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genitalis (with its adnexa, the mammary uterine zones—the central longitudinal (A, glands) rapidly develops in dimension, B, and C), bilateral, cervical, and fundalform, and color. Its adjacent glands (pu- become marked-established in contour. dendo-vaginal, periurethral, ovary, endo- The anatomical feature is the development metrium, and glandulæ papillæ) rapidly of uterine elements, as endometrium (glanddevelop and begin to secrete. The dimen- ular), vascular apparatus (utero-ovarian
Demonstrating the longitudinal oligæmic uterine zone (A, B, C). Also the lateral cervical and fundal uterine zones. The oligamic uterine zones-central longitudinal, bilaterally cervical, and fundal -are evident, but not marked as in the adult. Drawn fro n an x-ray of an infant one day old. The arteries and ureters were injected in situ with red lead and starch. The illustration was taken in Dr. Harry Pratt's X-ray laboratory. The spiral segment of the genital vascular circle: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12. The straight segment: abdominal aorta, common iliac, and internal iliac. The renal vessels in this cut present a dorsal view, 46 and 46 supply two-fifths of the dorsal segment of the kidney: 47 and 47 supply three-fifths of the kidney-the ventral half and part of the dorsal half. The genitals and spiral segment of the utero-ovarian vascular circle present a ventral view, but are drawn from a dorsal x-ray view.
sions of the pelvis change in diameter and artery), and myometrium (muscular). panniculus adiposus becomes deposited in The rushing influx of rich blood rapidly definite localities, as adjacent to the pelvis. develops glandular and muscular elements The phase pueritas has become pubertas. into proportionate dimensions. The funcThe girl has become woman. The oligæmic tions of the tractus genitalis (ovulation,
Infant one day old injected with celloidin and vermilion (HgS) in situ. It was subsequently removed and placed in nitric acid, thirty per cent.; water, seventy per cent.; for two weeks, when the tissues were corroded-dorsal view. It was drawn while lying in ninety per cent. water and ten per cent. glycerin by the aid of a lens magnifying some ten diameters. Observe how the vaginal arteries pass distalward. Note the large cervico-vaginal (22) bifurcated, one branch passing dorsal and the other ventral to cervix. 34, artery of ligamentum latum; 35, subovarian arcade. The vaginal arteries divide dichotomously and are so rich that they cannot all be drawn. Tuftlike branches exist on the terminal vaginal arteries. The infant's uterus teaches that the uterus is distinctly a double organ, with double circulation. The aid of the magnifying lens demonstrates that the circulation in the fundus and corpus consists first of an independent circulation of each half, as shown by the rami corporis and rami fundi passing almost to the middle line, whence they curve toward the lateral uterine border; second, a relatively limited number from one lateral half coalesces with those of the other. If one looks longitudinally through the uterus from fundus toward the cervix as it stands in the fluid the circulation presents itself as double, one vascular circular tube on cach side of the center of the uterus resembling exactly a double barreled shotgun. The corroded specimen demonstrates that the large arteries pass near the external surface of the uterus not far from the peritoneum. The rami uteri end in the endometrium in terminal tufts resembling the ending of arteries in the mucosa intestinalis. In the infant's uterus the dorsal surface presents one-fourth more blood-supply than the ventral. Also the rami uteri ventralis course more in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the uterus than of the dorsal wall. Observe the direction of the arteriæ vaginæ (25 and 36) as distalward. The rami corporis (23) are directed horizontally. The rami fundi (24) are directed primalward. The ureters were injected with melted paraffin and presented typical bilateral constrictions and dilatations. They passed close to the cervix and are symmetrical on each side, producing the typical arterial ureteral loop (2 and 2). Observe the large arteria ligamentum latum (34). The ovarian vascular circle is easily observed. The genital vascular circle, or utero-ovarian artery, consists of: First. A straight segment, viz.: (a) the abdominal aorta; (b) common iliac, and (c) the in nal iliac. Second. The spiral segment, viz.: the five segments: (a) pelvic floor, (b) uterine, (c) oviducal, (d) ovarian, and that of (e) the round ligament. The oligæmic uterine zonesthe central longitudinal fundal and bilaterally cervical-are evident,' but not marked as in the adult. The artery is slightly spiral.
secretion, absorption, peristalsis, and men- periurethral, ovarian, and glandulæ pa-
In gestation the utero-ovarian artery Menstruation is but a continuation of springs into a mighty activity. It increases pubertas. The functions of the genital in diameter and length, vast volumes of tract (ovulation, secretion, absorption, peri- blood pass through its lumen, so that the stalsis, and menstruation) proceed.
veins have difficulty in removing it, and The oligamic uterine zones central hence present blueness.
The uterus was injected with celloidin and corroded for many weeks in HNO3, digested with pepsin in a brood oven, microphotographed, magnified four times, and engraved. Ur., ureter, which was injected with paraffin and floated out of position. A., uterine segment of utero-ovarian artery. O., oviducal segment. V., vaginal leash of vessels; it should be viewed with a lens. This cut demonstrates that the uterus is an organ with a double circulation united relatively by a few arteries and little blood in the longitudinal oligamic uterine zone. The arterial circulatory apparatus of this uterus resembles almost exactly a double barreled shotgun. The oligamic uterine zones--central longitudinal fundal and bilaterally cervical-are not only evident, but marked. Unfortunately a segment of the fundal zone is fragmented. The utero-ovarian artery presents slight spirality.
longitudinal (A, B, and C), lateral cervical, The muscular element (myometrium) and and fundal—become rather more marked glandular elements (pudendo-vaginal, perifrom repetition of monthly congestion. urethral, ovary, and endometrium) become Perhaps the muscular (myometrium) and completely developed. The functions of the glandular (endometrium, pudendo-vaginal, tractus genitalis (ovulation, secretion, ab-
A nullipara twenty-two years old. Drawn from an x-ray taken in Dr. Harry Pratt's x-ray laboratory. The ureters (19 and 20) and utero-ovarian artery were injected with red lead and starch. The uteroovarian artery, not having experienced gestation, is not completely developed. The spiral segment: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12. The straight segment: abdominal aorta; 16, common iliac; 17, internal iliac. A, B, and C represent the central longitudinal oligæmic zone of the uterus in a twenty-two year old nullipara. 4, 5, and 6, the uterine segment of uterine artery. 22, 23, and 24, rami laterales uteri. The oligæmic uterine zones-central ngitu in 1(A, B, and C), fundal, and bilaterally cervical-are not only evident, but well marked in the nulliparous menstruating uterus. The utero-ovarian artery has assumed its spiral, looped and sinuous state.
Parous woman, thirty years old. Drawn from an x-ray taken in Dr. Harry Pratt's x-ray laboratory. The spiral segment: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12. The straight ‘segment: abdominal aorta; 16, common iliac; 17, internal iliac. The ureters (19 and 20) and utero-ovarian artery were injected with red lead mixed with starch. The utero-ovarian artery is completely developed, and remains in maximum spirals after the puerperium. 22, 23, and 24 represent the central longitudinal oligamic zone of the uterus in a multipara thirty-two years old. 4, 5, and 6 is the uterine segment of the utero-ovarian artery. The oligæmic uterine zones-central longitudinal (22, 23, and 24) fundal, and bilaterally cervical-are fully developed and distinctly marked. The myometrium is completely developed.