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nence which overlooks the mouth of the river Douro stood an ancient town, named Cale, which proving inconvenient for trade, a town or hamlet was erected on the shore, and called Portus Cale, or the Haven of Cale; and by a refinement in language, Portucalia. At length an episcopal see was erected here, the bishops of which subscribed themselves portucalenses, and the name of the city was transferred to the diocese, which in early times was almost co-exten. sive with the little country where the sove. reignty originally began. As the dominions, however, were enlarged by successive conquests, the name of the diocese was lost, but the kingdom still retained it.
Situated between 37 and 42 degrees of north latitude, the air of Portugal would be excessively hot, were it not refreshed by sea. breezes towards the south, and cooled by frequent rains towards the north. The spring is extremely delightful in this climate ; and the whole country is blest with a happier temperature than Spain. The air of Lisbon, from its balmy softness, has justly been reputed highly salutary in pulmonic complaints; and many invalids of that description take a voyage thither from Great Britain with the happiest effects.
The soil is abundantly fertile in wine, oil, lemons, oranges, pomegranates, figs, raisins, almonds, and other choice fruits ; but from the low state of agriculture rather than natural sterility, there is a considerable deficiency in corn. Both the sea and the rivers produce excellent fish. The horses are brisk and lively, but slight made, and on account of their being surer footed, mules are most in request for draught
and burden. The pastures being generally very indifferent, neither cattle nor sheep are very numerous; but hogs and kids are plentiful, and their flesh tender and nutritive. The Portuguese wines, when old and genuine, are esteem. ed not only safe to drink, but salutary to the human constitution ; but the whole kingdom does not produce half the quantity that is drank in London only, under the specious name of port.
The general aspect of Portugal is mountainous or rather rocky. The chief ranges are those which divide Algarva from Alentejo; those of Trales Montes, and the rock of Lisbon at the efflux of the Tajo. These contain mines of silver, copper, tin, and iron, beautifully veined marble, gems, and fossils. Near Lisbon is a mine of salt-petre. The principal rivers are the Minho; the Limia, anciently the celebrated Lethe; the Cavado; the Douro; the Guardiana ; and the Tajo or Tagus, which was famed for its golden sands. The last is the largest river in the kingdom. Portugal also contains several lakes and medicinal springs; and natural hot baths are found in the province of Algarva.
Popery is the only religion tolerated in Portugal; yet, as must be expected where liberty of conscience is denied, there are many concealed Jews and heretics even in the higher ranks, among the ecclesiastics as well as the laity. The inquisition, that eternal disgrace to reason and religion, reigns here in full force, though it is now used chiefly as a siate engine; and the burning of those who are condemned by its sanguinary tribunals is called an auto de fé, or si act of faith.” The patriarch of Lisbon is B 2
generally a cardinal, and a person of the highest birth. Indeed, the revenues of several of the ecclesiastics are suited to the dignity of princes.
The language differs only provincially from that of Spain ; and both are derived from the Latin. The Portuguese is spoken along the coast of Africa and Asia as far as China, but with an intermixture of many different languages. Though there are two universities in Portugal, those of Coimbra and Evora, learning is at a very low ebb : yet the defect lies not in the genius of the people, but in their education. The ancestors of the present Portuguese, about the middle of the sixteenth century, were possessed of more mathematical knowledge than all the rest of the world; and Camoens, who was both a poet and a voyager, would do honour to any country.
Lisbon is the capital of Portugal, and is computed to contain 200,000 inhabitants. It suffered one of the most dreadful visitations of Providence in an earthquake,* on All-saints day 1755, and to this day has not recovered its for. mer splendour; yet it makes a delightful and superb appearance, and, next to London and Amsterdam, is accounted the finest port in Europe. Oporto is the second city in the kingdom: the chief article of its commerce is *wine.
The manufactures in Portugal are neither numerous nor important; but its foreign trade is very considerable, especially with England, which, in return for wine and fruits, sends much
woollen cloth and other articles, great part of which is again exported to the distant dependencies of this country.
The Portuguese foreign settlements are not only of immense value but vastly improveable. ' Brazil, the isles of Cape Verd, Madeira, and the Azores, are the principal of these. Goa is their chief remaining establishment in the East Indies, to which they originally paved the way, at a period when they were in the zenith of their glory.
The political constitution of Portugal is an absolute hereditary monarchy; and states or parliaments, which were anciently in use here as well as in Spain, have long since become obsolete. The royal titles are, “ King of Portugal and the Algarves, on this side and the other side of the sea of Africa; Lord of Guinea, and of the naviga. tion, conquests, and commerce of Ethiopia, Ara. bia, Persia, India,” &c. The heir apparent to the crown is styled Prince of Brazil; and by the favour of Pope Benedict XIV. the king has the farther title of His Most Faithful Majesty." For the administration of the civil
government, there is a council of state ; for military affairs, a council of war ; for the finances, a treasury court; and for the distribution of justice, several high tribunals with a variety of subordinate courts. The cities have their particular magistrates. The juridical proceedings are regu. lated by the Roman law, the royal edicts, the canon law, and the papal mandates.
Business is generally transacted in this country in the mornings and evenings, and noon is the time of rest, as is usual in other warm climates. There are several gradations of nobility, divi. B 3
ded into the high and low. The high nobility have the title of dons, and are addressed by the king himself with the epithet of illustrious: the inferior nobility or gentry are termed hidalgos, but cannot assume the title of don without license from the king.
The revenues of the crown are calculated to amount to upwards of 300,0001. sterling, which is a vast sum to be raised from such a small country. Certain it is, that the imposts and taxes run excessively high, and the diamonds and gold of Brazil, together with various other sources of revenue, produce considerable sums. The suppression of the Jesuits and other religious orders and institutions has likewise tended to increase the royal income.
The Portuguese military and naval forces are far from being adequate to the defence of the country. Indeed, for a great length of time, they have depended chiefly for protection on England, which, from different commercial and political connections, is deeply interested in sup. porting the independence and integrity of this country, for which it has made many important sacrifices.
There are several orders of knighthood in Portugal; the principal are the order of Christ; the order of St. James ; the order of Avis; and the order of St. John. Contrasted with their neighbours the Spaniards, the Portuguese are considered as inferior both in person and genius. They are said to be extremely haughty, treache. rous, and crafty; addicted to avarice; vindictive, malicious, and cruel. The lower orders have a strong propensity to pilfering ; yet it must be allowed that, as a nation, they have on