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pleased. If I had been one of them, in land, horses, leather, iron, wood, hemp, Parliament, I should not, however, have &c. &c. paid back to the farmer by those been silent. I should have told the people who eat the loaf. Take off his land tax, the real state of the case; how my land property tax, horse tax, dog tax, window was taxed; what deduction the Govern- tax, gig tax, iron tax, wood tax, leather urent made from my rent; and how in tax, soap tax, candle tax, salt tax, rerper possible it was for me to lower my rents, tax, sugar tax, malt tax, house tax, painted without a proportionate diminution of my cloth tax, and a hundred others that I cantaxes. I should have told the people, not recollect. Take off all these from him, that if the Bit did tend to keep up the 2nd put them, at once, fairly upon the leaf price of corn, its advantage would be to itself, 90 that people nay see how the thing the Government and the fundholder, and is, and he wil not need more than about not to me; and, I should clearly have thirty shillings for a quarter of wheat. But, shewn them, that the average high prices it he must still pay them all, they must be of late years, are to be ascribed to the taxes paid back to him again; and, if they conand thă currešicy; and, of course, that I Linue at their present amount, he must, was not one of those to be blamed, unless upon an average of
have one bunI had shared in the taxes: If Mr. Whit- dred shillings a quarter for his wheat, that bread, Mr. Coke, and other great land- price being necessary to enable him to pay holders had done this in their places in the taxes.—This being so clear and indisthe House, the former would not now have putable, it follows, of course, that the inhad to express his vexation at seeing crease of the taxes is the cause of the George Rose called " the friend of the average high price of corn and of the loaf; “ people."--I shewed it in my last, but I and that, if any body is to be blamed for will shew it again here, thiat the average this high price, it must be those who have high price of corn is occasioned by the occasioned the increase of the taxes. Now, rares and the paper money. I say the certainly, one of these is this
George average observed, because the difference in Rose, who has, from 1792 to the present price between one year and another, is moment, been writng pamphlets (for it is a bccasioned by the difference in the quan-pamphleteer that I now consider him) to tity and quality of the crop.—During the arge the continuance of war, and to justify last peace, from 1783 to 1792 inclusive, the expenditure of public money and the the average price of the quartern loaf was imposition of taxes." Yet, he is called the "nd. During the war that has just been friend of the people, whílé Mr. Coke is happily put an end to, the average price called their enemy! George Rose and his of the same loaf has been about 14d.familare becoinc rich out of the taxes. During the former period, the annual taxes They have been, for many years, sinectre raised in the country amounted to about 14 placerien and active platenen too. They millions ; during the latter period, to about bate received immenso sums out of the forty millions. The currency of 1192 was taxes imposed since 1792. Consequently 21s. to a guinea. It has of late years been they have helped to make corn high27s. to a guinea. Can there be any doubt priced; because the taxes are, in great as to the real causes, then, of the average part, drawn from the land. The taxes rise in the price of corn ?-Those who eat which they have received have helped to the loaf must pay the tax upon the land, make bread dear. What they now receite, and upon all the things used in its cultiva- in various ways, out of the taxes, still helps tion. It is well known, that the tax upon to keep up the price of bread. beer, salt, sugar, soap, candles, quack me- George Rose is called the friend of the dicines, &c. is paid by the consumer. And people ! -He and his family contend, that must it not be the same with bread? | they have received no more than their ser*Paper, for instance, was about 25s. a ream. vices merited. Let us, for argument's sake, A tax of two or three shillings was added grant them the assertion. But that does to the old tax. Paper rose two or three not alter the case. They have still belped shillings à ream immediately; and, who to make bread dear. And, if they tell us, was fool enough to lay the blanie upon the as he did once before, in a pamphlet, that paper-maker, or tlie stationer? This Regis- we had to choose between paying enormous ter, for another instance, pays a tax of 31d. taxes, and losing " tae blessed comforts of but the tax is paid finally by the reader; “ religion," it comes to this, at last, that, and not by the proprietor. So is the tax on having had to decide whether we would
preserve those blessed comforts, at the ex., and EFFECTS of taxes, are fit objects of pence of dear bread, or lose the blessed com- inquiry and discussion with the City of forts; and, having made the former choice, Westminster. To others they leave the we have no right to grumble at paying for babbling about petty regulations, and the dear bread, since, by the means of a long spreading of false and ridiculous notions, and bloody war, we have preserved the bless- and the exciting of prejudices and passions, ed comforts,—Thus, then, it comes home tending to injure the cause of freedom, by to the mass of the nation. The nation has ascribing public calamity and distress to suffered the war to go on; taxes were ne causes other than the true one, which, if cessary to the war; and the high price of once rightly understood, and constantly bread is necessary to the taxes. But the kept before the public mind, could not fail thing lies deeper yet. The blame, if any, to produce that reform, without which no is to be imputed to the want of a Reform in event will ever make this country what it the Parliament. It was the want of that formerly was. reform which occasioned the enormous taxes. TREATY OF PEACE. Peace is, at The taxes have produced the high price of last, made with France; and · FRANCE, bread. We now see explained in practice after all her toils, is at peace. I wish I what Sir Francis Burdett said of those could say the same of our own country; lords and country gentlemen, who spent but the day of her peace is, I fear, far their time at agricultural meetings and distant yet. The terms of the Peace cattle-shows. He told them, that while will be best gathered from the document they thought of doing good in that way, they itself, a copy of which I have given beneglected the true means of making the low. But, it is material to observe, that people happy. We now see them reproach- the terms are very honourable to France. ed with those very high prices, which have She retains the territories which the Nabeen rendered indispensable by the taxes, tional Assembly took from the Pope, and which they so readily permitted to be impo- which were always a thorn in her side. She sed. While their favourite pursuits re- keeps an extensive tract, not formerly hers. ceived no check, they joined in reviling She rounds her territory, and strengthens every one who disapproved of the system; her defence against Belgium and Gerand now they must console themselves as many. She keeps all the precious spoil, they can for the natural consequences of which the Republicans took from the galtheir conduct. So long as the farmer leries in Belgium and Italy. She pays flourished, they seemed to care very little back no requisitions. She gains the loss about the burdens of the war. They were of three Colonies; and, as if we had been amongst the forwardest to support taxes. resolved that she should not ruin herself in But a state of things having arrived, in means as well as morals by a connection which, as they think, their full share of with the East Indies, she is to have no the taxes will fall upon them, not perceiving fortifications in that corrupting country. how it fell upon them before, they begin to It would have been better for her if she discover symptoms of feeling. This is had had no Colonies at all of any sort. She good ; and it may encourage us to hope, ought now to bend her attention to the that they will extend their feeling to others settlement of her Government at home ; by-and-bye-For my part, I have, I think, to the cultivation of her soil upon the best now done with this discussion. I shall principles ; to the revival and introducbe glad to see the Bill dropped, and so I tion of useful manufactures ; to the supleave it. But before I conclude, I cannot plying of herself with all necessary arhelp expressing my pleasure at seeing, that ticles; and to the establishing of a system the City of Westminster has taken no part of defence against her enemies, which in this silly clamour. That good sense, will not endanger her own liberties ; for which has always distinguished that city, liberties, it appears, she really is to have. has made its inhabitants perceive that this Major Cartwright's work on National Dewas a subject beneath the notice of men, fence, which makes representation and who set a proper value upon their rights; arms-bearing go hand in hand, would be who consider the dictates of the mere belly very useful to her law-givers. Those who as unworthy of being listened to. This have rights to enjoy, ought to defend the their conduct shows, that they are good country in which they have such enjoy judges of the subjects that ought to engage ment. Every man who has a vote in the their attention. TAXES, and the CAUSE choosing
of representatives, ought to have
A a 2
arms ready for the defence of the country. f and this interest would not allow them to “ Arms in the hands of freemen,” is the do that which our malignant writers wished only safe defende of nations. Every man, them to do. The treaty, or rather treaties, who is a friend to freedom, must feel un- hare been the result of calculations of commonly anxious as to what will now be interest, and have proceeded from no done in France. He must be extremely sentiment of generosity.--Well
, now; anxious to see the French nation enjoy- how comes peace to US ?-_-It has been ing prosperity and tranquillity, under a stated in the
that the news free and wise Government, because it is of the signature of the Treaty was now that we are to see what has been received at Lloyd's Coffee-Honse with a produced by that grand Revolution, which sort of half-s-ippressed murmur! There is has so long agitated the world. We are no Treaty of Commerce! Peace to us is now to see what is the change which that not what it is to France. It gives us no event will have effected. We are now to hope of a teduction of taxes, while it opens see whether the example of France be, or the sea to all the world. Other nations will be not, worth following by any enslaved now enjoy each its share of commerce. A and humbugged nation. We shall now, new and large loan accompanies our peace; very soon, be able to draw a correct com- while other nations, freed of their debts, parison between the state of France before offer security for that moveable property, of the Revolution and after the Revolution. which England has so long been the sole And, what is equally important, we shalldepot. The weight of our taxes, bearing so be able to see what difference there is in heavily on the people of fixed income, or not OUR situation since the French Revolu-partaking in the gains of trade and labour, tion began.- What will now be said by will induce them to seek abroad those enthose malignant men, who, through the joyntents, which they cannot have here. A
Times and Courier newspapers, pressed it person, who has no business by which to ; upon the Allies not to leave a statue or a gain, knowing that he can live as well for victure at Paris. Who urged them, tooth a hundred pounds a year in France as he and nail, to compel the King of France can here for four hundred pounds a year, to disband all his regular army; to keep will feel a strong desire to get rid of bis back the French prisoners of war until he present state. All this is felt now, and will agreed to such terms ? What will the ma- be felt more and more daily; and, as this licious wretches say now? Why, they do description of persons withdraw themselves say nothing. They receive the treaty from their share of the burden of our taxes, with a sort of sulky reserve. They talk that burden must fall the heavier on those about the generosity of the Allies. The of us who remain. A man having funded Allies could not do otherwise than they property in England, pays to the Governhave done. If the Allies had attempted ment ten pounds out of every hundred to extort degrading terms from France, pounds of interest annually. In France be they would have had no peace at all. The would pay nothing out of the hundred. French nation is too great in itself to ad- Will he not seek to remove that property? mit of any such terms. The Allied So- Besides the dearness of living, occasioned vereigns on the Continenť stand in some by the taxes, is quite a sufficient inducefear of each other. France does, and al- ment; and, as there is not only no prospect ways will, hold the balance of Europe in of any considerable part of the taxes being her hands. Any one power joined with taken off, but a certainty that they cannot, her must be more than a match for all must not the consequence be an alarming the rest of Europe. The same cannot be emigration. If, indeed, we could return to said of any other two powers.. Therefore, old prices ; if we could come back to the it has been no act of generosity on the part seven-penny loaf of 1792, before Pitt's war of the Allies. It has been an act of ex-against the French Republicans began; if pediency, and, indeed, of necessity. If we could shake off the taxes, or reduce thent they, with their bayonets in France, had to fourteen millions a year; then people joined together, and insisted upon de- would stay at home, as they did before the grading terms, the king would have been French Revolution; but to this state we Averset very soon by the people; and the cannot return, as long as the interest shall lava, as Pitt called it, would have buursted continue to be paid upon the National forth again. But each of the Powers had Debt.
.... Just as I was its own private intercets to take care of, I finsibing the last sentence, the newspaper,
containing Mr. Huskisson's speech of “no alteration in them without further inMonday last, on the Corn Bill, came in quiry. With respect to the encouragefrom the post-office. That specch, of “ ment which ought to be aflorded to the which, perhaps, we have but a faint sketch, “ farmer, it should be considercd, that does the speaker great honour. Not on ac " there was now a great diminution in the count of its originality, for I had said the " value of money; and that the capital nesame thing in the two or three preceding "cessary for carrying on of farming operaRegisters, and especially in that of last "tions, must now be double to what it was Saturday; but, on account of its manliness. “ before the war. The Noble Lord (Lord Mr. Iluskisson is the only man, who, as far “ A. Hamilton deceived himself, therefore, as I have observed, has had the sense to “if he thought, that things could return to discern, and the courage to state in plain“ what they were before the war. This
was terms, the truth of the case.
one of the most dangerous errors which appertains to the subject, upon which I am “ could be entertained. What was like to writing; for its truths are amongst those be the permanent charge of this country, which are felt as to the effects of peace; as now that the war was at an end? The to our prospects in peace; as to the disap whole
expences of this country, including pointment of the people; it came, at once,
o all our establishments before the war, home to my notions about old prices.“ only amounted to 16 millions. He could shall insert it here ; for I look upon it as “not anticipate what part of our present singularly valuable. “ M[r, Huskisson “ establishments would be now kept up; " said, every subject alļuded to by the Ho-" but whatever they might be, he believed “nourable Gentleman would, as the motion “ that our peace establishment must entail
was shaped, come before the Committee;" on ys a permanent charge of nearer Go. 4. for the first reference to that Committee " than 50 millions. Would "this produce
was that of all the Petitions on the Table no alteration in the money valge of on the subject of the Corn Laws. In “ articles ? When Gentlemen talked of
of these Petitìons the freedom of the increased price of bread, was not “trade was surely introduced. He hoped, “ every thing else raised in proportion, and , 4 therefore, that the Honourable Gentle that not in consequence of the high price
man would give his vote for the Com-“ of bread, but the amount of taxation? It 6 mittee. He would state the reasons why Was impossitle for the country to return.
he supported the present motion for a “ to the prices before the war. It had been “ Committee, though he objected to the ap-“ said that the obvious remedy was to, "pointment of a Committee on a former “ lower the rents. He had not the good
occasion. He believed now, as he did“ fortune to be a landhołder, and he had no.
then, that there was no probability of any “ interest but that of the public in general “ importation of Corn into this country,“ in view. The proportion of the gross " before the next harvest. The only cir- “ procced of land, which ņow came to the “ cumstances which varied his view, was “ landlord, however it might be represented “ that of the number of Petitions which had “ ja money, was now much less than what “been presented to the House. The views “ it was in 1792. Previous to the war, in " of these Petitioners, even if founded in " a farm of moderate extent, the farmer "misrepresentation, although they ought " considered himself requited if he made " not to induce any Member to da that “ three rents from it. But it was necessa“ which he was not convinced was just and“ ry, in the case of such a farm now,
proper, were still entitled to the most “ the farmer should make at least five rents • respectful consideration of the House.“ to be enabled to go on. If even the “ Although the Petitions were in many in- " whole rental of the country were remitted,
stances the result of malevolent and mis- “it would be impossible to return to tle. "taken appeals to the feelings of the people, "prices before the war. He was not afraid “ they ought to be met by temperate inqui- “ to declare that the people of this country “ ry and the fullest investigation. The cir- “must not expeot, be the law on the subject "cumstance of such a number of Petitions, “what it may, that, with our burthens, the - therefore, afforded a ground for those who“ price of bread can ever be LESS 6 were favourable to the measurę, to sup
66 THAN DOUBLE TO WHAT IT port
the present inquiry; for the object “ WAS BEFORE THE WAR.”. “ of these Petitions was not to make any There, my worthy neighbours of Southe " alteration in the Corn Laws, or to make ampton! There is comfort for you! Are
you now satisfied Mr. Grant, of Ports- state of 1792.
Peace can mouth, the “ down corn down horn" orator? do that, than it can bring my hair back to You, perhaps, did not believe me ; but you the colour of 1792, unless it can first bring will pay some attention to Mr. Huskisson, back the taxes and the currency to the who must know something about what our amount and the value of 1792. This peace taxes will be. The thing is so plain, truth, though the reason on which it is that is impossible that many members of founded, is, perhaps, seen clearly by few the House should not have viewed it in fundholders, is felt by them all. As cattle the same light. It is impossible that they and sheep are guided by instinct to provide should not have seen it thus ; but, except against the inelemency of the weather, and, Mr. Huskisson, no one has plainly said | in other respects, to take care of their what it was necessary to say.
What I health and their lives; so there is about most wonder at is, that Mr. Éoke should man a sort of instinct, which guides him expose himself to be hanged in effigy on in the care of his interests, to which, such an account. Mr. Huskisson, how generally speaking, he is, without knowing ever, seems to think, that the Bill, if it why, as true as the dial to the sun. The had passed (it is thrown out], would have loan, about to be made, may have had some done good to the grower of wheat. Here 1 effect in depressing the funds; but still liffer from him. I grant that itseffect, though they would have risen something in price, in a very small degree, would have been to had it not been for the circumstances, of cause more corn to be groren in the country; which I have been speaking. to prevent great fluctuations; to prevent the
TREATY OF PEACE. slothful and improvident farmer from being IN THE NAME OF THE MOST HOLY ruined in certain cases; to make bis trade
UNDIVIDED TRINITY. & more steady and uniform thing. But His Majesty the King of France and what is all this to the calling generally? I Navarre on the one part, and his Majesty have very well considered the tendencies of the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary the proposed Bill; I am deeply interested in and Bohemia, and his Allies on the other, what is generally supposed to have been the being animated by an equal wish to object of it; in short, I have a great deal of put an end to the long agitations of Euwheat to sell, and wish to sell it for as rope, and to the calamities of nations, by a much as I can get. And yet, I sincerely solid Peace, founded on a just distribution declare, that I think it will be a good to of force between the Powers, and contaiame, that tñe Bill did not pass.- If I am ing in its stipulations the guarantee of its right, then, 'how wrong must my good duration; and his Majesty the Emperor of neighbours of Southampton be ? and how Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia, erroneous the sentiments of those numerous and his Allies, no longer wishing to exact petitions, which the belly has belched forth from France at the present moment, when upon this occasion To return to the being replaced under the paternal governsubject of peace as it affects England, we ment of her Kings, she thus offers to Eunow see that there are others besides my- rope a pledge of security and stability, self
, who say that the seven-penny loaf can-conditions and guarantees which they had not return; that our taxes must continue, to demand with regret under her late Goand that the high prices must continue vernment; their said Majesties have apalong with them, upon an average of years. pointed Plenipotentiaries to discuss, conThese truths, though not acknowledged, clude, and sign a treaty of peace and friendare felt; and hence it is, that with a Defi- ship; that is to say :-His Majesty the nitive Treaty of Peace on the tables of King of France and Navarre; M. Charles Parliament, the public funds do not risc a Maurice Talleyrand Perigorde, Prince of single fraction! This is what never was Benevento, Grand Eagle of the Legion known before, since the system of funding of Honour, Grand Cross of the Order of began; and the reason is, that peace never Leopold of Austria, Knight of the Order before found the nation in so burdened a of St. Andreiv of Russia, of the Orders of state. While the war lasted, men were the Black and Red Eagle of Prussia, &c. blind to every thing but the events and his Minister and Secretary of State for chances of the war. The nation seems to Foreign Affairs; and his Majesty the have agreed to shut its eyes to conse- Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary quences. A vague sort of hope existed, and Bohemia, M. M. Priuce Clement that
' peace -xrould bring things back to the Wonceslas Lothaire, of Metternich Win