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cordingly, on the cession of Minorca, and of East and West Florida by his Britannic majesty, a definitive treaty of peace was concluded, between the courts of Madrid and St. James's, on the Sd of September. Other treaties being concluded, about the same time, between the various contending powers, happily put an end to the calamities of war, both in the old and the new world. A. D..

No sooner had Europe been cheered

by the proclamation of a general peace, 1781.

than the court of Madrid resolved to undertake a fresh expedition against the Algerines, whose hostile exertions, both in the Ocean and the Mediterranean, had exceeded every thing that had been known since the time of the Barbarossas. Accordingly a combined fleet of Spanish, Maltese, Portuguese, and Neapolitan vessels sailed to Algiers, in the month of July; and commenced an attack, by which several boats were destroyed, and the town was set on fire in several places. But the infidels fought with such irresistible fury, and their coast was covered with such powerful artillery, that it was deemed advisable to abandon the enterprize.

In the ensuing summer, his catholic majesty curtailed the powers of the inquisition, and decreed that all the future proceedings of that tribunal should be publicly conducted.

He also prohibited the celebration of bull feasts, excepting only upon'occasions where the profits arising from them were assigned to some charitable, benevolent, or patriotic purpose. These regulations were soon followed by others of greater importance: and the court, the nobility, and all the higher classes of the nation,


scemed to be inspired, at the same time, with the spirit of promoting a general reform, of eradicating ancient prejudices, and of enlightening the minds of the people. Inquiries into the history and antiquities of the country met a liberal encouragement; sumptuous editions of the most valuable classics were published under the royal patronage ; numerous public schools were instituted for the tuition of youth; societies were formed in every part of the king, dom for the establishment of arts, sciences, and manufactures; and a truly patriotic spirit began to appear in the projection of several pub. lic works and designs of the greatest permanency and national utility. About the same time, the king successfully resumed his favorite project of peopling and cultivating the Sierra Morena ; caused some accurate charts to be drawn for the use of his marine; established a new East India company, under the name of the “ Royal Philippine;” and made some im. portant improvements in the administration of the colonial government. The intermarriages which took

A. D. place, in the Easter season, between

1786. the infant Don Gabriel of Spain, and the infanta Donna Mariana Victoria of, on one side; and between the infant Don Juan of Portugal, and the infanta Donna Charlotta, eldest daughter of the prince of Asturias, on the other; not only obviated the jealousies which had long prevailed between these courts, but also occasioned a treaty of alliance between France and Portugal, which constituted a complete union between the latter and the house of Bourbon.


The longevity of cardinal' de Solis, archbi shop of Seville, who died about this time, would have rendered him an object of historical attention, even if the goodness of his heart and the excellency of his life had not particularly entitled him to that distinction. This cele. brated character, who arrived to the patriarchal age of one hundred and ten years without the loss of any faculty, seemed to be the natural as well as the spiritual father of the people committed to his care, and he experienced a sweet remuneration of his labours, in their reverent and affectionate gratitude. When asked, by his intimate friends, what methods he had taken tu prolong life to so extraordinary a period, he observed, that he had led a sober and studious but not a sedentary life; that his diet though delicate was sparing; and that he exercised himself every day, either in riding or walking. “ So far," said the amiable prelate, “I took care for the body; and as to the mind I strove to preserve it in due temper by a scrupulous obedience to the Divine injunctions, and keeping a conscience void of offence toward God and man. By these easy and innocent means I" have arrived at the age of a patriarch, with less injury to my constitution than many experience at forty. I am now, like ripe corn, ready for the sickle of death, and, by the mercy of my Redeemer, I have strong hopes of being translated into his granary;

The king was much affected at the death of this worthy personage, and was heard to exclaim, " Would to heaven he had appointed a successor ; for the people of Seville have been 60 long used to his virtues, that they will be


discontented with the best prelate I can send them." Charles IV. ascended the throne of

A. D. Spain, on the demise of his father, and

1789. made his public entry into Madrid, on the 28th of September, with the utmost pomp and solemnity. The streets through which the procession passed were lined with troops, and all the houses were handsomely decorated and illuminated. On the 22d their majesties and the royal family went to the church of St. Jerome, adjoining the old palace of Buen Retiro, where they took their seats on a throne to the right of the altar, and received the customary: oaths of allegiance.

They then sat down to dinner at the Buen Retiro, and late in the evening returned to the palace.

The government of Spain testified great uneasiness at the French revolution, and watched narrowly those who attempted to defend its principles; for, though the scrupulous adherence of the Spaniards to the Romish tenets seemed to preclude the idea of their imitating a people who had recently expressed the most complete contempt for the sovereign pontiff, there were many persons who held that politics and religion were two different things, and that liberty might be asserted without violating the respect due to St. Pe r's successor, and with out separating from his communion. Alarmed at the diffusion of these sentiments, the Spanish court prohibited the circulation of all news

* This prince was born on the 11th of November 1748, and married to Louisa Maria Theresa, princess of Parma, on the 4th of September 1765.


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papers, and political pamphlets from France, and at the same time stationed troops on the frontiers, with order to stop every stranger

whose character lay under any suspicion. A. D.

In consequence of a dispute relative "1790.

to the sovereignty of Nootka Sound,

his catholic majesty resolved to take up arms against Great Britain, and such formis dable preparations were made in the different parts of his kingdom, that his navy was speedily augmented to seventy ships of the line, besides frigates and vessels of other descriptions. But the naval force of England was still so greatly superior, and the preparations of that country were made on so much larger a scale, that the court of Madrid suddenly changed their intentions, and consented to give the satisfaction demanded by Great Britain. Accordingly a declaration to this purpose was published on the 24th of July, and on the 28th of October following a convention between the king of Spain and his Britannic majesty was signed at the Escurial.

The beginning of this year was mark1792.

ed by the sudden dismission of count

Florida Blanca from the office of prime minister. The reasons for this measure were not assigned, but it was probably adopted to apo pease the public murmurs at some late proceed. ings, and particularly against the edict concerning strangers, which certainly contributed to impose heavy fetters on the commerce of the nation. The place of this statesman was immediately filled by count d'Aranda, who aboJished a kind of civil inquisition called the superintendant tribunal of police; and made


A. D.

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