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lemons, prunes, raisins, figs, almonds, olives, and mulberries.
Of the manufactures of this country, the most considerable are glass, porcelain, silk stockings, esparto ropes, hempen cordage, wool, copper, and hardware. Barilla and salt.petre may be reckoned among the most valuable articles of commerce ; but the Spaniards, unfortunately for themselves, make gold and silver the principal branches of their exports and imports, while the consuls, agents, and correspondents of other countries improve this national imprudence to their respective advantages.
The principal mountains of Spain are the Pyrénées, which extend from the Bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean; the Cantabrian moun. tains, which run from the Pyrénées to the Atlantic Ocean; Mount Calpe, or the hill of Gibraltar; and Montserrat, which excites the ata tention of every curious traveller by the singularity of its situation, form, and composition.
The rivers most worthy of notice are, the Douro, which falls into the Atlantic Ocean near Oporto; the Tagus, which disembogues itseif into the same ocean below Lisbon; the Guadalquiver, which terminates at St. Lucar; and the Ebro, formerly called Iberus, which falls into the Mediterranean Sea, at a small distance from Tortosa. The chief bays are those of Biscay, Corunna, Ferrol, Cadiz, Vigo, Gibraltar, Alicant, Carthagena, Roses, Altea, and Valencia.
Among the natural curiosities of Spain we must enumerate the river Tinto, which petrifies the sand in a most surprising manner,
withers all the plants on its banks, and communicates a yellow tinge to whatever is thrown into it; the river Guadina, which, like the Mole in England, runs under ground, and then rises again, and the cave of St. Michael, near the rock of Gibraltar, in which a petrifying water continually drips from the roof, and forms a prodigious number of beautiful stalactites. The royal cabinet, at Madrid, contains a great number of precious stones, marbles, ores, &c. ; and is enriched with a curious collection of ewers, cups, basons, vases, plates, and ornamental pieces of amethyst, agate, and rock crystal, mounted in gold and enamel.
The principal antiquities of this country are, a magnificent aqueduct, erected by Trajan, over a deep valley near Segovia; a triumphal arch, said to have been raised by the illustrious Hannibal, at Martorel; the remains of a Ro. man theatre, now converted into a church, at Toledo; a ruinous watch tower near Cadiz; and the royal palace of the Alhambra at Granada, which is equally remarkable on account of its situation, architecture, and internal beauty.
The kingdom of Spain was known to the ancients by the names Iberia, Hesperia, and Hispania; and, about the time of the Punic wars, it was divided into Citerior and Ulterior; but it has undergone innumerable changes since that period ; and is now divided into the provinces of Old and New Castile, Asturia, Galicia, Arragon, Biscay, Navarre, Leon, Catalonia, Valencia, Murcia, Granada, Andalusia, and Estramadura. Madrid, the capital of this eountry is a dirty
L 3 uncomfortable
uncomfortable city, in the province of New Castile. The population is estimated at four hundred thousand individuals; and some of the streets are tolerably spacious; but the houses are rendered extremely odious by the circumstance of their windows being grated with iron bars; and the only wall that surrounds the city is built of mud. Lodgings are usually let at an exorbitant rate; and the want of ta. verns and coffee-houses is severely felt by foreigners : but provisions are moderately cheap; and the palaces, or royal hunting seats, in the vicinity of the town, are worthy of admiration.
Burgos, though formerly the capital of the kingdom of Castile, has now sunk into obscurity, and is only remarkable for its cathedral, which is one of the finest Gothic structures in Europe.
Cadiz, the great emporium of Spanish commerce, is situated on a small island near the continent of Andalusia, and joined to the main land by a fortified bridge. The streets are narrow, dirty, and much infested with rats ; but the harbour is excellent, and the adjacent scenery beautifully rural.
Seville is a spacious and well built town, on the banks of the Guadalquiver; but greatly decayed both in wealth and population. The steeple of Seville cathedral is accounted one of the greatest curiosities in Spain; a Gothic castle in the suburb of Friana is said to have been the first seat of the Spanish inquisition; and the wall of the city seems to have been of Moorish construction.
Cordova, in the province of Andalusia, contains a magnificent cathedral, and some exten
sive palaces belonging to the inquisition ; but the streets are mean and dirty, and the chief trade of the inhabitants consists in a particular kind of leather called cordovan.
Barcelona is a handsome circular city, situated on the Mediterranean, and said to have been founded by Hamilcar Barcas. The generality of the houses are lofty, and the streets are well paved and lighted. The inhabitants, who are computed at about 150,000, supply the Spanish troops with most of their arms and clothing; and their bravery was demonstrated in 1714 by their sustaining a siege against a powerful army: but they are unfortunately bigoted to the fopperies of popery, and, on the eve of All Souls, they render themselves truly ridiculous by running from house to house to eat chesnuts, under the absurd idea that for every chesnut they swallow with due faith the soul of a fellow creature will be delivered from purgatory.
Malaga is a large and populous city, surrounded with a double wall, strengthened by several towers, and commanded by a Moorish castle. The streets are, in general narrow ; but the cathedral is a stupendous structure ; and the city is rendered famous by its great antiquity, and the luxuriant fertility of the circumjacent country.
Valencia is a spacious city, surrounded by lofty walls; and its archbishopric is said to be one of the best in Spain: but the streets are crooked, dirty, and narrow; the decorations of the churches are rather tawdry than magnificent ; and a considerable part of the population consists of priests, nuns, and friars.
Bilboa is pleasantly situated on the banks of the Ybaizabal; and contains about eight hundred houses, with a fine 'square by the water side. The streets are remarkably level, clean, and well paved, and the adjacent scenery is highly picturesque and interesting.
Gibraltar, which was taken by the English in 1704, and afterwards defended with extraordinary gallantry against the united forces of France and Spain, is a commodious port, and admirably situated for commanding the entrance into the Levant and Mediterranean. The town is so completely environed by lofty hills, and so strongly fortified both by art and nature, as to be almost inaccessible; the har. bour is well planted with cannon; and the strength of the garrison is judiciously adapted to the importance of the place.
The other principal cities in Spain are Escurial, in the province of New Castile, famous for its magnificent palace ; Salamanca, a beautiful and opulent town in Leon; Granada, containing the magnificent palace of the Alhambra; Carthagena, in Murcia, noted for its manufactures of esparto ropes and cables ; Toledo, situated on the river Tagus; Compostella in Galicia; Oviedo in Asturia; Saragossa in Arragon; Roses in Catalonia; Pampeluna in Navarre; and Badajos in Estramadura. The European islands belonging to this kingdom are those of Majorca, Yvica, and Minorca.
The generality of the Spaniards are of a middle stature and well proportioned; their complexion is dark, and their eyes and countenances are remarkably expressive.
The men famed for their secrecy, temperance, and fi