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Public Service Commission gave final consideration, with Chairman Willcox as its head, of the pendIng contracts for the operation of the subway. When the revised contracts were made publie it was found that nineteen changes "of utmost importance to the city" were made; eleven of these were embodied in THE WORLD'S protest of Jan. 20 and only four originated with the majority of the Public Service Commission. Of these changes THE WORLD sald: By the knocking out of these eleven jokers there will be saved:
The long fight THE EVENING WORLD made for lower taxicab rates was won June 2. On that date Mayor Gaynor signed the ordinance passed by the Board of Aldermen. The measure became effective August 1. The fight for lower rates, for the abolition of the private stands, and for the better supervision of cab service generally, had been carried on by THE EVENING WORLD for three years. Abuses in New York were shown, and methods in other cities in this country and in Europe were shown in detall. Practically all that time there were remedial measures pending in the Board of Aldermen. Proof of the methods of the taxicab companies was carried to the District-Attorney. Jury investigation began, after which the Aldermanic committee became active.
Then a Grand
The Grand Jury Investigation threw a great light on the taxicab business In New York City. It was shown that the free cab rides to city officials given by the Yellow Taxicab Company alone amounted to $25,000 a year. Hotel men and others who have free privileges to grant, ran the free riding account of this up to $200,000 per year. It was shown by THE EVENING WORLD that a total of almost $400,000 was paid out by the different companies every year in rental to the hotels for the private stand privileges-private stand privileges on public streets; streets that belong to the city. And this big rental the public paid in the end. The long fight by THE EVENING WORLD to end old abuses and secure a just ordinance brought evidence to light of systematic graft by hotel keepers at the public's expense; and evidence of secret inducements held out to Aldermen and other officials to prevent the passage of a reasonable ordinance. Mayor Gaynor appointed a commission to study the situation and draft an ordinance. A member of the staff of THE EVENING WORLD was appointed to the commission and aided in the drafting of the ordinance that was recommended to the Board of Aldermen. When the Grand Jury Investigation awakened the Aldermen to the fact that they would have to act swiftly, the measure they passed embodied in it all the main reforms long urged by THE EVENING WORLD and embodied In the ordinance which the Mayor submitted to the Aldermen.
The ordinance went into effect August 1, but was fought by the taxicab companies, physically and in the courts. It was declared constitutional August 20 by Supreme Court Justice Seabury in a decision in which he set aside a temporary Injunction obtained by the taxicab concerns and hotels. An amendment to the new ordinance was passed by the Board of Aldermen November 11. This amendment called for the striking out of one phrase in the ordinance. Had this been done the old fraudulent practices would again have been possible. Under the old law an agent of the drivers was privileged to go into railroad stations and steamship wharves to solicit passengers. These often became victims of extortion and were often carried to wrong destinations. Under the new law "no person shall solicit passengers for public hack or hacks upon the streets and highways of the city of New York except the driver of a public hack when sitting upon the driver's box of his vehicle."
The amendment was to strike out the last eight words. THE EVENING WORLD brought the attention of Mayor Gaynor's commission to this point. This matter was referred to THE EVENING WORLD by several agencies. One of them was the Traveler's Aid Society, of which John Wanamaker is President and Cardinal Farley Vice-President. Orin Baker, General Secretary of the society, strongly complimented THE EVENING WORLD: "That THE EVENING WORLD has acted in the matter of obtainIng protection from the city government is a prime step forward," he said. "If strict rules were enforced by which people would not be overcharged and drivers could be put under heavy penalties for such crimes, it would not only aid the work of this society but lift burdens from similar societies." November 21 a decision of the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court affirmed the denial of Justice Seabury to continue an injunction restraining the city from enforcing the ordinance demanded by THE EVENING WORLD and passed by the Board of Aldermen. The lawyers for the taxi companies Immediately announced that they would carry the private hack-stand proposition to the Court of Appeals. As to further attempts to thwart in other particulars the carrying out of the new law they were undecided. In reply to their determination to repeat their efforts to set aside the law is the fact that THE EVENING WORLD thus pledged itself when the fight was won: "Taxicab monopoly and taxicab privilege are done for. But the movement for an increasingly better, cheaper and more popular taxicab service must still go on. Only watchful regulation, inspection and experiment will develop the system Into what it should be.
"This newspaper will continue to fight as it has fought to make the taxicab more and more a cheap conveyance for the people-easily available, within the reach of everybody."
LOWER TELEPHONE RATES. NO TOLL GATES.
To compel the greedy telephone monopoly to give New York City a just telephone rate is an EVENING WORLD fight that will not cease until full justice is won for the subscribers. This matter was taken up in earnest in 1913. Some amazing facts concerning the telephone service have been gleaned, the New York Telephone Company's policy of secrecy, notwithstanding.
THE EVENING WORLD has shown that New York City is being overtaxed $6,000,000 a year In s telephone rates; that it contributes 95 per cent. of the net profits of the New York Telephone Company's operations covering all New York State and half of New Jersey; that New York City yielded in 1912 $16,400,000 net profits to the telephone company; that this city's telephone rates are the highest in the United States.
THE EVENING WORLD asks "a maximum five-cent rate for all New York City. Wipe out the toll gate extortions." THE EVENING WORLD'S baby contests have been a popular feature with the mothers. There has been much rivalry over the prizes which were given throughout the Summer and the live question as to the relative beauty and good points of the Infants.
THE SUNDAY WORLD walking clubs formed by the boys and girls in the public schools have grown in size and numbers and made new records during the year. Hundreds of medals have been distributed as prizes. These clubs are doing a great work for the young, teaching them the value of systematic exercise in the open air and bringing them into closer touch with nature than is ever possible if their open air recreation consists wholly of playing in elty streets.
THE SUNDAY WORLD In co-operation with the School Garden Association of New York gave prizes to public school children for proficiency in garden and other nature study work. Field day prizes were also given to create an interest in athletics.
Bureau of Social Hygiene.
ITS ORIGIN, WORK AND PLANS.
(The following statement was given out for publication by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., on January 27, 1913.) THE Bureau of Social Hygiene came into existence about two years ago, as a result of the work of the Special Grand Jury appointed to investigate the white slave traffic in New York City, which served during the first half of the year 1910. One of the recommendations made by it in the presentment handed up at the termination of its labors was that a public commission be appointed to study the social evil. The foreman of that body subsequently gave careful consideration to the character of the work which might properly be done by such a commission and the limitations under which it would operate. In this connection, separate, personal conferences were held with over a hundred leading men and women in the city, among whom were lawyers, physicians, business men, bank Presidents, Presidents of commercial organizations, clergymen, settlement workers, social workers, labor leaders and reformers. These conferences developed the feeling that a public commission would labor under a number of disadvantages, such as the fact that it would be short lived; that its work would be done publicly; that at best it could hardly do more than present recommendations. The conviction also grew that the main reason why more permanent results had not been obtained by the various organizations which had dealt with the subject of the social evil during the past ten or fifteen years was that most of them were temporary. While active, they materially improved the situation, but as their efforts were relaxed there came the inevitable return to much the same conditions as before. The forces of evil are never greatly alarmed at the organization of investigating or reform bodies, for they know that they are generally composed of busy people, who cannot turn aside from their own affairs for any great length of time to carry on reforms, and that sooner or later their efforts will cease, and the patient denizens of the underworld and their exploiters can then reappear and continue the tramc as formerly.
So the conviction grew that in order to make a real and lasting improvement in conditions, a permanent organization should be created, the continuation of which would not be dependent upon a temporary wave of reform, nor upon the life of any man or group of men, but which would go on, generation after generation, continuously making warfare against the forces of evil. It also appeared that a private organization would have, among other advantages, a certain freedom from publicity and from political blas which a publicly appointed commission could not so easily avold.
Therefore, as the initial step, in the Winter of 1911 the Bureau of Social Hyglene was formed. Its present members are Miss Katharine Bement Davis, Superintendent of the New York State Reformatory for Women at Bedford Hills, New York; Paul M. Warburg, of the firm of Kuhn, Loeb and Company; Starr J. Murhpy, of the New York bar; and John D. Rockefeller, Jr. As the work develops, new members may be added.
One of the first things undertaken by the bureau was the establishment at Bedford Hills, adjacent to the reformatory, of a laboratory of social hygiene, under Miss Davis's direction. In this laboratory It is proposed to study from the physical, mental, social and moral side each person committed to the reformatory. This study will be carried on by experts and each case will be kept under observation for from three weeks to three months, as may be required. When the diagnosis is completed, it is hoped that the laboratory will be in position to recommend the treatment most likely to reform the Individual, or, if reformation is impossible, to recommend permanent custodial care. Furthermore, reaching out beyond the individuals involved, it is belleved that thus important contributions may be made to a fuller knowledge of the conditions ultimately responsible for vice. If this experiment is successful, the principle may prove applicable to all classes of criminals and the conditions precedent to crime, and lead to lines of action not only more scientific and humane but also less wasteful than those at present followed.
In entering upon its labors, the bureau regarded It of fundamental Importance to make a careful study of the social evil in this country and in Europe, feeling that this problem, like any other great and dimcult one, can be Intelligently approached only by means of a thorough and complete knowl edge of all the factors involved, as well as all the methods and experiences of other cities and countries In dealing with it. Arrangements were made, therefore, in the early part of last Winter to secure the services of George J. Kneeland, who had directed the Chicago Vice Commission Investigation. Since that time, Mr. Kneeland, with a corps of assistants, has been making a thorough and com-prehensive survey of the conditions of vice in New York City. This survey has covered not only houses of prostitution, Raines Law hotels, disorderly saloons, cafes, and restaurants, massage parlors and other places where vicious people congregate, but also the personal histories of some two thousand prostitutes; and a study of all the case records for one year of a great majority of the hospitals and dispensaries in New York City, with a view to ascertaining the prevalence of venereal diseases and their ratio to all other diseases. Mr. Kneeland's report is now in progress of preparation and will be published within the next two months.
At the same time the bureau enlisted the services of Abraham Flexner, whose reports on the medical schools in this country and in Europe are so well known, to study the social evil and the various methods of dealing with It in the leading cities of Europe. Mr. Flexner spent the greater part of a year abroad, inaking a searching and exhaustive inquiry into the subject, and is now working on his report, which will be ready for publication this Winter.
These studies are to be followed by others, in those cities in the United States where different conditions exist or where special methods of dealing with the social evil have been introduced, the object being to become familiar with all phases of the subject and all methods of handling it which have been tried in this country and in Europe.
Based upon all of these studies, which will probably be published by December of this year, It is the hope of the bureau that there may be devised a practical plan for dealing with the social evil in New York City-a plan which public opinion can be brought to support.
In conclusion, it cannot be too strongly emphasized that the spirit which dominates the work of the bureau is not sensational or sentimental or hysterical; that it is not a spirit of criticism of public officials; but that it is essentially a spirit of constructive suggestion and of deep scientific as well as humane interest in a great world problem.
Chairman of the Bureau of Social Hyglene, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., P. O. Box 579, New York City.
Game Laws of the
CLOSE SEASON FOR GAME THE following table shows the close season for all game in the United States, with the exception of mountain sheep and goat and a few unimportant species. Where no dates are given kind of game does not exist, or close season at all times. Local laws, where operative, should be consulted. The first date of the close season and the first date of the open season are given.
Jan. 1-Sept. 1.... Feb. 1-July 31..
Nov. 23-Oct. 8.... Jan. 1-Oct. 8 (27)...
Nov. 16 July 2....
Oct. 1-July 1..... Jan. 10-Apr. 1...
Jan. 1-Sept. 1....
Feb. 1-Nov. 15 (23) Sept. 15-Nov. 15....
Dec. 16-Oct. 1 (19).. Dec. 1-Nov. 1 (2).. Nov.1-Sept. 1.... April 1-Sept. 1.
At all times (12).
At all times...
At all times..
Dec. 1-Oct. 1 (3).
Nov. 16-Oct. 15..... At all times.
Nov. 16-Oct. 1 (b)... At all times...
34 North Carolina... Feb. 1-Oct. 1. 35 North Dakota
To Nov. 10, 1916.... At all times
Dec. 1-Nov. 1 (a).... At all times..
Jan. 1-Nov. 1 (a)... To Nov. 1, 1916.
Nov. 1-Sept. 15 (7).
At all times..
Dec. 2-Sept. 1.... Dec. 25-Nov. 1..
Dec. 1-July 1...
Dec. 1-Oct. 1
To Oct. 1, 1919... Apr. 1-Oct. 1.....
Dec. 16-Nov. 10... Dec. 16-Nov. 10...
Nov. 16-Oct. 1.... Feb. 1-Oct. 1.....
Feb. 2-Oct. 15.......
Jan. 1-Dec. 1.
To Nov. 15, 1915....
Feb. 1-Oct. 10(12) Feb. 1-Sept. 10 (12). To Oct. 1, 1915...
1 Elk only. 2 Cow and calf moose, all year. 3 Moose, caribou, bison or buffalo, all the year. 4 Prairie chicken, closed season all year. Oklahoma, Nov. 1-Sept. 1. 6 Female protected all the year. 7 Moose and antelope, males only, elk until 1925. 8 Rail-Connecticut, Dec. 1-Sept. 16. 9 Deer raised in private preserves may be killed at any time. 10 Čertain species. 11 Deer raised in inclosure for market may be killed Oct. 1-Feb. 1. 12 Local exceptions. 14 Except Fentress County, Dec. 1-Jan. 1. 18 Except July. 19 Sundays and Mondays are also closed sessons for ducks and other waterfowl. 21 Swan, all year; Duck, Jan. 1-Sept. 1. 23 Except June 15-Sept. 15. 27 Between Nov. 24 and Jan. 1, hunting with dog and ferret only. 28 Cock pheasant may be killed Nov. 1-Feb. 1, under permit. 29 Residents of the State may kill rabbits on their own land at any time. 30 Grouse to 1920. Prohibitory laws against hunting doves and robins exist in nearly all States. Sale of game during close season is prohibited in most States. License fees from non-residents required in some States. (a) Female deer and elk and deer without horns protected at all times. (b) Except deer without horns. Non-resident not permitted to kill, (d) Game animals or birds may be killed at any time for food or clothing by native Indians or Esquimaux, or by miners or explorers in need of food, but game so killed cannot be shipped or sold.
NEW YORK. Dates for deer hunting apply to Adirondack region only; rest of State no open season. (Exceptions). Ulster, Orange and Sullivan Counties, Nov. 18-Nov. 1. Fawns at all times. Hunting with dogs, traps, or devices of any kind prohibited.
WILD BIRDS-Catching, killing, or the possession of English sparrow, hawk, crow, owl, and blackbird.
Hunting and shooting on Sunday prohibited.
live or dead, and robbing of nests prohibited at all times-except
Export of game or birds taken in the State is prohibited.
FISH LAWS, NEW YORK STATE, OPEN SEASON. '
Trout -May 1 to August 31. Minimum length, six inches. Not more than ten pounds of trout may be taken or transported by one person in one day. Trout must not be taken by any other method than angling.
Several States, 1914.
IN THE UNITED STATES.
Open season may be found by reversing dates. The difficulty of securing absolute accuracy in a table of this kind is very great, and absence in laws of many States of express legislation as to inclusion or exclusion of date upon which seasons open and close makes exactness almost an impossibility. Compiled and corrected to October 15, 1913.
Grouse and Prairie
Dec. 15-Nov. 15.....
Mar. 2-Sept. 1..
Mar. 15-Sept. 1....
At all times.......
Feb. 1-Sept. 1....
Nov. 25-Nov. 11 (30) At all times....
At all times
Dec. 1-Oct. 1..
Dec. 16-Nov. 10...
Apr. 1-Nov. 15 (6).
Dec. 25-Nov. 1.
At all times...
Jan. 1-Nov. 15 (12)..
To Sept. 1, 1915....At all times
May 1-Jan. 1...
At all times.
Dec. 16-Nov. 10....
Nov. 16-Sept. 1 (4). Jan. 16-Nov. 1..
To Nov. 1, 1917..
At all times...
At all times........
Duck, Goose, Brant. Plover, Snipe, Rail.]
Feb. 1-Nov. 1 (21)..
To July 1, 1920..
Jan. 1-Nov. 1...
Nov. 16-Oct. 1.
Dec. 1-Oct. 15.
Dec. 1-Oct. 1....
Lake Trout and Whitefish.-Lake trout not less than fifteen inches in length, and whitefish not less than twelve inches in length, may be taken and possessed from April 1 to September 30, both inclusive. Otsego whitefish, commonly called Otsego bass, not less than nine inches in length, may be taken and possessed from January 1 to October 31, both inclusive. A person may take by angling not to exceed ten lake trout in one day, but whenever two or more persons are angling from the same boat they may take not to exceed fifteen in one day. Whitefish may be taken in any number or quantity. Lake trout and whitefish may be taken in Lakes Erie and Outario in any number or quantity at any time, and when so taken may be possessed.
Black Bass.-June 16 to November 30, inclusive. Minimum length, ten inches. Limit per day to one person, fifteen; to a boat, two or more persons, twenty-five; bass must not be taken by any other method than angling.
Pickerel and Pike.-May 1 to March 1, inclusive. Pike, minimum length, ten inches. Pickerel, minimum length (St. Lawrence River), twenty inches.
Pike Perch.-Not less than twelve inches in length may be taken and possessed in any number or quantity from May 1 to March 1, both inclusive.
Mascalonge.-June 16 to December 31, inclusive. Must not be taken through the ice. mum length, twenty-four inches.
Striped Bass less than twelve inches in length shall not be intentionally taken or possessed. Smelt or Icefish.-Smelt or icefish not less than six inches in length may be taken from the inland waters of the State in any number or quantity at any time.
Frogs.-Bullfrogs, green frogs and spring frogs, may be taken in any manner, possessed, bought and sold from June 1 to March 31, both inclusive. They shall not be taken, possessed, bought or sold at any other time.
(Long Island, Open Season.)
Trout.-April 1 to August 31, inclusive.
Rainbow Trout.-April 16 to September 30, inclusive.
NOTE-The State Fish and Game Laws apply where not in conflict with the Long Island provisions.
Hawall, Joint Resolution Annexing Hay-Pauncefote Treaty.
1899... 96 1913..136
Solar Energy, Source and Maintenance.
High Living Expenses. Causes of.......1911..132
Influence of the Moon on the Weather...1898... 52
Japanese and American Agreement...
Marine Disasters.......................1913..178 Mars, The Planet......................................1902... 30
Sub-Treasury Scheme of the Farmers'
Sun Spots, Their Influence on the Earth..1901... 49 Syndicalism...
Tornadoes, Statistics of, for 87 Years.....1900... 35
..1893... 75 ...1894... 81