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before acknowledged, ascribing it nomi- | pers were resorted to as a means, some of nally to the nation, in order to appropriate which the Deputies of the Cortes conductit to themselves, and then, upon such usur-ed, and abused the liberty of the press espation, to dictate to the nation such laws tablished by them, to render the Royal as they pleased, imposing upon it the yoke power odious, giving to all the rights of by which it slould receive them compulso- Majesty the name of despotism-making rily, in a new Constitution, which the depu- King and Despot synoninous terms,-and ties established without authority of the calling Kings Tyrants, while at the same provinces, people, or juntas, and without time they cruelly persecuted every one who the knowledge of those pro:inces which had the firmness to contradict them, or to were said to be represented by substitutes dissent from this revolutionary and seditious from Spain and the Indies. This Constitu- mode of thinking; and in every thing detion they sanctioned and published in 1812. mocracy was affected, the army and navy, This first attack upon the prerogatives of and all other establishments which, from the throne, ahusing the name of the nation, time immemorial, had been called Royal, becans, as it is re, the basis of many other being stripped of that name, and National attacks which allowed it; and in spite of substituted, with which they flattered the the rep:gnance of many deputies, perhaps of people ; who, however, in spite of these the majority, they were adopted and raised perverse arts, retained, by their natural to the rank of laws, which they called fun- loyalty, the good feelings which always damental, by means of the shouts, threats, formed their character. Of all this, since and violence of those who attended in the I have happily entered the kingdom, I have galleries of the Cortes, with which they been acquiring faithful information and alarmed and terrified; and that which was knowledge, partly from my own observain truth the work of a faction, was clothed tions, and partly from the public papers, in with the specious mask of the gencral will, which, up to this very day, representations and for such will that of a few seditious of my arrival and my character are inte persons, who in Cadiz., and afterwards pudently circulated, so gross and infain Madrid, occasioned afliction to all mous in themselves, that even with regood citizens, made their own to pass. gard to any other individual they would These facts are so notorious, that there constitute very heavy offences, worthy of is scarcely any one who is ignorant of severe notice and punishment. Circumthem; and the very Diaries of the stances so unexpected have filled my heart Cortes furnish ample proof of them. A mode with bitterness, which could only be alleof making laws so foreign to the Spanish viated by the demonstrations of affection nation, gave occasion to an alteration of from all those who hored for my arrival, the good laws under which, in other times, in order that by my presence an end might it was respected and happy. In truth, al- be put to these calamities, and to the opmost all the forms of the ancient constitu- pression in which those were, who retained tion of the Monarchy were innovated upon; in their minds the remembrance of my and copying the revolutionary and demo- person, and whed for the true happiness cratic principles of the French constitu- of their country. I swear and promise to tion of 1791, they sanctioned, not the fun- you, true and loyal Spaniards, at the same damental laws of a moderate Monarchy, time that I sympathise with the evils which but those of a popular Government, with a you have suffered, you shall not be disappointchief, or magistrate, their mere delegated cd of your noble expectations. Your Soveexecutor, and not a King, although they reign wishes to be so on your account, and gave him that name, to deceive and seduce in this he places his glory, that he is the the unwary and the nation. Under the Sovereign of an heroic nation, who by their same want of liberty this same Constitu- immortal deeds have gained the admiration tion was signed and sworn to ; and it is of the world, and preserved their liberty known to all

, not only what passed with and honour. I abhor and detest despotism; regard to the respectable Bishop of Orense, neither the intelligence and cultivation of but also the punishment with which those the nations of Europe could now endure it: were threatened who refused to sign and nor in Spain were its kings ever despots. swear to it.-To prepare the public mind Neither its good laws, nor constitution, to receive such novelties, especially those authorised despotism; although unforturegarding my royal person and the prero-nately, from time to time, as happens every gatives of the Crown, the public newspa-| where else, and in every thing human,

there may have been abuses of power which may be imposed and assigned for the mainno possible Constitution can wholly guard tenance of the State in all branches of the against ; nor were they the faults of the administration. The laws, which shall in Constitution which the nation had, but of future serve as a rule of action to my subindividuals, and the effects of unpleasant jects, shall also be enacted in concert with but very rare circumstances, which gave the Cortes, inasmuch as these bascs may occasion to them. However, in order to serve as an authentic declaration of my royal avert them, as effectually as human fore- intentions in the Government with which I sight will allow, namely, by preserving the am about to be vested, and will represent honour of the royal dignity, and its rights, to all neither a despot nor a tyrant, but a since those appertaining to it and to the King, and a father of his subjects; having people are equally inviolable, I will treat in like manner beard from the unanimous with the procurators of Spain and of the declarations of persons respectable for their Indies: and order being restore:!, together zeal and knowledge, and from representawith the good usages under which the n:2- tions made to me from various parts of the tion has lived, and which the Kings my kingdom, in which are expressed the repugpredecessors established with its consent, nance and disgust with which both the Couevery thing that relates to the good of my stitution formed by the General and Extrakingdoms shall be solidly and legitimately ordinary Cortes, as well as the other poenacted, in Cortes legitimately assembled, litical establishments recently introduas soon as it may be possible to do so, in ced, are regarded in the provinces ; order that my subjects may live prosperous considering also the mischiefs which have and happy, in one religion, and under one spring therefrom, and would increase, government, strictly united by indissoluble should I assent to and scar to the said ties. In this, and in this alone, consist the Constitution; acting in conformity to such temporal felicity of a king and a kingdom, general and decided demonstrations of the which enjoy the title of Catholic, by way wishes of my people, and also because they of eminence; and immediately preparations are just and well founded; I declare, that shall be made for what may appear best my royal intention is, not only not to swear towards the assembling of such a Cortes; nor accede to the said Constitution, nor to in which, I trust, the bases of the prospe- any Decree of the General and Extraordirity of my subjects, in both hemispheres, nary Cortes, and of the Ordinary at premay be confirmed. The liberty and securi- sent sitting, those, to-wit, which derogate ty of persons and property shall be firmly from the rights and prerogatives' of my secured by means of laws, which, guaran- sovereignty, established by the constitution teeing public liberty and order, shall leave and the laws under which the nation bas to all that salutary liberty, whose undis- lived in times past, but to pronounce that turbed enjoyment distinguishes a moderate Constitution and such Decrees null and of from an arbitrary and despotic Govern- no effect, now, or at any other time, as if ment, and in which the citizens subject to such acts had never passed, and that they the former ought to live. This just liberty are entirely abrogated, and without any all likewise shall enjoy, in order to commu- obligation on my people and subjects, nicate through the press

their ideas and of whatever class and condition, to fulfil thoughts, within those limits, however, or observe them. And as he who should which sound reason imperiously prescribes attempt to support them, and shall thus to all, that it may not degenerate into licen- contradict my royal proclamation, adopted tiousness; for the respect which is due to with the above-agreement and assent, will religion and the government, and that which attack the prerogatives of my sovereignty, men mutually owe towards each other, can and the happiness of the nation, and will under no civilized government be reason cause discontent and disturbance in my ably permitted to be violated and trampled kingdoms, I declare, whoever shall dare to upon with impunity.-All suspicion, like- attempt the same will be guilty of High wise, of any dissipation of the revennes of Treason, and as such subject to capital puthe State shall cease ; those which are as- nishment, whether he perform the same by signed for the expences required by the ho- deed, by writing, or by words, moving and nour of my royal person and family, and exciting, or in any other way exhorting that of the nation whom I have the glory and persuading, that the said Constituto govern, being separated from the reve- tion and Decrees be kept and observed. nues which, by the consent of the kingdom, | And in order that, until public order-bo

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restored, together with the system observ- respecting the occupation of the throne of
ed in the kingdom prior to the introduc- Naples : Declaration.--.“ Ferdinand
tion of these noveitirs, for the attainment IV. by the Grace of God, King of the Two
of which suitable measures shall be taken Sicilies, and of Jerusalem, Infint of Spain,
without delay, the administration of justice &e. Profoundly indignant at the perfi-
may not be interrapted, it is my will, that dious report spread by our enemies," that
in the mean tine, the ordinary magistracies we have renounced, or that we are disposed
of towns shall be continued as now esta- to renounce, our rights to the Kingdom of
blished, the Courts of Law where there are Naples, we think it our duty to make
such, and the Audiencias, Intendents, and known the falsehood of such reports to the
other judicial tribunals ; a:d in the politi- powers, our Allies, to all nations, and
cal and administrative branches, the com- particularly to our subjects, and very
mon councils of towns according to their dear children of the kingdom of Na-
present constitution, until the Cortes, who ples, by declaring solemnly that we agreba
shall be summoned, being hearil, the stable have enounced, and that we are un-
order of this part of the Government of the alterably resolved never to renounce, our
kingdom be assented to. And from the legitimate and incontestible rights to the
day on which this my Decrre shall be pub- kingdom of Naples, and that our fixed
Jished and communicated tɔ the President and unchangeable will is to accept of no
for the time being of the Gortes at present offer of indemnity, nor any compensation
met, the said Cortes s!rall cease their sit whatsoever for the said kingdom, which we
tings ; and their acts with those of the pre-are determined to preserve for ourself, and
ceding Cortes, together with whatever do- to transmit to our immediate successor, in
cuments or dispatches shall be in their of the same manner as it has been transmit-
fire of archives and secretaryship, or in ted to us by our Father of highly glorious
the possession of any other individual what- memory. All the measures which we have
ever, shall be collected by the person charg- hitherto taken, and which we are now exe-
ed with the execution of this my Royal De- cuting in the employment of our troops,
cree ; and shall be deposited for the present and their union with the forces of our
in the Guildh:all of the city of Madrid, the august and ancient Allies, have had, and
room ia which they are placed being locked have no other object but to co-operate with
and sealed itre books of their li- them, with a view to the triumph of the
brary shall be conveyed to the royal li- just and general cause, and of conturring
brary; and whosocver shall endeavour to in their magnanimous views, so often ma-
obstrict the execution of this part of my nifested for the overthrow of all usurpations,
Royal Decree, in any way whatever, I also and for the re-establishment of justice and
declare him guilty of High Treason, and legitimate authority.--- FERDINAND.”
that as such the punishment of death shall Palermo, April 24, 1814"
be inflicted

upo:

him. And from this day PEACE.—The Courier, of last night, shall cease in every tribunal of the kingdom states on this subject, that “ Accounts from all proceelings in any canse, now pending Lord Castlereagh, dated on Tuesday last, for any infraction of the Constitution, and have been received, which, it is reported, and those who, for such causes, have been

annonce that the Peace was to be signed imprisoned or arrested, shall be immediate on Wednesd:y last-that the Emperor of ly at liberty. Such then is my will

, be- Russia and King of Prussia meant to set cause the welfare and happiness of the na

out for this country positively on Monday tion require it.-Given at Valencia, the next. They may be expected on Wednesday 4th of May, 1814.-I, THE KING.–Pe- or Thursday. They are to land at Dorer, dro de Macanez, Secretary of Decrees and a Telegraphic Messame to that effect As Captain General of New Castile, Poli- is understood to have been sent off this tical and Military Governor of the whole morning to his Royal Highness the DukeProvince, anil by order of his Majesty Don of Clarence. The Emperor of Germany Ferdinand Vil. whom God preserve, I uroceeds almost immediately to Italy upon cause it to be pnblished. FRANCISCO very important business.” Ramon De Ecuia Y LETOVA.-Mailrid, May 11, 1814.

ERRATUM.--In the last REGISTER, NAPLES. From the following Docu- page 643, line 24, from the bottom, for ment, it appears that Murat is likely to many hundreds of thousands of lives," have some trouble with Ferdinand the IV. / read livres.

Printed and Published by J. MORTON, No. 94, Strand.

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COBBETT’S WEEKLY POLITICAL REGISTER.

VOL. XXV. No. 23.] LONDON, SATURDAY, JUNE 4, 1814. [Price 1s:

ON THE

705)

[706 TO THE PEOPLE OF SOUTHAMPTON, It shall be my endeavour, as it is my

duty, to shew, that this objection of mine CORN BILL.

is well-founded; and, in order to do it in a

clear and satisfactory manner, I will, as MY WORTHY BUT DELUDED NEIGH- I proceed, quote the several Resolutions, BOURS.-Having read your RESOLUTIONS, which you have caused to be published, on the subject of the Corn Bill, sigued by under the signature of your Mayor, who, Mr. John RowCLIFFE, the Mayor of your however, I am very far from regarding as town, upon which Resolutions, it appears, the real mover of the question in your town, you are now about to frame a Petition there being, manifestly, a stronger band against the said Bill; and being convinced, behind the curtain, pushing the matter for. that the views of the matter, taken in ward. those Resolutions, are extremely erroneous,

“ RESOLUTION 1st. That for several I think it right to endeavour to shew you years past the price of wheat and other that you are in error.

grain has been excessively high throughBefore I proceed to this, however, I " out this kingdom, and that the conse'must premise, that I myself disapprove, “quent distress has been considerably felt not only of the proposed Corn Bill, but of " by all classes of society; while the poorest any and every Bill, or law, that has been, “ classes have occasionally been sorely and or can be, passed upon the subject. I look “ severely tried with all the evils insepaupon such laws as wholly useless, and as

“ rable from dearth and indigence. always attended with a greater-or_less de “ RESOLUTION 2d.—That this Mecting gree of injury to the country. I am of “ had carnestly hoped, in behalf of themopinion, that the trade in corn should al-selves and their poorer fellow-subjects, ways be perfectly free, let its price be what " who have in general borne the calamities it may; and that the trade in all other“ of the times with most laudable and products should be the same. I, there- " exemplary patience, that the return of fore, would have chearfully signed your

" Peace would have alleviated the distress Petition, had it simply prayed for the not" that has been so long experienced, and passing of the proposed law. But, if yours would have carried comfort and plenty Petition had been handed to me, I would " into every part of his Majesty's dominot have signed it; because it seems to me " nions. to be founded on, and to give sanction to, “ RESOLUTION 3.—That this Meeting wrong notions relative to the causes of high are struck with great apprehension as to price and public distress; because it seenis “ the effects which they conceive will ineto me to be calculated (and was, perhaps, “ vitably follow from the enactment of a by its chief promoters intended) to keep " Bill which is now depending in the House the people of this country in a state of “ of Commons, on the subject of the Corn blindness, as to the causes of their miseries, Laws; wbich must at once sweep away in which state of blindness they have lived all hope of a reduction in the price of the for more than twenty years past. Your “ most necessary article of human subsistResolutions contain many propositions un-"ence: fearful lest the disappointment of supported by reason or fact; but my great expectations long cherished, during a objection to them is, that they are calcu-" most protracted and anxious contest with lated to withdraw the minds of the people foreign powers, should excite at home, from the TRUE CAUSES of the distresses among the suffering classes of the comand miseries, of which they speak, and to "munity, a spirit of discontent and disso. direct them towards false objects; and, by tisfaction, at a moment when it is most that means, to put off the period of the ap fervently to be wished that this kingdom plication of an effectual remedy.

should find rest from that tedious course

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" of suspense and calamity, in which fo- you, that the idea of an inseparable con"rignanilin and tyranny have so long nection between peace and plenty is directly " involved 12."

in the teeth of all those assertions, which I wonder why you should have introdu- the advocates of war have been maintained this latter sentiment, seeing that it ing for the last twenty years. They have could do no good, and seeing, that the point always contended, that the war was not the micht be disputed with you. I, for instance, cause of distress that the people were deny, that it was “foreign ambition and better fed and better clad than they were “ tyranny" that involved us in the war. ever before ; that the nation was at the But, I will, as far as it is possible, keep all height of prosperity; and that veteran extrancous matter out of the discussion. placeman, old Nir. GEORGE Rose, whom You:23:crt here, at the outset, that the high you so highly compliment, has taken infinite price of corn has been the cause of disiress; pains to prove, that the population has been that you hoped, that the return of peace increasing during all this bloody war; a would bave alleviated that distress; that proof, according to him, of the increasing peace would have carried comfort and pliny happiness of the people. But, now, all at into every part of the king's dominions ; once, he seems to have discovered, that war and you fear, that, if the suffering classes was a cause of distress and misery! So it should be disappointed in that hope, a spirit has been, indeed, but not in the way that of discontent and dissatisfaction will arise he would now have us believe. throughout the country. From this it is There are two modes of meeting and manifest, you mean, THAT CORN IS controverting any proposition : by referUSUALLY AT A LOWER PRICE ence to experience ; or by the arguments IN PEACE THAN IT IS IN WAR. which the case offers. The former is an This is an error.

It is, indeed, an error, appeal to facts ; the latter to reason. I into which cthers have fallen as well as you. shall appeal to both, and with full confiThe people at Portsmouth have promulga- dence, that the “ social connection between ted the same sentiment. Mr. Waithman, peace and plenty," will be proved to be the in his speech to the Livery of London, is fruit of vulgar error-an error having no reported to have talked about " the social better foundation, perhaps, than the allite

connection between peace and plenty." ration which two very pretty words offered

The error is, thčrefore, not confined to to the author of some ancient popular you. But, it is

still an error; and ballad. certainly not less subject to exposure, or

When these words were rung in our more entitied to respect, because it is a ears at, and soon after, the peace of Amiens, vulgar error. The “ social connection," I took some pains to ascertain what expe of which Mr. Waithman and you talk, las rience said upon the point. Mr. ADDINGno existence in fact, and never can have Ton, who is now Lord Sidmouth, came such anexistence, until there is a connection into ollice, and made peace, in the year between peace and fruitful seasons. What 1801. Bread, which had, owing to tra does plenty mean? Why; abundance pro- bad crops and one bad harvest, in 1799 portioned to our wants : And, what can and 1800, become very dear in 1800, possibly make ore time more abundant than and in the first nine months of 1901, beanother, cxcept the difference in the seasons? came cheap the moment peace was madle

. Will any one say, that the blights or the That was quite enough. Mr. Addington milderys pay any respect to peace or war? | had given us PEACE and PLENTY, Was it peace which gave us the feeding There needed nothing more.

Bread had. showers, the hot suns, the fine harvest of been dear in the two last years of the war; last year? Or, is it war, wbich has given and, the moment peace was made, it be: as the cold and dry winds of this last month came cheap. These two facts were put ni May, and the white frests which we have together, and the point was settled for load, until within these four days? Does ever. The rulgar notion was planted for prace give us greater quantities of apples the present generation. It was not consiand poaches than war does? Why, then,dered what moment that was when peace xbould it give us greater quantities of corn? was made. It was made in the end of

l'pon the very face of the thing, these September ; that is to say, at the end of propositions contain absurdities too gross to harrest; and that too, a very fine and sleuterit dhe error exists, and imest abundant barvest. This was wholly

t, first roiniuding overlooked. This was too trilling a cir

he

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