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been concerned in the late troubles, Philip quit..? ted Naples on the 2d of June, and proceeded to the duchy of Milan, whence he repaired to the army. On the 15th of August he signalized himself, with the duke de Vendosme, in the fa.." mous battle of Lazara. The Imperialists, being animated by the presence and example of prince Eugene, were very near destroying the united armies of France and Spain; but the leaders of their enemies were equally valiant, and Philip, in particular, gave the most convincing proofs of heroism and patience. At length, after an obstinate conflict and a prodigious effusion of blood, the combatants separated, each side claiming the victory, and singing a solemn Te Deum. The advantage, however, was certainly on the side of the two crowns, for, on the next day, they tcok Lazara with all the enemy's magazines; and this conquest was speedily followed by the reduction of Burgoforte and Guastalla.
Meanwhile, the queen of Spain opened the states of Arragon, and, leaving them sitting at Saragossa, proceeded to Madrid, where her arri. val created universal satisfaction, and effectually damped some sparks of rebellion which had been kindled by an appearance of the enemy's fleet before Cadiz. Upon the first rumor of that circumstance, she declared in council her readiness to go to Andalusia, and even to dispose of her jewels, if supplies were wanting. She also discovered equal firmness after the misfortune at Vigo, where the French marine was nearly ruined, and the Spaniards lost, according to the most moderate accounts, eight millions of gold. On the 20th of September, his catholic majesty returned to Barcelona, and, soon after, to Madrid,
where cardinal Portocarrero still acted as prime minister. About the middle of January, cardinal
A. D. d'Etrees arrived at Madrid, with the title
1730. of ambassador from his most Christian majesty. Upon the advice of this prelate, Philip thought proper to provide for the reception of his confederated enemies; and accordingly issued out orders for recruiting the Spanish infantry, for remounting the cavalry, and for rais ing a powerful body of standing forces, under the title of “ troops of the household.” A considerable sum of money was sent about the same time to France, in order to indemnify Louis for the of capture his ships at Vigo, and his sub.. jects for the loss of their property. This means sure, however, was loudly condemned by the generality of the Spaniards; the duke de Medina Cæli resigned his employments in disgust; and even the cardinal Portocarrero solicited permission to retire to his diocese of Toledo.
In the mean time, the admirante of Castile, who had treacherously retired into Portugal, with a numerous train and immense sums of money, persuaded the ministers of the allies, that, if the archduke was once declared king of Spain, Philip might be easily dethroned ; that the majority of the Spaniards were warmly attached to the house of Austria; and that it was rather the irresolution of Vienna than the succours of France, which had hitherto maintained the son of the dauphin in possession of the Castilian diadem. Upon these assurances, his faithful majesty entered into the grand alliance; Leopold and his son made a solemn renunciation of all their pretensions; and the archduke was publicly Vol. XV.
declared king of Spain, at Vienna, by the name of Charles III.
These proceedings, together with some vindictive manifestoes, published by the archduke and the king of Portugal, induced Philip to draw up a declaration, in which he established his right upon the fairest grounds, and observed that he had been solemnly acknowledged by those very powers which were now engaged to strip him of the regal dignity. This declaration, however, had no effect; and the allies resolved to execute their project by force of arms.
After his catholic majesty had taken and demo. lished several places on the frontiers of Portugal, and defeated a considerable part of the English and Dutch auxiliaries, the fleet of the allies, under the command of Sir George Rooke, reduced the important fortress of Gibraltar, which they left under the protection of the prince of Darmstadt and a numerous garrison. An engagement soon afterward took place between the confederates and the French fleet, in which both parties claimed the victory: but Sir George Rooke had so little ammunition, that his obliging the enemy to retire, added as much to his repu. tation as the most decisive victory would have, done, if it had been gained previously to his conquest of Gibraltar.
In the present distressing exigence, Philip found it equally impossible to defend his dominions without levying new taxes, and to impose those national burdens without exciting perpen. tual murmurs, and frequent insurrections. He had the mortification to perceive that his subjects persisted in their aversion to the customs of France ; and the commerce of his kingdom was
so effectually ruined, that he was obliged to
permit even his enemies to resume it, provided they made use of neutral vessels. However, he made some efforts which were equally consistent with his royal character, and necessary for the preservation of his crown. He established a fund for the maintenance of the army, and prudently supplied its deficiencies by borrowing of the treasurer of the French troops. He raised a numevous body of household troops, after the example of his grandfather, and contrived to draw many young men of respectable families to enter into his service. He also fixed a cabinet council, and took every possible precaution for the general safety of his people.
Conscious of the importance of Gibraltar, and eager to wrest it from its new possessors, Philip sent the marquis de Villadarias to besiege it, in the month of October : but, after a prodi. gious loss both of men and money, the project was found impracticable, and consequently re. linquished
In the ensuing spring, the Portuguese and their allies invested Salvaterra, and bribed the governor to open the gates: but the garrison, consisting of four hundred and thirty men, chose to be conducted prisoners to Lisbon, rather than to take up arms against their lawful sovereign. Vaa lencia de Alcantara made a vigorous defence; for the governor, Alonzo de Mariaga, sustained five tremendous assaults; and when he surrendered, his remaining troops seized the arms of their escort, and made their escape. The reduction .of Albuquerque in Estramadura, terminated this campaign. Philip's distress at the loss of these places, was Ee 2
sensibly augmented by the intrigues of his re. bellious admirante. A plot was discovered at Granada, for murdering the garrison; another, of a similar nature, was accidentally detected at Valencia; and, after some time, it appeared that a project had been formed to secure the persons of their catholic majesties at Buen Retiro, and to carry them prisoners to Lisbon, or, in case of resistance, to assassinate them by the way.
As this discovery involved the marquis de Leganez, governor of Buen Retiro, in suspicion, he was arrested and sent prisoner to Pampeluna : but he was afterward permitted to remove into France, and lived in universal esteem at Paris, whilst the disappointed admirante fell ill at Lisbon, and eventually died of a broken heart.
A grand fleet of the allies, commanded by the earl of Peterborough and Sir Cloudesley Shovel, sailed from Lisbon to Catalonia, were they land.ed a body of ten thousand men, and laid close siege to Barcelona. Hereupon Francisco de Velasco, Philip's viceroy, called a meeting of the inhabitants, and told them that any person who chose might now go out to the besiegers; but that, if he discovered any treachery after, ward, he would punish it with relentless severity: but no one accepted of this proposal. When the prince of Darmstadt made the first attack, he met with a desperate resistance, which proved fatal to himself and about five hundred English troops : but the earl of Peterborough brought up such a powerful reinforcement, that the fortress of Montjuic was soon carried, and Barcelona was surrendered on capitulation. All Catalonia, except Roses, now declared for the