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the lowest stage of domestic service to the confidence of his master, the duke of Lerma, who procured him opulence, loaded him with honors, and even permitted him to aspire to a viceroyalty. These signal marks of favor ex. cited much envy among the people; and on the disgrace of his benefactor he was accused of various crimes, and detained in close confinement. Early in the ensuing spring Philip A. D. set out, at the request of his new mi

1619. nister, to make the tour of Portugal, and his reception in that kingdom was equally pleasing and magnificent. On the feast of St. Peter he made his public entry into Lisbon, where he found that the most splendid preparations had been made on his account. The river literally covered with beautiful galleys and other vessels ; the streets were embellished with thirty-two triumphal arches; and the public display of gold and jewels was so great that his majesty was obliged to prolong the show, that he might have time to behold the whole. The affability of his behaviour was particularly pleasing to the Portuguese nobles; and in a general assembly of the states, they cheerfully acknowledged his son as heir apparent to their crown. The majority of the nation, however, were not satisfied with his conduct; for he did not gratify them often enough by appearing in public, neither did he give very satisfactory answers to some of their demands. . During Philip's 'residence at Lisbon, the af. fairs of Europe began to be overcast ; and, on his return to Madrid, he found the ministry in a state of embarrassment and perplexity. The

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affairs of the empire were fallen into great com fusion; Italy and Switzerland were ready to arm against the augmenting power of the Spa. niards; the governor of Naples seemed inclined to shake off his allegiance; and the Turks had a powerful fleet at sea which excited universal consternation. After mature deliberation, how. ever, the Spanish ministers resolved to act with extraordinary vigor, and their exertions were attended with considerable success. Under pretènce of assisting the archduke Albert, they sent some powerful succours into Germany, riceroy of Naples was suddenly compelled to relinquish his post; and the Spaniards, erected several fonts in the Valteline, which facilitated the correspondence between the two branches of the house of Austria, shut the Swiss out of Italy, kept the Venetians in awe, and held most of the Italian princes in a state of dependence which differed but little from actual subjection.

Whilst his ministers triumphed in these successes, Philip perceived his approaching dissolution, and frequently lamented that indolence which had been the disgrace of his reign. He disapproved the seizure of the Valteline, and gave express orders, upon his death bed, that it should be restored. He left some written obr servations for the use of his son ; and expired at Madrid, in the forty-third year of his age and in the twenty-third of his reign. This prince is said to have received a good education and to have been sincerely virtuous: brat an Italian. historian has justly observed that, although he exceeded most of his subjects in moral virtues, he was very defective in those shining qualities which ought to be associated with sovereign


power. He had by his queen, Margaret of Austria, four sons and three daughters, of whom Don Philip, Don Carlos, Don Ferdinand, the queen of France, and the infanta Donna Maria, survived him; but,"notwithstanding this numérous progeny, he is said to have had no better prospect with respect to his family than in reference to his dominions, and his reflections upon this subject embittered his last moments. Philip IV. had no sooner ascended

A. D. the vacant throne than he removed the

1621. duke of Uzeda and the late king's confessor from their employments: but, though he acted with spirit in displacing these men, he himself became the subject of a favorite ; and the administration was chicfly vested in Don Gaspar de Guzman, count de Olivarez. The commencement of this reign was rendered uns popular by the execution of Rodrigo Calderona, who submitted to an unjust sentence with such patience and resignation that his unhappy fate was universally regretted.

A new system of politics was now introduced into the cabinet; and a strict league was con. cluded with the emperor, that, by his assistance, war might be revived in the United Provinces, and that both the Dutch and Italians might be effectually humbled under the power of Spain. The expectations of the new minister, however, were sadly disappointed; for, instead of adding new lustre to his master's crown, or rendering any important service to his country, he excited the general indignation of Europe, and had the mortification to hear that his exasperated neighbours designed to attack the Spanish dominions on every side. Some trifling advanVOL. XV. с с


tages were, indeed, gained over the English, Dutch, and French assailants; and a fortunate escape of the plate fleet occasioned some public rejoicings: but the pressure of extraordinary taxes occasioned universal complaints; the insolence of Olivarez excited a formidable revolt among the Catalonians; and the Portuguese, having chosen the duke of Bragança for their king, shook off the Spanish yoke, and recovered their former independence.

These successive misfortunes, which A. D.

ought to have opened the eyes of Philip 1642.

and his indiscreet ministers, seem, on the contrary, to have infatuated both. Olivarez had obtained his present power by becoming the confident of his master's pleasures, and by encouraging his licentiousness, while he himself endeavoured to deceive the world with a spe, cious appearance of extraordinary piety. In the commencement of his administration, he in: curred his majesty's displeasure by presenting a false memorial on a subject of importance : but, in consideration of his alluring a beautiful actress, named Calderona, to the royal couch, this glaring act of injustice was pardoned ; and the offender was, afterwards, permitted to in troduce an illegitimate son at court, with the name of Don Henrico de Guzman. About the same time the son of Philip and Calderona, then in his fourteenth year, received the title of Don Juan of Austria, and was declared generalissimo of the army against Portugal, while the heir apparent, Don Balthasar, was left un. der the care of the countess de Olivarez ; circumstance which chagrined the queen, enraged the populace, and astonished Europe.



On the subsequent failure of an expedition against the Catalonians, the loss of Perpignan, and the frustration of several important schemes, Olivarez was overwhelmed with consternation, and, on his bended knees, hesought permission to retire: but Philip was so far from charging upon his minister the recent misfortunes, that he joined with him in deploring their common disappointments, and consoled him with repeated assurances of favour and protection.

The credit of the count duke, however, was rapidly declining. The court was almost deserted; the populace, gloomy and discontented, refused to exhibit their usual signs of attachment when his majesty appeared in public; and the queen represented to her consort, that all the calamities which had happened during his reign had resulted entirely from the romantic politics of Olivarez. This assertion was immediately fol. lowed by the remonstrances of the imperial ambassador; and Philip's nurse, being purposely introduced, at this juncture, described the miseries of the nation in so lively and affecting a manner, that the king resolved to appease the universal clamour, and accordingly wrote a letter to the duke, in which he ordered him to retire to Loches. Olivarez seemed to bear his disgrace with perfect equanimity; and, in all probability, would have regained his master's favor; but, on his publishing an imprudent memorial, a fresh clamour was raised against him, and the king was persuaded to banish him to Toro.

Notwithstanding the return of the grandees to court, and the liberal sudsidies that were granted by his provinces, Philip was much chagrined at the loss of his old minister; and Сс 2


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