« ZurückWeiter »
October 29, 1911.
NINETEEN hundred and thirteen brought to the United States a new President; to New York State a great disgrace, an impeached Governor; to the State grafters promises of swift retribution for the misdeeds of years; to New York City the overwhelming defeat of Tammany and the election of the whole Fusion ticket; to the people ai large a parcel post and a new tariff law to reduce their financial burdens.
Ag unbroken thread through the warp and woof of the year's record is the work of The WORLD: alding the right whenever help could be given; throwing the bright light of publicity on those who would work in the dark, so that all the people might read and slt in judgment in that highest courtthe Court of Public Opinion.
THE ANTI-TAMMANY MAYORALTY CAMPAIGN. THE Mayoralty campaign in New York City was one of the most remarkable and certainly one of the most bitterly fought in the history of the municipality. The air was electric with personalltles, charges and counter-charges, and the fight against Tammany welded for the time as Fusionists political elements as diverse as fire and water. It promised to be a three-cornered fight with added complications, but death entered the campaign at its start, and one candidate dropped politics forever.
On the fring line was THE WORLD, battling for good government; and to this end was against Tammany Hall and Tammany's candidate, Edward E. McCall. It was for Fusion and John Purroy Mitchel, Democratic and Fusion candidate, who won by over 120,000 plurality. It was against Mayor Gaynor's Independent nomination and candidacy, regarding him as "Murphy's Assistant Candidate," *3 all he could hope to do was cut down the Fusion majority
and thus help Tammany. John Purroy Mitchel, Collector of the Port of New York, was nominated on the Fusion tlcket August 1. The Progressives and the Republican Committee gave their support to the ticket, and the Independence League named Mr. Mitchel for Mayor despite his previous refusal of their nomlnation. Edward E. McCall, Chairman of the Public Service Commission, was designated as the organization candidate, and Mayor Gaynor announced that he would be an independent candidate. His nomination for Mayor followed. It was a picturesque and unusual ceremony, not resembling the regulation way of deciding on & candidate for high omce.
Mayor Gaynor stood on the City Hall steps and accepted the nomination "from the people" as represented by "numerous organizations formed to further his candidacy." A crowd gathered around him. Flags were flying. Everywhere were banners bearing this statement of fact:
“I have been Mayor.
These banners seemed to many, that sunny day, to be a strange, prophetic omen. They spoke only of the past. Not one bore a legend for the future, though the exercises of the day were full of promise of achievement.
The Mayor accepted the nomination by assailing Tammany and the men who had falled to renominate him as the organization candidate. It was a characteristic address. The next day he salled for Europe. One week from the day the prophetic banner was carrled aloft In City Hall Park, it might have stood at his head and feet, descriptive of his last years. Once more the people saw him in City Hall. This time they fled past him silently, a throng of 100,000. The flags were at hall-mast. Mayor Gaynor had died at sea.
Two candidates were left, and one Issue-Tammany. Charges and counter-charges of graft followed each other in swllt succession. Through
it all THE WORLD fought in a straight line-against Tammany and all that it stands for; and against Its Mayoralty candidate, E. E. McCall.
In the beginning THE WORLD said editorially: "In designating E. E. McCall as the organization candidate for Mayor, Murphy is practically nominating himself. Mr. McCall is one of the elder statesmen" of Tammany Hall who are the confidential advisers of the Boss. He was put on the bench by Tammany and his judicial record was the record of a Tammany Judge. He was made Chairman of the Public Service Commission by Governor Sulzer through an understanding with Murphy. It was reported then that Mr. McCall's promised reward was to be the Democratio nomination for Mayor.
And again: "The people of New York can never get rid of Murphy by electing Murphy's candidates."
Mr. McCall seriously disapproved of THE World's arguments and volced his objections In acrimonious attacks on THE WORLD and on Mr. Ralph Pulltzer, personally.
When attacking Mr. Mitchel, his opponent, in a campaign speech, Mr. McCall likened the former to Polonlus "with the Pulltzers acting for him the role of Hamlet'' and complalned bitterly that Mr. Mitchel "says that I am Murphy's man."
THE WORLD Iterated the charge, showing by past history that a man nominated by Tammany belongs wholly to the organization. Mr. McCall in reply described THE WORLD's opposition to Tammany and Tammany's candidate as "the degradation of decent journalism" and promised that If I am elected Mayor, I will use every
ounce of my power, omcially and personally, to drive THE WORLD and Mr. Pulitzer "out of business."
THE WORLD thus replied editorially: "Tammany bosses and Tammany omce-holders have been consecrating themselves to this delectable task for the last thirty years, and we wear thelr hatred as a badge of Journalistle honor."
“Tammany is in a rage because the issue is Tammany. This explains the bitterness of the contest, the fury of McCall and the Tammany ring that forced him into the spotlight," explained THE WORLD.
And It gave one hundred reasons why Fusion should win-a half page editorial that was a forceful, locisive resume of its antl-Tammany arguments and facts. This practically ended TH
WORLD's valuable Mayoralty campaign of education In practical politics as demonstrated by Tammany Hall.
Election morning THE WORLD sald editorially to the voters: “This is the most important election that New York has known since the days of Tweed.
With an overwhelming majority at the polls and aggressive work by the District Attorney, the decision can be made final. It is the highest privilege of every voter to make this a day of retribution for the shameless system that organized corruption has entrenched in Tammany Hall."
And the voters read and silently replied. Their answer was John Purroy Mitchel, Mayor of the city of New York and the whole Fusion ticket.
THE NEW DEMOCRACY. "A New Democracy on Trial" was the heading of THE WORLD's editorlal page on the morning of March 4.
"Woodrow Wilson's Inauguration as President marks the beginning of a political epoch. The United States has entered upon a new phase of popular government,'' THE WORLD sald that morning. *This country is passing through the first radical process of political readjustment that it has known since the civil war. Indeed, there have been only four such periods since the establishment of the Republic. One came when the Federallst principle of government was submerged by Democracy under the leadership of Jefferson. Another came when this democracy, under the leadership of Jackson, took physical possession of the machinery of government. The third came when the forces of freedom under the leadership of Lincoln destroyed the theory of secession and obliterated human slaves."
"Upon Woodrow Wilson rests a larger measure of political responsibility than has rested upon any other President since Lincoln. If his administration fails the Democratic party will go the way of the Repub}lcan party. * . It is no holiday task to which Woodrow Wilson sets his hand.
**But of vastly greater moment than any individual in the Cabinet, or all of them combined. Is the method by which the Cabinet was obviously organized. Here is the first concrete example of Mr. Wilson's attitude toward the Presidency-his first official Interpretation of his office and duties.
Whether strong or weak In Its various elements, this is no Cabinet of political trade and barter. It was fashioned by no political boss. It was fashioned to placate nelt her gordid polltical Interes. nor sordid financial interests. Every member stands on his own merits, as Woodrow Wilson sees these merits. His only concessions are concessions to locality and geography,
"A President capable of performing his task In this spirit may sometimes go astray in his judgment of man, but he has given to the country a convincing proof of his political sincerity.
*The dynamic fact of the Wilson Administration is that the American people have at the head of their Government a man who is as honest Intellectually as all Presidents have been honest morally. This man is not only honest intellectually, but he has a trained mind that is accustomed to dealing with complicated questions. He knows how to think and he knows how to translate his thought Into action.
Back of it all he is a Democrat--not a partisan Democrat, but a Democrat with ideas and ideals.
*His administration may fall to accomplish all that is expected of it.
"But if the American people give to Mr. Wilson the support that he has earned, we do not belleve that he will fall in the greater achlevements to which he is pledged."
President Wilson in his Inaugural address sald on March 4: "No one can mistake the purpose for which the nation now seeks to use the Democratic party. It seeks to use it to interpret a change in its own plans and point of view."
**The great Government we loved has too often been made use of for private and selfish purposes, and those who used it had forgotten the people.
Our duty is to cleanse, to reconsider, to restore, to correct the evil without Impalring the good, to purify and humanize every process of our common life without weakening or sentimentalizing 1t.
"Justice, and only justice, shall be our motto.
"This is not a day of triumph; It is a day of dedication. Here muster not the forces of party but the forces of humanity. Men's hearts wait upon us; men's lives hang in the balance; men's hopes call upon us to say what we will do. Who shall live up to the great trust? Who dares fell to try?
"I summon all honest men, all patriotic, all forward-looking men to my side, God helping me, I will not fall them, if they will but counsel and sustain me." Great words, inspired by fine and noble purpose.
THE WORLD FOR HONEST STATE GOVERNMENT. THE WORLD made determined effort in this year 1913 to secure wise, honest government for the great State of New
York; a government for all the people, so that she might not be a shamed outcast in the sisterhood of States.
On the morning of Jan. 2 THE WORLD sald editorially:
"Admirable in tone and temper and purpose are Gov. Sulzer's first speech and his first message to the Legislature. The Governor speaks the language of sincerity and service.
"After nearly thirty years of almost uninterrupted boss rule in this state it is no easy task to re-establish representative self-government. Gov. Sulzer's utterances prove that he appreciates the magnitude of his work and the responsibility that rests upon him. The great obstacles that confront him are within his own party. The grave menace to his administration is within the Democratic organization.
Vo Governor can successfully battle single handed against a boss Intrenched as Murphy is intrenched, and in so far as Cor. Sulzer strives to carry out his pledges, he deserves the unqualified support of every honest citizen, whether
Democrat or Republican or Progressive." Thus did THE WORLD show It was ready to support as Governor of the State of New York the William Sulzer whose message gave promise that he would do all in his power to secure good, honest Btate government.
It stood ready to help him in all vays that were right: not because he was William Sulzer but because he seemod from his promises to be the idealist in politics--a man who stood for truth, uprightness, honor; a man striving for public good; a Democrat in the finest sense; one who would endeavor as Governor to emulate the deeds of Democracy's great statesmen of the past.
The fight for a pure State Government for all the people is THE WORLD's own fight, as it was throughout the years of Joseph Pulitzer's ownership. with a Governor who would pledge himself to high ideals, and fullll his pledges as far as was in his power much might be accomplished.
THE WORLD approved William Sulzer's pledges. It was with him if he walked in the trail he had blazed with high-sounding words,
Jan. 3 THE WORLD commented editorlally: “Mr. Sulzer has been criticised for some of his organization appointments, and perhaps justly so.
We believe, nevertheless, that Gov. Sulzer has begun his work in the right spirit, whatever mistakes he may have made.
He has shown & clear understanding of the problems before him and a very firm grasp of his office. Whatever errorg of judgment may be charged against him, he is making it falrly plain that the Governor of New York is William Sulzer and that the State Capital is in Albany. This in itself is an excellent beglaning."
Thus from the beginning did THE WORLD make the fact clear, that its alm and end was to Insure good State government. The personality in the Governor's chair was merely an incident.
THE WORLD wrote on Jan, 4: "John A. Dix thought the Boss of Tammany Hall was more powerful than the Governor of New York, and this made the Boss of Tammany Hall more powerful than the Governor of New York. William Sulzer thinks the Governor of New York is more powerful than the Boss of Tammany Hall, and this makes the Governor of New York more powerful than the Boss of Tammany Hall.
"Everything depends upon the Governor's point of view. A forceful, Intelligent Governor can always make himself the leader of his party if he wishes. THE WORLD congratulates Mr. Sulzer on his determination to be the leader of the Democratic party in New York. This is one of the most important dutles that a Governor can perform.
"What the Democratic party needs in this state is leadership. It followed Murphy throughout the Dix administration only because Dix was weak enough to acknowledge Murphy as bls overlord. Had Dix boldly proclaimed that he was the leader of the party Murphy would have done the Governor's bidding as meekly as Kelly did Cleveland's bidding. Governors like TI and Cleve land and Hu had no serious trouble with Tammany bosses, and while these men were Governor, no Tammany boss was supreme in the Democratic councils of the State."
Matters at Albany soon were responsible for the following printed in THE WORLD's editorlal column April 12:
"President Wilson is having no trouble at Washington) because Washington knows that he means what he says.
"Gov. Sulzer is having much trouble at Albany because Albany does not know that he means what he says.
When President Wilson tells Congress that the tariff must be reformed to destroy graft and privilege and extortion and monopoly profits everbody knows that the President will fight it out on that line 11 It takes four years.
"When Gov. Sulzer tells the Legislature that it must reform the Stock Exchange and give New York an honest Direct Primary law, nobody knows whether he intends to fight or to compromise with Wall Street and Tammany Hall.
The great fact of Woodrow Wilson's leadership Is Its courage and clearness of purpose.
"But Gov. Sulzer is lost in a fog of uncertainty. New York is not sure of him. The Legislature is not sure of him."
NEW YORK STATE'S SHAME. This editorial had no reference, however, to revelations that became public later on. When the Frawley committee began to probe the Governor's election expenses, and it was openly stated the committee would show that the money received for election expenses was far in excess of $5,460, the a mnount Gov. Sulzer declared in his sworn statement, THE WORLD refused to believe. It was inconcelyable that New York's Governor was capable of such an act, in violation of the statute law. But when the accusations were made before the committee and evidence to support them followed THE WORLD gald:
“Gov. Sulzer cannot afford to ignore the campaign-fund accusations made against him. Nelther can he afford to make his testimony dependent upon a summoning of Murphy for examination.
Muro pby is not Governor of New York.
There is a wide difference between the Governor of New York and the Boss of Tammany Hall in the matter of campaign funds. "The only sensible course for the Governor to pursue is to meet
these accusations." The Governor talked volubly, but he falled to explain.
Aug. 1 THE WORLD sald: "The whole truth, Governor. Nobody can destroy Gov. Sulzer except Gov. Sulzer. Murphy cannot do it. Tammany cannot do it. No conspiracy can do it.
"It Gov. Sulzer will remember this and act accordingly he can save himself from much trouble. his friends from much embarrassment, and the government of New York from downright calamity.
Mr. Sulzer's duty is to meet Tammany's charges with cold, dispassionate facts, not with hygterical denunciation. Facts are more eloquent than adjectives and infinitely more convincing.
"Asking Murphy what he did with his campaign fund does not answer the question whether the Governor suppressed contributions to his own campaign fund in violation of the statute.
"The Governor cannot vindicate himself by refusing to testify. Such charges against a Governor are charges that have to be disproved."
And agalo Aug. 4: "Gov. Sulzer owes it to the people to give information fully, frankly, and cheerfully upon
all matters that may be pertinent to the public business." Aug. 7 there was printed an imperative demand by THE WORLD: "The Governor must answer. The Frawley committee has dragged to light campaign contributions aggregating $5,025 which
were made to Willlam Sulzer personally and which he did not account for in his sworn statement of receipts and expenditures.
The committee is now trying to prove that the Governor confiscated a large part of his campaign fund and used the money to buy railroad stock in Wall Street.
**These are ugly charges. They are charges which, unless disproved, would destroy public confidence in any officer of the Government and end his public usefulness. It is needless to say that Gov. Sulzer must meet them. He canno, dispose of them by making counter-charges.
"The honor of the state is involved and the Governor must answer.
Aug. 8 THE WORLD to William Sulzer: "Explain or RESIGN. Unless Willam Sulzer is prepared to make a full and satisfactory explanation of the campaign-fund charges the sooner he resigns the Governorship of New York the better.
"On the evidence as It stands the Frawley committee will surely recom nd h impeachment.
"The issue cannot be evaded by attacking Murphy, or even by proving that Murphy ought to be In Sing Sing.
"Nothing that Murphy has ever done or ever could do could justify the things that William Sulzer is alleged to have done.
Murphy might be the most degraded and loathsome human being on earth, but that would not excuse a Governor of New York for having appropriated a large part of his campaign fund to buy rallroad stocks in Wall Street,
"It should not be necessary to say this to the Chief Magistrate of the greatest State in the Union, Unless Gov. Sulzer vindicates himself at once he is past vindication. There are no 'facts' he need walt for. Without waiting for all the mortifying details that the committee is dragging to light he knows whether the main accusations against his Integrity are true or false.
"If they are false, he needs no time to prepare a detence. If they are true, let him resign bis high office and SPARE THE STATE OF NEW YORK THE SHAME AND SCANDAL OF IMPEACHMENT.
Accompanying this editorial was a dramatic cartoon: A lonely shore; a big stock ticker standing on the bank beside the quicksand - Campaign Fund Scandal" - Into which wiillam Sulzer had sunk till he was half burled. He was still going down. One clenched fist grasped the slipping sand, the other reached up and clung desperately to the flimsy ticker tape, which unravelled at his touch. Over all was darkness lit by a cloud-streaked moon. A few birds were flying in a straight line-away.
The Frawley investigating committee ended its sessions Aug. 9, after showing by documentary evidence and witnesses that willlam Sulzer had recelved thousands of dollars for campaign purposes more than the $5,460 he had declared in his sworn statement, both cash and checks having been used to purchase stocks. Gov. Sulzer's Wall Street transactions with three brokerage firms, so far as brought out by records and testimony, showed a total of $72,424.28, dating from Jan. 1, 1912. The major amount of payments was made after he became a candidate for Governor and was elected to that office. All along he claimed to be a poor man.
Commenting upon the complete showing before the committee, of which this is only a part, THE WORLD sald Aug. 9: "The best thing Gov. Sulzer can do is resign and spare the State of New York further shame and humillation. Hls case now is beyond explanation. Possibly William Sulzer can live down these revelations, but Gov. Sulzer cannot live them down. The palntul process of rehabilitation belongs to private life.
The only public service that it is still in the Governor's power to render is to resign before the inevitable machinery of impeachmeni is set in motion.".
The Assembly's Impeachment of Gov. William Sulzer for "wilful and corrupt conduct in office and for high crimes and misdemeanors'' --adopted by a vote of 79 to 45-was formally recorded in the Senate Aug. 13.
The essential accusations in the articles of impeachment were: "That Willlam Sulzer, Governor of the State of New York, made a false and fraudulent report to the Secretary of State, under his oath, as required by law, that the total contributions In ald of his campaign as candidate for the office of Governor were $5,460 and no more; and
"Whereas, In truth and in fact the amount was greatly in excess of sald sum to the personal knowledge of said Sulzer; and such report further showing or tending to show
**That he converted to his own private use contributions glven in aid of his said election for the purchase of securities or other private uses.".
wilam Sulzer was convicted by the High Court of Impeachment on three of the four articles of Impeachment, voted upon Oct. 16. The three counts were in brief, illing with the Secretary of State a false statement of campaign contributions: perjury in making affidavit that this statement was true; misdemeanor in suppressing testimony by deceit, fraud, threats and menaces.
The next morning he was removed from office in the following words addressed to the members of the Court of Impeachment by Chief Judge Cullen:
“The respondent, willam Sulzer, having been convicted by the vote of more than two-thirds of the members of this court on the first, second and fourth articles of Impeachment, and the court having resolved that for the offences for which he is convicted the respondent be removed from office, it is the judgment of the court and it is now the duty of the President to declare that for these offences the sald Wullam Sulzer, Governor of the State, be and is hereby removed from the sald office of Governor."
HIGHWAY GRAFTERS IN THE SPOTLIGHT. "Government by Blackmall," as THE WORLD described It editorially, was shaken to its foundations in New York State during the last months of 1913, developments that were startling revelations following each other with the speed of a moving-picture film. This was due to the fact that DistrictAttorney Whitman was conducting a John Doe Inquiry before Chlef Magistrate McAdoo, following the trail of canal and highway graft, investigating evidence tending to confirm the charges that canal and road contractors paid both willing and unwilling tribute to Tammany.
THE WORLD, during the State campaign, made an investigation Into the State Highways department and showed the vast sum expended; the waste and unnecessary expense. District-Attorney Whitman's John Doe Inquiry is the logical outcome of THE WORLD's showing, which clearly polnted to the conditions now being revealed. In none of the big cases handled by the District-Attorney did he encounter the deep and powerful opposition that he has met in this political graft Investigation. High officeholders of both the Federal and State Governments, prominent lawyers, wealthy business men and the politicians and contractors on whose relations he bas been trying to throw a light, have met his every move by subtle underground counter moves calculated to block him and prevent progress toward complete exposure. Every witness is an unwilling one.
Among results of the John Doe Inquiry Everett P. Fowler has been indicted by the Grand Jury on & charge of extortion; an indictment was voted against James K. McGuire, former Mayor of Syracuse, a close friend of Charles F. Murphy and Richard Croker, on the charge of trying to compel à corporation to contribute to the campaign.
Arthur A. McLean, of Newburgh, treasurer of the Democratic State Committee, has been indicted for accepting campaign contributions from a corporation, and a further Indictment was found against Fowler for soliciting such contributions.
James W. Osborne was appointed by Gov. Glynn as a special Investigator into all the charges made during the recent campaign in New York. Mr. Osborne was appointed as a Special Deputy Attorney-General by Gov. Glynn. Among statements that came before him for investigation were those made by & Wyoming County Chairman. They were to the effect that he had thirty-one men sign payrolls for highway work never done, this being at the behest of the "man higher up. Every additional fact gleaned glves confirmation to the original investigation made by THE WORLD. And the work is only begun or following the trall of graft.
LEGISLATION TO CORRECT EVILS. Disclosures of THE WORLD of evils in the commission merchant business resulted in the Indictment or several commission merchants, officials of the National League of Commission Merchants and allled associations. This led to an attempt to get remedial legislation. The Cole bill was the result. It was backed by THE WORLD and was designed to put out of business dishonest commission merchants who prey on the farmer as well as the consumer. This bill was passed without a dissentIng vote by the Senate.
Assemblyman Cole sald: "THE WORLD has done splendid work in exposing the crooked commlsslon men, Its labore bore frult at the psychological moment. Its effect has been most beneficial. Now, Instead of opposition, we are meeting with co-operation from the commission men's association."
THE WORLD, early in March, began its exposure of dishonest commission men which ended on the one hand in the Indictment of six of the dealers and on the other hand in the passage at Albany of the Cole bull.
TAE World showed in detall how the "fire Insurance companies have fostered Incendiarism in New York." It charged that "probably one-fourth or more of the fire losses in this city can be ascribed to their careless practices in writing Insurance." The facts in this statement were proved conclusively by experiments made by members of the Fire Department." THE WORLD Iterated Its charges, and asked for "strict legal restraints' for the companies as in Germany. In Its demand for legislation Assemblyman Walker's bill to break the argon trust" was approved, THE WORLD making the point emphatic that "It should receive the prompt attention of the Legislature."
Ratification of the Income Tax_amendment to the Constitution by three-fourths of the States, followed a thirty-year campalgn by THE WORLD to this end. It kept allve Interest in all parts of the country with the result that strong pressure was brought to bear in both Congress and the State Legislature. There was great rejoicing in Congress when the announcement was made February 3. It immediately became evident that enormous revenues, estimated from $60,000,000 to $100,000,000
a year could now be obtalned by levying this tax, thus offsetting to that extent reduction in duties covered by proposed tarlli revision.
THE WORLD'S WORK FOR TARIFF REVISION. Eternal vigilance has been the watchword of THE WORLD on the question of tariff revision. Not an opportunity has been missed during the year to reveal the efforts and methods of the seilish monopolists who were determined to prevent honest tarifi revision.
To expose the workings of the tarlit lobby that was determined to prevent a Democratic revision of the tariff and defeat Its purpose, THE WORLD devoted earnest, active effort. How well It succeeded Is matter of record in Government archives.
Events which led up to THE WORLD's action in the interest of tariff revision moved swiftly. They are in brief as follows: The Underwood Tarifi bill, which President Wilson sanctioned as being an honest revision of the tariff downward, was passed through the House, May 8. It was the lowest tarifi measure since the Walker bill, which
antedated the civil war. The proposed cut of $70,000,000 under the existing revenues was to be met by the new Income Tax law.
Senator Simmons, Chairman of the Finance Committee, thus outlined the situation: "A gigantlo lobby is at work in Washington trying to defeat the schedules in the Underwood bill. I have been in the Senate for some years and in all my experlence I have never seen such efforts put forward by the representatives of the various interests to disregard the will of the people expressed at the polls last November."
President Wilson then took public action in the effort to exterminate the lobby. In an official statement he excoriated the lobby then at work in Washington to defeat certaln schedules in the Underwood Tarifi bill. In part he said:
**I think that the publlc ought to know the extraordinary exertions being made by the lobby in Washington to gain recognition for certaln alterations of the Tariff bill. Washington has seldom seen so numerous, so Industrious, so Insidious a lobby.
“There is every evidence that money without Imit is being spent to sustain this lobby.
"It is thoroughly worth the while of this country to take knowledge of this matter. Only public opinion can check and destroy tl. The Government in all its branches ought to be relieved from this
"I know that in this I am speaking for the members of the two houses, who would rejoice as much as I would to be released from this unbearable situation."
"Expose the lobby" at once demanded THE WORLD editorially, dwelling on the reasons for such action, Why not Investigate?" It questioned. The Senate promptly yoted the most drastic Investigation of its own members and the lobbyists ever made of the United States Senate, as its reply to the challenges recelved.
The result was the Senate lobby investigating committee. Testimony was taken but nothing particularly new developed. Work on the tariff schedules continued. Matters dawdled along for a month.
Then THE WORLD took action, in the Interest of tariff reform, and in response to the call for ald from President Wilson.
It turned over to the Overman lobby investigating committee Col. Martin M. Mulhall, for ten years & lobbyist, field worker and strike breaker for the National Association of Manufacturers. Throughout that time he "was constantly active, though dellberately inconspicuous, in his dally undertakings and achievements of the lobby." Ile had given THE WORLD his personal narrative of these activities and turned over to it his voluminous correspondence, which gave the corroborative proof to the narrative.
These combined established the following facts:
That the National Association of Manufacturers has a membership of 225 organizations, embracing 4.000 individual members, employing more than 5,000,000 of persons, and representing an approximate capital of $10,000,000,000 and claims to be a non-political business and trade organization,
That, in reallty, this association has for more than ten years secretly played an important and frequently decisive part in promoting tarifi, labor and general business legislation favorable to its own Interests.
That, together with a "paper organization" called the National Council for Industrial Defence, It has also maintained a lobby at Washington for the purpose of defeating all legislation hostile to its own interests.
That, for these purposes It has always sought, and often managed to secure control of the Committee on Labor and the Committee on the Judiciary of both the Senate and the House of Representatives,
That the National Association of Manufacturers was solely responsible for the creation of the Tarili Commission during the Taft Administration, the object of the association being to forestall revision of the then existing tarill.
Col. Mulhall gave the names of the men who recelved financial reward for services rendered for political purposes. His story was backed up by more than 20,000 letters, telegrams, reports, expense accounts, all corroboratlve memoranda. It was an amazing story revealing the secrets of the lobby at the capital of the Nation.
LOBBY DRIVEN FROM THE DOORS OF CONGRESS. Col. Mulhall's story, first told in the columns of THE WORLD, was re-told even more fully, before the Overman lobby investigating committee, which subpoenaed him to appear, repeat his statements and answer any question that might be asked of him-as THE WORLD Intended should be done.
Among the charges made by Col. Mulhall was this: That the N. A. M. put on its black list" members of Congress who worked for legislation it did not want nd succeeded in retiring many of them to private life.
As a lobbyist Col. Mulhall stated he spent $200,000. Under orders he helped re-elect legislative Iriends of the association and fought Congressmen who were on its "black Ilst," he made payments of money to Legislators who voted on bllls as the association dictated; for the N. A. M. he bought union labor leaders and sought to enlist the aid of clergymen in wage controversies; he stated that an agent of the N. A. M. plotted to break up the American Federation of Labor by bribing Its leading officers and sald seventy-five pages in the House of Representatives acted as sples for the lobby under the direction of the chief, who was in the lobby's pay. The above are only a few of the startling charges made by the lobbyist. He furnished the names of the men Involved and his letters and other data gave the proof of the statements made.
At Senator Overman's request the voluminous mass of correspondence was turned over to him by THE WORLD as the basis for the committee's Investigation. He announced promptly that he would subpoena all those involved in the Mulhall narrative and correspondence.
THE WORLD's exposure of the secrets of the powerful lobby of the National Association of Manufacturers stirred official Washington as It has not been stirred in years. The facts brought to light changed the entire programme of the Senate lobby investigating committee.
On all side, men named in the Mulhall charges, appearing from day to day in THE WORLD, were busy explaining and denying.