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Preamble.

Legislative powers.

Constitution of the United States.

WE, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the lessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this CONSTITUTION for the United States of America.

ARTICLE I.

SECTION I. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. House of Repre- SECTION II. 1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several States, and the electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature,

sentatives.

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Qualifications of Representa-seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in 2. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been which he shall be chosen. Apportionment of Represen-in this Union according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of 3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included with Lalives. free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of he United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose 8; Massachusetts, 8 Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, 1: Connecticut, 5: New York, 6, New Jersey, 43 Pennsylvania, S; Delaware, 1; Maryland, 6; Virginia, 10; North Carolina, 5; South Carolina, 5, and Georgia, 3.* 4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

Vacancies, how nited. Officers, how appointed. Senate,

Classification of
Senatore.

Qualifications of Senstors. President of the Benate.

5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment. SECTION III. [See Article XVII., Amendments.] 1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Seustors from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. 9. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary appointment until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.

3. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

4. The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided.

5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the VicePresident, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States. Senate a cmirt 6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be for trial of in- on oath or affirmation. peachments, person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the meinbers present. When the President of the United States is tried the Chief Justice shall preside; and no Judgment in

case of convic- to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under the United States; but the party convicted shall never1. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification tion. theless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law. ElectionsofBen

ators and Rep- prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such SECTION IV. 1. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives shall be resentatives, regulations, except as to places of choosing Senators, Meeting of Con- 9. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day. Organization of Congress.

gress.

Rale of proceedings. Journals of

SECTION V. 1. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members in such manner and under such penalties as each House may provide.

9. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of two-thirds expel a member.

3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such each House. parts as may in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

Adfourament of
Congress.
Pay and privi-

4. Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

leges of mein- tained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony, SECTION VI. 1. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascerbern. and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House they shall not be questioned in any other place.

offices

Other prohibited.

Revenue bills.

How bills be

come laws.

9. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States shall be a member of either House during his continuance in office.

SECTION VIL. 1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills.

2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate shall, before it become a law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he approve, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two-thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered; and if approved by two-thirds of that House it shall become a law. But in all such cases the vetes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return; in which case it shall not be a law,

*Bee Article XIV., Amendments.

Approval and 3. Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may veto powers be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and of the Presi- before the same shall take effect shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by twodent. thirds of the Senate and the House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

Powers, vested in Congress.

SECTION VIII. 1. The Congress shall have power:

To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, inposts, and excises shall be uniforin throughout the United States.

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States.

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes, 4. To establish au uniform rule of naturalization and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States.

5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and

measures.

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States.
7. To establish post-offices and post-roads.

8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive rights to their respective writings and discoveries.

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court.

10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offences against the law of nations.

11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water. 19. To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years.

13. To provide and maintain a navy.

14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces.

15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions.

16. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress,

17. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular States and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of Governine of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the Legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dry-docks, and other needful buildings, 18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof. Immigrants, SECTION IX. 1. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now existing shall think how admitted, proper to adinit shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.

Habeas corpus.

Attainder.
Direct taxes.

Regulations regarding customs duties.

Moneys, how drawn.

2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or Invasion the public safety may require it.

3. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed.

4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State.

6. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of another, nor shall vessels bound to or from one State be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.

7. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to

time.

Titles of nobil- 8. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States. And no person holding any office of profit or ity prohibited, trust under them shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind whatever from any king, prince, or foreign state.

Powers of SECTION X. 1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation, grant letters of marque and reStates defined. prisal, coin money, emit bills of credit, make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts, pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law pairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. 2. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any impost or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws, and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any State on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress.

Executive pow

3. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.

ARTICLE II.

SECTION I. 1. The Executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall er, in whom hold his office during the term of four years, and, together with the Vice-President, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows:

vested. Electors.

2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitle in the Congress; but no Senator or Representative or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States shall be appointed an elector.

Proceedings of 3. [The electors shall meet in their respective States and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least electors. shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each, which list they shall sign and certify and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of Proceedings of the whole number of electors appointed, and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal the House of number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of them for President; Representa-and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like manner choose

tives.

Time of choosing electors.

the President. But in choosing the President, the vote shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote. A quorum, for this purpose, shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice-President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice-President.]

4. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors and the day on which they shall give their votes, which day shall be the same throughout the United States.

This clause is superseded by Article XII., Amendments.

Qualifications of 3. No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States at the time of the adoption of the President, this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years and been fourteen years a resident within the United States. Provision in 6. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the case of his dis- powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President, and the Congress may by law ability. provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly until the disability be removed or a President shall be elected.

Salary of the
President.

Oath of the
President.

Duties of the
President.

7. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensation which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them.

8. Before he enter on the execution of his office he shall take the following oath or affirmation : "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States."

SECTION II. 1. The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several States when called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the United States except in cases of impeachment. May make trea- 2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided twoties, appoint thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the ambassadors, Senate shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other judges, etc. officers of the United States whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law; but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers as they think proper in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.

May fill vacan

cies.

3. The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate by granting commissions, which shall expire at the end of their next session. May make rec- SECTION III. He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the state of the Union, and ommendations recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordito and con-nary occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them with respect to vene Congress. the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United States.

How officers SECTION IV. The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the United States shall be removed from may be re- office on impeachment for and conviction of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. moved.

ARTICLE III.

Judicial power, SECTION I. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior how invested, courts as the Congress may froin time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the Supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall at stated times receive for their services a compensation which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

To what cases it extends.

SECTION II. 1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law and equity arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more States, between a State and citizens of another State, between citizens of different States, between citizens of the same State claiming lands under grants of different States, and between a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign States, citizens, or subjects. of 2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, and those in which a State shall be the Supreme party, the Supreme Court shall have original furisdiction. In all the other cases before-mentioned the Supreme Court. Court shall have appellate jurisdiction both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as the Congress shall make,

Jurisdiction

Rules respecting trials.

Treason defined.

How punished.

Rights of States and records.

Privileges

citizens.

of

Executive requisitions.

Laws regulating

3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury, and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crlines shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.

SECTION II. 1. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.

9. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishinent of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture except during the life of the person attained.

ARTICLE IV.

SECTION I. Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public acts, records, and judicial proceed. Ings of every other State. And the Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.

SECTION II. 1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and Immunities of citizens in the several States.

2. A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found In another State, shall, on demand of the Executive authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime.

3. No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, escaping into another shall, in conservice or la- sequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on bor. clain of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.

New States, how SECTION III. 1. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed and formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other State, nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more admitted. States, or parts of States, without the consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned, as well as of the Congress. Power of Con- 9. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the terrigress over tory or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to public lands. prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

Republican gov. SECTION IV. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a republican form of government, ernment guar- and shall protect each of them against invasion, and, on application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence.

anteed.

ARTICLE V.

Constitution, The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this how amended. Constitution, or, on the application of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several States, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three-fourths of the several States, or by conventions in three-fourths thereef, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the Ninth Section of the First Article; and that no State, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.

Validity of

debts recog. aized.

ARTICLE VI.

1. All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption of this Constitution shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution as under the Confederation.

Supreme law of 2. This Constitution and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof and ail the land de- treaties inade, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the fined. Land, and the judges in every State shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding. Oath; of whom 3. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several State Legislatures, and required and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by oath or for what. affirmation to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States. ARTICLE VII.

Ratification of The ratification of the Conventions of nine States shall be sufficient for the establishment of this Constitution the Constitu- between the States so ratifying the same.

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Capital crimes

AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION.
ARTICLE I.

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances,

ARTICLE II.

A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. ARTICLE III.

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

ARTICLE IV.

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

ARTICLE v.

No person shall be held to answer for a capital or other infamous crime unless on a presentment or indictment and arrest of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service, in therefor. time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.

Right to speedy trial.

Trial by jury.

Excessive bail.

Enumeration of rights.

Reserved rights of States.

Judicial power.

Electors in

ARTICLE VI.

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and publie trial, by an impartial ly ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the State witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the s sistance of counsel for his defence.

ARTICLE VII.

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States than according to the rules of the common law.

ARTICLE VIII.

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
ARTICLE IX.

The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people..

ARTICLE X.

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

ARTICLE XI.

The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any sult in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States, by citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign State.

ARTICLE XIL

The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of Presidential whom at least shall not be an inhabitant of the saine State with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the elections. person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President; and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted; the person have Ing the greatest number of votes for President shall we the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest nambers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other Vice-President, constitutional disability of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President shall

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be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole ninber shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

ARTICLE XIII.

1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Protection

all citizens.

for

Apportionment

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.

ARTICLE XIV.

1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reskie. No State shall inake or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without dne process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting of Represen- the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male niembers of such State, being of twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the propor tion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

tatives.

Rebellion 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or against the holding any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an United States. oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State Legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid and comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

The

debt.

public

Right of suffrage.

Taxes on Incomes.

Senators elect

4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection and rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void.

5. The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legislation the provisions of this article.
ARTICLE XV.

1. The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or
by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
2. The Congress shall have power to enforce the provisions of this article by appropriate legislation.

ARTICLE XVI.

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

ARTICLE XVII.

1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people ed by the thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualipeonie. fications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislatures.

Filling of va

anc es.

2. When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such Stare shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the Legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointment antil the people fill the vacancies by election as the Legislature may direct.

3. This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

RATIFICATION OF THE CONSTITUTION.

The Constitution was ratified by the thirteen original States in the following order:

Delaware, December 7, 1787, unanimously.
Pennsylvania, December 12, 1787, vote 46 to 23.
New Jersey, December 18, 1787, unanimously.
Georgia, January 2, 1788, unanimously.
Connecticut, January 9, 1788, vote 128 to 40.
Massachusetts, February 6, 1788, vote 187 to 168.
Maryland, April 28, 1788, vote 63 to 12.

South Carolina, May 23, 1788, vote 149 to 73.
New Hampshire, June 21, 1788, vete 57 to 46.
Virginia, June 25, 1788, vote 89 to 79.

New York, July 26, 1788, vote 30 to 28.
North Carolina, November 21, 1789, vote 193 to 75.
Rhode Island, May 29, 1790, vote 34 to 32.

RATIFICATION OF THE AMENOMENTS.

I. to X. inclusive were declared in force December 15, 1791.

XI. was declared in force January 8, 1798.

XII., regulating elections, was ratified by all the States except Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire, which rejected it. It was declared in force September 28, 1804.

XIII. The emancipation amendment was ratified by 31 of the 36 States; rejected by Delaware and Kentucky, not acted on by Texas; conditionally ratified by Alabama and Mississippi. Proclaimed December 18, 1865.

XIV. Reconstruction amendment was ratified by 23 Northern States; rejected by Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and 10 Southern States, and not acted on by California. The 10 Southern States subsequently ratified under pressure. Proclaimed July 28, 1868. XV. Negro citizenship amendment was not acted on by Tennessee, rejected by California, Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, New Jersey, and Oregon; ratified by the remaining 30 States. New York rescinded its ratification January 5, 1870. Proclaimed March 30, 1870.

XVI. Income tax amendment was ratified by all the States except Connecticut, Florida, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Utah and Virginia. Declared in force February 25, 1913.

XVII. Providing for the direct vote of United States Senators by the people, was ratified by all the States except Alabama, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Utah and Virginia. Declared in force May 31, 1913.

The National Flag.

THE official flag of the United States bears forty-eight white stars in a blue field, arranged in six rows of eight stars each. Two stars were added in 1912 by the admission of Arizona and New Mexico to the Union. The garrison flag of the Army is made of bunting, thirty-six feet fly and twenty feet hoist, thirteen stripes, and in the upper quarter, next the staff, is the field or "union" of stars, equal to the number of States, on blue field, over one-third length of the flag, extending to the lower edge of the fourth red stripe from the top. The storm flag is twenty feet by ten feet. and the recruiting flag nine feet nine inches by four feet four inches. The "American Jack" is the "union" or blue field of the flag. The Revenue Marine Service flag, authorized by act of Congress, March 2, 1799, was originally prescribed to consist of sixteen perpendicular stripes, alternate red and white, the union of the ensign bearing the arms of the United States in dark blue on a white field. The sixteen stripes represented the number of States which had been admitted to the Union at. that time, and no change has been made since June 14, the anniversary of the adoption of the flag, is celebrated as Flag Day in a large part of the Union.

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