while proceeding to Guam. It is a small island in the direct route from Hawaii to Hongkong, about 2,000 miles from the first and 3,000 miles from the second.
The United States possesses a number of scattered small islands in the Pacific Ocean, some hardly more than rocks or coral reefs, over which the flag has been hoisted from time to time. They are of little present value and mostly uninhabited. The largest are Christmas, Gallego. Starbuck, Penrhyn, Phoenix, Palmyra, Howland, Baker, Johnston, Gardner. Midway, Morell, and Marcus islands. The Midway Islands are occupied by a colony of telegraphers in charge of the relay in the cable line connecting the Philippines with the United States, in all about forty persons.
The Santa Barbara group is a part of California and the Aleutian chain, extending from the peninsular of Kamchatka in Asiatic Russia to the promontory in North America which separates Behring Sea from the North Pacific, a part of Alaska.
Hawaii was annexed to the United States by joint resolution of Congress July 7, 1898. A bill to create Hawaii a Territory of the United States was passed by Congress and approved April 30, 1900, The area of the several islands of the Hawaiian group is as follows: Hawaii. 4,210 square miles; Mani, 760; Oahu, 600; Kauai, 590; Molokai, 270; Lanai, 150; Niihau, 97; Kahoolawe, 63. Total, 6,740 square miles.
At the time of the discovery of the islands by Captain Cook in 1778 the native population was about 200,000. This has steadily decreased, so that at the census of 1910 the native born numbered but 98.157. Total foreign born (1910), 93, 752.
The first United States census of the islands was taken in 1900 with the following result: Hawaii