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v. On St. Paul's third visit to Philippi, A. xx. 3...6., Luke joined his company to Troas,
vi. And never apparently quitted him, till they both came to Rome together, A. xxviii. 16.
vii. While at Cesarea, A. xxiii. 33, &c., he had probably availed himself of the great opportunities of that situation to write his Gospel under the eye of St. Paul. Vide Appendix E.
viii. When at Rome, being known by report, as the beloved physician, to the brethren at Colossæ, he is joined in the salutation, Coloss. iv. 14. and PHILEMON, ver. 24.
ix. In the Epistle to the Philippians, written (from St. Paul's more immediate expectation of deliverance, i. 25, 6., ii. 24.) at some interval after those two, the name of Luke does not occur; from whence we may fairly conclude that he was then gone elsewhere.
Conjectures as to the probable place and cause of his absence will be found in Appendix E.
X. If, during St. Paul's absence from Rome in his last apostolic Progress, Luke was at Cesarea, engaged on his second historical labour, App. u. s., we may well suppose, that after the apostle's return to Rome was made known to him, the well beloved Luke would lose no time in once more becoming his attendant in prison.
xi. One thing is very clear, that St. Paul, at the close of his earthly course, being then left in comparative solitude, has distinctly recorded, 2 Tim. iv. 11., “ Only Luke is with me,” that is, of his earlier associates : for at the end of that epistle it appears he was not neglected by Eubulus, and Pudens, and Linus, and Claudia, and by other brethren unnamed.
MALTA, p. 104. Acts xxviii. 1.
“ On the Voyage and Place of Shipwreck of St. Paul, by Major Rennell, F.R. S.” &c. in the Archæologia, vol. xxi. p. 92., will be read with much pleasure and entire satisfaction.
PETER; and JAMES and JOHN his brother, the two
sons of Zebedee.
i. This apostolic triumvirate, so frequently occurring (and
James never occurs again till A. xii. 2., where it is said,
For JAMES the Less, vide below, s. iii.
ii. Peter and John, so united, occur in the case of the
In A. viii. 14. they are sent by the other apostles into
This is the last mention, in the Acts, of John the Evan-
Incidentally, however, by Gal. ii. 9., we find, on Paul and
“ James (the Less), Cephas, and John :"
How shall this absence of John be better accounted for,
iii. James the Less, whose mother was Mary, Mark xv.
Very soon after the martyrdom of James the brother of
A. xii. 17. “ Go," says Peter after his miraculous deliverance, “ show these things unto James and to the brethren.”
After this period, Gal. ii. 9. (in time=A. xiv. 28.) on the important occasion of Paul's private visit to Jerusalem, James bears a prominent part.
“ And when James, Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pillars, perceived the grace that was given unto me, they gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship; that we should go unto the heathen, and they unto the circumcision."
At a somewhat later date, Gal. ii. 11, 12., “ When Peter was come to Antioch, I withstood him to the face, because he was to be blamed. For before that certain came from James, he did eat with the Gentiles.”
This text plainly attributes to James a kind of eminence or presidency in the church of Jerusalem, or at least a more fixed and stationary residence there. H. P. 99.
After this again, A. xv., in the council held at Jerusalem upon the business of the Gentile converts, he decidedly assumes a higher place, and after Peter had spoken, vv. 7...11. seems to have taken the lead. It was he who closed the debate and proposed the resolution, xv. 19., in which the council ultimately concurred. H. P. 99.
After that great concern was settled, the name of Peter no where occurs again in the Acts: he disappears from Jerusalem entirely. Into what distant scenes he afterwards travelled as the apostle of the circumcision, it is no part of my limited undertaking to collect from other writers or investigate for myself; unless so far as the name of Silas connected with that of Peter requires to be noticed in the Index.
iv. James therefore after A. xv. remains in Jerusalem the acknowledged bishop of the church; and the last mention of his name occurs on a very important meeting, A. xxi. 18., “ The day following Paul went in with us unto James; and all the elders were present.”
And here terminates this brief notice of Peter, James, and John, and of James the Less, rendered in some sort necessary from its connection with the apostolic history of St. Paul.
i. When Silas, A. xv. 22., first left Jerusalem as sent along with the decree from the council held there, it was only, as he thought, on the mission to Antioch, and then to return. Instead of that, as we have seen, A. xv. 40. p. 34., he set out with Paul on an indefinite line of progress, and faithfully accompanied him through the varied scenes, trials, and sufferings of a long and protracted absence.
ii. After Silas along with Timothy arrived at Corinth from Macedonia, A. xviii. 5., and there rejoined the apostle, the name of Timothy does not appear again till a much later day, and that, at Ephesus, A. xix. 22. The name of Silas never again appears in the Acts.
Now we can have little doubt but that Silas as well as Timothy would bear the apostle company to Jerusalem, A. xviii. 22. What then became of Silas ?
iii. Nothing so natural, as that on their arrival there Silas should now remain in the place of his home, of his relations and friends; on a scene, too, be it remembered, A. xv. 22., where he already held a chief place among the brethren.
iv. What partly confirms the idea that he must there have taken his leave of Paul, is the fact of his being afterwards despatched by the apostle Peter with that epistle, in which he is called (1 Pet. v. 12.) “ a faithful brother unto you, as I suppose.” And why was he called so ? because Peter knew that he had been the associate of Paul when preaching the gospel “ in Phrygia and Galatia” certainly, A. xvi. 6. Whether Silas after that time travelled through “ Pontus, Cappadocia, Bithynia,” &c., 1 Pet. i. 1., must be left in the uncertainty of conjecture.
i. Is converted, A. xiv. 7., with Lois and Eunice, pp. 19, 20., and received by the apostle as his personal attendant, A. xvi. 1, 2, 3. pp. 34, 5.
ii. Bears Paul company all along, to Berea, A. xvii. 10., follows Paul to Athens, is sent back to Thessalonica, and thence arrives at Corinth, xviii. 5. pp. 46, 7, 8.
iii. Accompanies Paul, vid Ephesus, to Syria, goes up with him to Jerusalem ; and thence, to Antioch, p. 53.
iv. On Paul's third Progress, through Galatia and Phrygia, to Ephesus; from thence (along with Erastus), A. xix. 22., into Macedonia; from whence he might have gone to Corinth, and thence back to Ephesus, but he is overtaken by Paul before he left Philippi, pp. 154, 5.
v. Attends Paul through the parts N. W. of Greece, and is reckoned at Corinth, A. xx. 4., as one of his seven panions, on return via Troas, &c., and goes with him to Jerusalem.
vi. Probably with him at Cesarea for part of the time, but not his companion on the voyage to Rome; where however his name is found in the salutations, Col. i. I., Phile. ver. 1.
vii. Goes with him (and Titus) first to Crete, p. 120., then to Ephesus; where Paul leaves him behind, and after going via Troas into Macedonia, from Philippi, writes that epistle to him, 1 Tim. p. 121.
viii. Apparently, after this, while Paul was yet at Nicopolis or in the neighbourhood, Timothy had been summoned from the station at Ephesus to that of Philippi, pp. 123, 4.
Paul on his return to Rome, taking Corinth in the way, and wishing once more to visit the church of Ephesus, so much the object always of his anxiety, under those circumstances had no opportunity to see his beloved disciple in Macedonia.
At Rome, not long, it is thought, after his second arrival in that city, he is again persecuted and thrown into prison. And from thence, Timothy is addressed at Philippi in an epistle (2 Tim.) p. 125. ; which while it requests him to come