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Supremne law of 2. This Constitution and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof and all

the laud de- treaties inade, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the fined. laul, and the judges in every State shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State

to the contrary notwithstanding. Onth; of whom 3. The Senators and Representatives hefore mentioned, and the members of the several State Legislatures, and

rernired and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or for what, a firmation to support this Constitution ; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any ofice or public trust under the United States.

ARTICLE VII. Ratification of The ratification of the Conventions of nine States shall be sufficient for the establishment of this Consultation

the Constitu- between the States so ratifying the same. tion.


ARTICLE I. keligion

and Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; free speech.

or abridging the freedoin of speech or of the press : or the right of the people peaceably to susemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

ARTICLE II. Right to bear A well-regulated militla being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.

ARTICLE III. Soldiers in time No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, aor in Ume of of peace. war but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

ARTICLE IV. Right of search, The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against mareasonable searches

and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue but upon probable canse, anpported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

ARTICLE V. Capital crimes

No person shall be held to for a capital or other Infamons crime unless on a presentment or indletment and arrest of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service, in therefor. time of war or public langer; nor shall any person be subject for the same otfence to be ewice put in jeepardy of

life or limb; nor shall be coinpelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of lite, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.

ARTICLE VI. Right to speedy In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial trial.

ury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been cominitted, which district shall have been previous witnesses against hiin; to have compulsory process for obtaining wiluesses in his favor, and to have the AS sistance of counsel for his defence.

ARTICLE VII. Trial by jury.

In sults at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States than According to the rules of the common law.

ARTICLE VIII. Excessive bail. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusral punishments in dicted.

ARTICLE IX. Enumeration of The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others ro rights. tained by the people. .

ARTICLE X. Reserved rights The powers not delegated to the United Suites by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are re. ot States. served to the States respectively, or to the people.

ARTICLE XI. Judicial power.

The Judlelal power of the United States suatl not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, coramenced or pmsecuted against one of the United States, by citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjeets of any foreign Stale.

ARTICLE XII. Electors in The electors shall meet in their respective States, au-i rote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of

Presidential whom at least shall not be an inhabitsut of the saine State with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the electious. person voted for as President, and in distinct laullots the person voted for as Vice-President; and they shall make

distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the name ber of votes for each, which ilst they shall sign and certity, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the Government of the United Stalos, directed to the President of the Senate; the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certiticales, and the votes shall then be counted; the pepon har ing the greatest number of votes for President shall we the Presuleni, if such number be majority of the whole Quinber of electors appointed, and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest num. bers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose im. mediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the roles shall be taken by States, the representation from each state having one vote; 1. quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Hepresentatives shall not choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth

day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the care of the death or other Vice-President, constitutional disability of the President. The peron having the greatest number of votes ss Vice-President shall

be the Vice-President, it such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpuse shall consist of two-thirds of the wbole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole Danber shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutioually ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

ARTICLE XIII. 8 lavery pro

1. Neither slavery por involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall hibited. have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation,


ARTICLE XIV. Protection for 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jnrisilietion thereof, are citizens of the all citizens. United States and of the State wherein they resile. No state shall inake or enforce any law which shall abruge the

privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor deny to any person within

its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. Apportionment '. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective nuinbers, counting of Kepresen- the whole number of persons in each State, excluling Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election tatives,

for the choice of electors for President ansi Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the er. ecutive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male niembers of such State, being of twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, ex. cept for participation in rebellion or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the propor. tion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-oue years of

age in such State. Rebellion 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or

against the holding any office, ciril or military, under the United States, or imder any state, who, having previously taken an United States. oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a meinber of any State Legislature, or as

an executive or judicial officer of any state, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion agninst the saine, or given aid and confort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by

a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. The public 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, anthorized by law, inclnding debts incnrred for payment debt.

of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection and rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither
the United States nor any State shall assuine or jy ang delit or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion
against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations,
and claims shall be held Illegal and void.
5. The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legislation the provisions of this article.

ARTICLE XV. Rigit of suf- 1. The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or frage. by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 9. The Congress shall have power to enforce the provisions of this article by appropriate legislation.

ARTICLE XVI, Taxes on In- The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any censas or enumeration.

ARTICLE XVII. Senators elect- 1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people

ed by the ther of, for six years; an each senator shall have one vote. The electors in each Slate shall have the quali

peonle. ficaliens requisite for ele tors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislatures. Filling of va- 2. When vaca.el-s happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such ne es. Stare shall issue wiits of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the Lexislature of any siate may

empower the executive tharent to make temporary appointment antil the pe-ple fill the vacaucies by election as the Legislature may direct.

3. This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid ay part of the Constitution.



The Constitution was ratified by the thirteen original states in the following order : Delaware, December 7, 1787, unanimously.

Sonth Carolina, May 23, 1788, vote 149 to 73. Pusviranta, December 12, 1787, vote 48 to 23.

New Hampshire, June 21, 1788, vote 57 to 46. New Jersey, December 18, 1787, unanimously.

Virginia, Jane 25, 1788, vote 89 to 79. Georin, January , 1788, unanimously.

New York, July 26, 1788, rote 30 to 28. Connecticut, January 9, 1788, vote 128 to 40.

North Carolina, Noventur 21, 1769, vote 193 to 15. Musachusetts, February 6, 1788, vote 187 to 168.

Rhode Island, May 29, 1790, vol 34 to 39, Maryland, April 28, 1788, vote 63 to 12.

RATIFICATION OF THE AMENOMENTS, I. to X. Inclusive were declared in force Deceinber 16, 1791. XI. was declared in force January 8, 1798. X11., regulating elections, was ratitied by all the States except Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire, which

rejected it. It was declared in force September 28, 1804. XI. 'The emancipation amendment was ratified by 31 of the 36 States ; rejected by Delaware and Kentucky, not acted on by Texas;

conditionally ratified hy Alabama and Mississippi: Proclaimed December 18, 1865. XIV. Reconstruction amendment was ratified by 23 Northern States; rejected by Delaware, Kentncky, Maryland, and 10 Sonthern

States, and not acted on by California. The 10 Southern States subsequently ratifier under pressure. Proclaimed July 28, 1868. XV. Negro citizenship ainendment was not meted on by Tennessee, rejected by California, Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, New

Jersey, and Oregon ; ratified by the remaining 80 States. New York rescinded its ratification January 5, 1870. Proclained

Mareh 30, 1870. XVI. Income tax amendment was ratified by all the States except Connecticut, Florida, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Utah and

Virginia. De lared in force Felsruary 25, 1913. XVII. Providing for the direct vote of United States Senators by the people, was ratified by all the States except Alabama,

Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Utah and Virginia, Declared in force May 31, 1913.

The National Flag. The official flag of the United States hears forty-eight white stars in a blae field, arranged insir rowe of eight stars each. Two stars were added in 1912 by the admission of Arizona and New Mexico to the Union. The garrison flag of the Army is made of bunting, thirty-six feet fly, and twenty feet hoist, thirteen stripes, and in the upper quarter, next the staff, is the field or ''union'' of stars, equal to the number of States, on blue field, over one-third length of the flag, extending to the lower edge of the fourth red stripe from the top. The storm fag is twenty feet by ten feet. and the recruiting fac nine feet pine inches by four feet fourinches. The "American Jack'' is the

union" or blue field of the flag. The Revenue Marine Service flag, anthorized by act of Congress, March 2, 1799, was originally prescribed to consist of sixteen perpendicular stripes, alternate red and white, the union of the ensign bearing the arms of the United States in dark blue on a white Beld.” The sixteen stripes represented the number of States which had been admitted to the Union at. that time, and no change has been male since, June 14, the anniversary of the adoption of the flag, is celebrated as Flag Day in a large part of the Union,

Declaration of Endependence.

IN CONGRESS JULY 4, 1776. THE unanimous declaration of the thirteen United States of America. When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's Gou eotitles them, a decent respect to the opinious of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certaiu unalienable Rights, that among these are Life. Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted anong Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them sball seem most likely to effect their Salety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw oth such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their fornier Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless sus. pended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures,

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

IIe has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exer. cise; the State reinaining in the meantime exposed to all the dangers of Invasiou from without, and couvulsions within.

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage iheir migrations bither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their oflices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

ile has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Oficers to harass our people, and eat out their substance.

"Ie has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislature. He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.

le has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among ns:

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences:

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighboring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example aud fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:

l'or taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves lavested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of bis Protection and waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow-Oitizens taken captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends god Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands,

He has excited domesticinsurrections amongst 119, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian savages, whose knowu rule of warfare, is an uudistinguished

In every sluge of these Oppressions Wo have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms:

Declaration of Independence.

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE- Continued. Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated Injury: A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend

an unwarrantable jurisdictiou over us. We kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our counections

and correpealed to their native justice and magnanimirandawe have conjured them by the ties of our

common fore, acquiesce in the necessity, which

denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, In Peace Friends,

WE, THEREFORE, the REPRESENTATIVES of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, IN GENERAL CONGRESS, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly PUBLISH States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which INDEPENDENT STATES may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, We mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.



Oct. 30, 1735 Braintree.....
Mass. Bay.. Lawyer ....
Adams, John....

Maks July 4.1826 91
Adams, Samuel..
Mass. Bay. Merchant.. Sep. 22, 1722 Boston..

Mass Oct.

3,1803 81 Bartlett, Josiah. N. Hamp. Physician .. Nov. 1729 Amesbury. Mass May 19, 1795 66 Braxton, Carter..

Virginia Planter..... Sep. 10, 1736 Newington. Va Oct. 10,1797 62
Carroll, Charles. Maryland.. Lawyer..... Sep. 20, 1787 Annapolis.. Md Nov. 14, 1832 96
Chase, Samuel

Maryland.. Lawyer..... Apr. 17, 1741 Somerset Co..... Ma June 19, 1811 71
Clark, Abraham

N. Jersey.. Lawyer... Feb. 15, 1726 Elizabethtown...N. J Sept .....1794 69
Clymer, George Penn....... Merchant.. Jan 24, 1739 Philadelphia. Pa Jan. 23, 1813 73
Ellery, William..

Rhode Isl. Lawyer..... Dec. 22, 1727 Newport....... R. ] Feb. 15, 1820 93
Floyd, William.. New York. Farnier..... Dec. 17, 1734 setauket....... N. Y Aug. 1.1821 87
Franklin, Benjamin... Penn. Printer..... Jan, 17, 1706 Boston

Mass Apr. 17.1790 85
Gerry, Elbridge. Mass, Bay. Merchant... July 17, 1744 Marblehead....M&S NOV. :3, 1814 71
Gwinnett, Button.... Georgia



England May 27,1777 45
Hancock, John.. Mass. Bay. Merchant... Jan. 12, 1737 Braintree.

8.1793 57
Hall, Lyman..,


.1784 53
Harrison, Benj

1740 Berkeley

Va Apr. .....1791 51
Hart, John..
N. Jersey Farmer.....
....... 1715 Hopewell.......N. J

.1780 65
Hewes, Joseph N. Carolina Lawyer..... ..... 1730 Kingston.. N. J Nov 10,1779 49
Heyward, Jr., Thos... S. Carolina Lawyer...: June 17, 1742 Boston..........Mass Oct...... 1790 49

1746 St. Luke's...... S. c Mar.......1809 63
Hooper, wm
Hopkins, Steph ...... Rhode Isl.. Farmer... Mar. 7, 1707 scituate
Hopkinson, Francis... N. Jersey.. Tawyer..

1737 Philadelphia. .... Pa May 9,1791 64
Huntington, Sain'l.... Ct

Lawyer.. ..

July 3, 1732 Windham. .Ct Jan. 5,1796 64
Jefferson, Thos
Virginia Lawyer..... Apr. 13, 1743 Shadwell.

.... Va July 4,1826 8:3 Lee, Richard Henry Virginia ... Soldier.. Jan, 20, 1732/Stratford. ..... Va Junie 19,1794 63 Lee, Francis Lightfoot Virginia ...


Oct. 14, 1734 Stratford. Va Apr ....... 1797 63 Lewis, Francis. New York. Merchant.. March, 1713 Llandaff...... Wales Dec. 30, 1803 91 Livingston, Philip. New York. Merehant.. Jan, 15, 1716 Albany.........N. Y June 12, 1778 63 Lynch, Jr., Thos... s. Carolina Lawyer.. Aug. 5, 1749 Pr. George's Co, S. C

17791 30 M Kean, Thos... Delaware .. Lawyer..... Mar.19, 1734 New London Pa June 24,1817) 84 Middleton, Arthur.. s. Carolina Lawyer.

1743 Middleton Pl...S, CJan. 1,1788 44 Morris, Lewis... New York. Farmer.....

17:26 Morrisania.....N. Y Jan, 22, 179 72 Morris, Robert Penn........ Merchant.. Jan, 20, 1734 Lancashire Eng May 8, 1806 73 Morton, John..

1724 Ridley

.Pa Apr.....1777 53
Nelson, Jr., Thos... Virginia ... Statesman.. Dec. 26, 1738 York...

Va Jan.

4,17 9 51 Paca, William. Maryland.. Lawyer..... Oct. 31, 1740 Wye Hall. Мd

1799 59 Paine, Robert Treat... Mass. Bay. Lawyer.....

1731 Boston... ...... Mass May 11, 1814 84 Penn, John ..... N. Carolina Lawyer..... May 17, 1741 Caroline Co....... Va Sept.. ....1:88 48 Read, George. Delaware.. Lawyer..

1734 Cecil Co........


..........1798 64 Rodney, Cæsar. .....

1730 Dover.. Delaware.. General.

.........1783 53 Ross, George..


1730 Newcastle ..... Del July ...... 1779 49 Rush, Benjamin....... Penn.......... Physician.. Dec. 24, 1745 Berherry. ..Pa A pr. 19, 1813 68 Rutledge, Elward.. s. Carolina Lawyer.... Nov.... 1749 Charleston......S. C Jan. 23, 1800 5 Sherman, Roger....

Shoemaker. Apr. 19, 1721 Newton. Mass July 2:3, 1793 7 Smith, James.. Penn....... Lawyer.....


Ireland July 11.1806 Stockton, Richard N. Jersey.. Lawyer..... Oct. 1, 1730 Princeton. ....N. J Feb. 28, 1781 Stone, Thos... Maryland. Lawyer..

1742 Pointoin Manor, Md Oct. 5,1787 4 Tavlor, Geo..... Penn....... Physician..


Ireland Feb. 23, 1781 Thornton, Matthew... N. Hamp.. Physician..

1714 ........ Ireland June 24.1803 Walton, George. Georgia..

Lawyer ....

1740 Frederick Co...... Va Feb. 2.1801 Whipple, William..... Ct..........

1730 Kittery...........

Me Nov. 28, 1785 Williams, William............ Statesman.. Apr. 8, 1731 Lebanon.

Ct Ang. 2.1811 Wilson, James..... Penn..


1742 St. Andrews.... Scot Aug. 28, 1798 Witherspoon, John....N. Jersey.. Minister Feb. 5, 1722 Yester............Scot Nov. 15 1794 Wolcott, Oliver

1,1797 Physician.. Nov. 26, 1726 Windsor...........Ct Dec,

Wythe, George........ Virginia.... Lawyer.

1720 Elizabeth Co..... Va June 8,1806


WITH FOREIGN POLITICAL AFFAIRS. (To the People of the United States on His Approaching Retirement from the Presidency. Here, perhaps, I ought to stop; but a solicitude for your welfare, which cannot end but with my lite, and the apprehension of danger natural to that solicitude, urge me, on an occasion like the present, to offer to your solemn contemplation, and to recommend to your frequent reviow, sone sentiments, which are the result of much reflection, of no inconsiderable observation, and which appear to me all-important to the perinanency of your felicity as a people. These will be afforded to you with the more freedom, as you can only see in them the disinterested warnings of a parting friend, who can possibly have no personal motive to bias his counsel; nor can I forget, as an encouragement to it, your indulgent reception of my sentiments on a former and not dissimilar occasion.

Interwoven as is the love of liberty with every ligament of your hearts, no reoommendation of mine is necessary to fortify or confirm the attachment.

PRESERVATION OF THE UNION. The unity of government, which constitutes you one people, is also now dear to you. It is justly so; for it is a main pillar in the edifice of your real independencethe support of your tranquillity at home, your peace abroad, of your safety, of your prosperity, of that very liberty which you so highly prize. But as it is easy to foresee that, from different causes and from different quarters, much pains will be taken, many artifices employed, to weaken in your minds the onviction of this truth; as this is the point in your political fortress ageinst which the batteries of internal and external enemies will be most constantly and actively (though often covertly and insidiously) directed-It is of infinite moment that you should properly estimate the Immense value of your national union to your collective and individual happiness; that you should cherish & cordial, habitual and immovable att zohment to it; accustoming yourselves to think and speak of it as of the palladium of your political safety and prosperity: watch: ing for its preservation with jealous anxiety; discomtenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion that it can, in any event, be abandoned; and indignantly frowning upon the Arst dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest, or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link tog ither the various parts.

For this you have every inducement of sympathy and Interest. Citizens by birth or choice of a common country, that country has a right to concentrate your affections. The name of America, which belongs to you in your national capacity, must always exalt the just pride

of patriotism, more than any appellation derived from local discriminations, With slight shades of difference, ou have the same rellgion, manners, habits, and political principles, You have, in a common cause, fought and triumphed together; the independence and Ilberty you possess are the work of joint counsels and joint efforts, of common dangers, sufferings, and successes.

ENCROACHMENTS BY THE GOVERNMENT. It is important, likewise, that to habits of thinking, in a free country. should inspire caution in those intrusted with its administration, to confine themselves within their respective constitutional spheres, avoiding, in the exercise of the powers of

one department, to encroach upon another. The spirit of encroachment tends to consolidate the powers of all the departments in one, and thus to create, whatever the form of government, a real despotism. A just estimate of that love of power, and proneness to abuse it which predominates in the human heart, is sufficient to satisfy us of the truth of this position. The necessity of reciprocal checks in the exercise of political power, by dividing and distributing it into different depositories,

and constituting each the guardian of the public weal, against invasions by the others,

has been evinced by experiments, ancient and modern; some of them in our own country, and under our own eyes. To preserve them must be as necessary as to institute them. If, in the opinion of the people, the distribution or modification of the constitutional powers, be, in any particular, wrong, let i be corrected by an amendment in the way which the Constitution designates. But let there be no change or usurpation; for though this, in

one instance, may be the instrument of good. It is the customary weapon by which free governments are destroyed. The precerlent must always greatly overbalance, in permanent evil, and partial or transient benefit which the use can. at any time, yield.

Observe good faith and justice toward all nations; cultivate peace and harmony with all; religion and morality enjoin this conduct; and can it be that good policy does not equally enjoin it? It will be worthy of a free, enlightened, and, at no distant period, a great nation, to give to mankind the magnanimous and too novel example, of a people alwave guided by an exalted justice and benevolence. Who can doubt that, in the course of times and things, the fruits of such a plan would richly repay any temporary advantages which might be lost by a steady adherence to it?

Can it be that Providence has not connected the permanent felicity of a nation with its virtue? The experiment, at least, is recommended by every sentiment which ennobles human nature, Alas! is it rendered impossible by its vices?

ENTANGLEMENTS WITH FOREIGN POWERS. Against the insidious wlles of foreign influence (I conjure you to believe me, fellow: citizens) the jealousy of a free people ought to constantly awake; since history and experience prove that foreign influence is one of the most baneful foes of republican government. But that jealousy to be useful, must be impartial; else it becomes the instrument of the very influence to be avoided, instead of a wefence against it. Excessive partiality for one foreign nation, and excessive dislike for another,

those whorn they actuate to see danger only on one side, and serve to vell, and even second, the arts


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