Theory of Heat
Longmans, 1871 - 312 Seiten
This classic sets forth the fundamentals of thermodynamics and kinetic theory simply enough to be understood by beginners, yet with enough subtlety to appeal to more advanced readers, too.
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action alter amount appears applied atmosphere becomes body boiling called cause cold communication compared condition conduction consider constant contains continually cooling corresponding defined definite density depends described determine diagram diffusion diminishes direction distance effect energy engine equal exactly exists expand experiments expressed fact flow fluid force freezing gaseous gases given gravity greater Hence important increase indicated isothermal lines kind length less light liquid lower mass matter means measured mechanical melting mercury method molecules motion nature observed ordinary original pass portions pound pressure produce properties proportional quantity of heat radiation raise rays relation remains represents result rise scale separation shows sides solid specific heat square standard steam substance suppose surface temperature theory thermal thermometer tube uniform unit vapour velocity vessel volume weight whole
Seite 298 - Now let us suppose that such a vessel is divided into two portions, A and B, by a division in which there is a small hole, and that a being, who can see the individual molecules, opens and closes this hole, so as to allow only the swifter molecules to pass from A to B, and only the slower ones to pass from B to A. He will thus, without expenditure of work, raise the temperature of B and lower that of A, in contradiction to the second law of thermodynamics.
Seite 160 - For compressible flow this becomes: where y is the ratio of the specific heat at constant pressure to that at constant volume...
Seite 143 - It is impossible for a self-acting machine, unaided by any external agency, to convey heat from one body to another at a higher temperature ; or heat cannot of itself (that is, without compensation) pass from a colder to a warmer body.
Seite 22 - Temperature. — The temperature of a body is its thermal state considered with reference to its power of communicat.ing heat to other bodies.
Seite 14 - ... warmed, though the lowest layer is always the hottest. As the temperature increases, the absorbed air which is generally found in ordinary water, is expelled and rises in small bubbles without noise. At last the water in contact with the heated metal becomes so hot that, in spite of the pressure of the atmosphere on the surface of the water, the additional pressure due to the water in the vessel, and the cohesion of the water itself, some of the water at the bottom is transformed into steam,...
Seite 298 - But if we conceive a being whose faculties are so sharpened that he can follow every molecule in its course...
Seite 268 - Maxwell denned the coefficient of viscosity as follows: "The coefficient of viscosity of a substance is measured by the tangential force on unit area of either of two horizontal planes at unit distance apart, one of which is fixed while the other moves with unit velocity, the space between being filled with the viscous substance.
Seite 112 - No separation into liquid and vapour can be detected, but at the same time very small variations of pressure or of temperature produce such great variations of density that flickering movements are observed in the tube ' resembling in an exaggerated form the appearances exhibited during the mixture of liquids of different densities, or when columns of heated air ascend through colder strata.
Seite 266 - ... alteration is just going to take place is called the limit of perfect elasticity. If the stress, when it is maintained constant, causes a strain or displacement in the body which increases continually with the time, the substance is said to be viscous.
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