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vantageous for the State ; but such treaties' charge of their respective functions, arapi coavestioas shall not take effect untii cordiag to the instructions of the Governthey be ratified by the Legislative Bodies. ment. With respect, however, to the general PARIS, MAY 2.-Declaration of the Peace about to be concluded in Paris be- King.----“ Louis, by the Grace of God, tween the Emperors and Kings in person, King of France and Navarre, to all those and with the Jlinister Plenipotentiary of to waoa these presents shall come, greetEngland, in case the Prince of Wales ing:-Recalled by the love of our people should not personally 2-sist, as eagerly de to the Throne of our fathers---enlightened sired by the French.-This Peace, which by the misfortunes of the nation which we is so nearly connected with our internal are destined to govern, the first wish of tranquillity, will be secured by Constitu- our heart is to invoke that mutual confitional Institutions. This Peace, ia short, dence so necessary to our repose, to our so long desired, concluded after too long happiness. After having carefully read an interval of tyranny, shall be definitive- the Plan of the Constitution proposed by ly concludod and signed by the King, with the Senate, in the Sitting of the oth of the different Porrers, without the necessity | April last, we acknowledge that the bases of any ratification by the Legislative Bodies. of it were good; but that there being a great
Acceptance of the Constitution. The number of articles bearing the impression Constitution shill he forwarded to the De- of the precipitancy with which they were partmental Luthorities, for the Acceptance drawn up, they cannot in their present of the French people in the manner hercia- form become fundamental laws of the State., after prescribed :-The hing wili after-Resolved to adopt a liberal Constitution, wards declare his aca ptation to the Provi- we wish that it should be wisely combined, sional Government is these terms—" I ae- and as we cannot accept of one which it is cpt the Constitution, I swear to obscrve it, indispensable to correct, we convene for the 1:d to carse it to be observed.”—The mode 10th of June, in the present year, the Seof its acceptation, on the part of the French nate and Legislative Body, with intent to. people will be by the opening of the Rezis- lay before them the basiness which we shall iries in each Coinmune.—The suffrages have prepared, with a Select Committee 3. ill be received during Gifteen days by the from the boom of these two Bodies, and respective Jayors, and will be expressed to give för a basis to this Constitution the alter the narues of individuals, by “ Oui,” following bases:or"."-Duplicates shall be made The Representative Government shall be of the Resistries, one copy of which shall maintained as it at present exists, divided be transmitted to the Provisional Govern- into tivo Bodies, viz.--The Senate and the ment. Or to Vonsicar, Lieut.-General of Chamber, composed of Deputies of the te hingdon, who will proclaim the gene- Departments. —Taxes shall be granted tal vote of the French in the following with consent.--Public and private liberiy month. The outer duplicate shall be depo- secured.—The Liberty of the Press resited in the archizes o cach Dipartment. spected, saving the precautions necessary Neither i Lolland or Itaiy shall participate to the public tranquility.- Religious liberin the voice.--Tho other countries united ty secured.- Proprty shall be inviolable to Antient France in 1789, or in 1792, and sacred; the sale of national property shall not vote till after the paciüication shall be irrevocable.—'Tlie Ministers, reTheir acceptance shall not thercfore be the sponsible, may le prosecuted by one of the less valid. After the double acceptation Legislative Bodies, and tried by the other. suall consummate the social compact, the - The Judges are not removeable, and the King shall issue a Proclamation as fol judicial power is independent.The publo:vs:-“ Louis XVIII. by the Grace of lic debt shall be guaranteed. Pensions, “ God, and the Constitutional Law of the rank, and military honours shall be pre4 Stute, King of the French (or of France, served; as also the old and the new No
according to the majority of opinion in bility.-- The Legion of Honour, the deco"the acceptation), to all present and to ration of which we will determine, shall be
come, &c.”—The King will renew his maintained. —Every Frenchman shall be Oath at the sacrc: solemnity of his Corona- admissible to civil and military employtion. After which the Constituted Au- ments.-Finally, no person shall be mothorities sliall enter upon the regular dis- llested for his opinions and votes.-LOUIS.
Printed and Published by J. MORTON, No. 94, Strand.
Vol. XXV. No. 21.] LONDON, SATURDAY, MAY 21, 1914. [Price is.
[642 SUMMARY OF POLITICS. ther, they know not what to think of it,
or what to do or say. To their utter AFFAIRS OF FRANCE.-The fear and astonisbment, they perceive, that a rethe malice (natural offspring of fear) which establishment of the old order of things is zome persons, in this country, discover to- impossible. They perceive, that the Revowards the French nation, and even towards lution, upon the whole, must end in great the King of France, is truly wonderful good to France. They perceive, that the One would have thought, that common result will not answer their expectations ; decency; that the ordinary feelings of no, nor any one of their expectations. They men, would, for some months, at least, see, that France will enjoy something like bave restrained these persons from disco- freedom, at least, and they dread the effect vering their odious passions. When they, of such an example. Their first endeawho have so long been bawling for the fall vour, therefore, is to prevent the King of Napoleon, and for the restoration of the from keeping his promise with the nation; Bourbons; when they saw the accomplish- or, at least, to prepare, before hand, a ment of their wishes ; when their very de justification for his so doing.-Relative sires seem to hare been outstripped by to this subject, I am about to quote a pasevents, surely we had a right to expect, sage from the COURIER newspaper of the that they would not endeavour to throw 12th instant :-“ Pamphlets (says that obstacles in the way of peace. We, surely," Journal) are published at Faris both for had a right to expect, that, after having and against the Senate ; in o her words, spent eight hundred millions of debt, and whether a Reprcsentative Government four hundred millions of taxes, upon the “shall be given to France; or whether war, and for the sake of “social order," “ the old Constitution shall be restored as real peace with France would be the fruit“ nearly as possible? The King, we of such enormous sacrifices. It was not know, has pledged himself to establish the peace with Holland, and the Germans and former. But we have little difficulty in Russians, that we so much sighed for;"saying, that the people of France, at prebut with France, that fighting nation" sent, are not in a condition to bear the that nation so near to us; that nation, representative system. If we may be whose hatred we ought to dread, and wbose" allowed the expression, they are not sofriendship we ought to cultivate ; that ber enough for legislative dissussions. nation, which, in fact, is Europe in itself. We have grown up with our ConstituBut, behold! the King of France is not “tion, and our Constitution has grown up yet crowned, before these same people,
We have been framed for it these identica? persons, begin to endea-" by our forefathers; but it were absurd vour to excite all sorts of suspicions, not to expect that the public mind in anoonly against the French nation, but against ther nation should all at once be fitted the French Court. They appear to have " for the same system. However, the exdiscovered, that France, though her Ruler“ periment is to be tried again, and we be changed, is still the same country, in- have little doubt it will fail again. May habited by the same people, endued with its failure not be attended with the same the same qualities and faculties. This “ disasters and miseries to which France was, indeed, a discovery, that it was very has been subject for nearly a quarter of easy to make; facts casy to bave foreseen.“ a century !" The first remark that of. But these people were blinded by their fers itself here is, that there must, if this dread of Napoleon, and their cagerness to statement be true, be a great deal of overset his power. They have now opened real liberty of the press in France : not their eyes, and, the real truth is, that, up- sham, not humbug liberty of the press ; en looking at the state of things altoge but real liberty of the press. For, unless
“ with us:
this were the case, there could not be such in practising, a system like this? There discussions. I like this; for discussion, will be no complexity in the thing. There free discussion, must do good. I do not will be no exclusions which are not botoject to any man's writing in favour of tomed upon some general principle. There the en intregime, provided, that other will be no everlasting doubts, and scrutimen are allowed freely to answer him. nies, and law suits, about cld charters.But, it is a sad sham, when the liberty There will be no disputes about who has of the press is all on one side ; when every boiled a pot, and who has not boiled a pot. one may write in favour of a system, how- If, indeed, the system about to be conever corrupt and essentially tyrannical, formed in France included the existence while no one dares to say a word to prove of peculiar privileges in pot-walloppers, or the falsehood of what has been said in fa- any other persons, relative to elections, I vour of such system. Discussion must do should agree with this writer, that it must great good in France; and, in spite of all take time to fit the peoples' minds to it; that fraud, and bribery, and force can do, but, amongst all the freaks of Napoleon, some of the good must, in the end, extend he never appears to have once thought of itself to other countries. We are told pot-walloppers. - Oh, no! there are to here, that, though the King has pledged be no burgage tenures and pot-walloppers himself to establish a representative gn in France. "If there were, it would, I vernment, the people of France are not agree, be very difficult to arrange the in a condition to bear the representative matter. It requires centuries of time, and system.-- And, then, we are reminded, the profoundest state of wisdom, to bring that WE have grown up with OUR Con- a constitution to this pitch. But, though stitution, and that it has grown with us; the French people cannot be fitted for such but, that we are not to expect that the a system as ours, all at once, it does not public mind, in another nation, should, all follow, that they are incapable of a sysát once, be fiited for the SAME system. tem which is representative. They have Very true. But this writer seems to la- voices, as well as other nations; and they bour under a very great error. He ap- are as capable of making use of them. pears to suppose, that, if the King of What then, when called upon in their difFrance adheres to his promise, the French ferent Communes, is to prevent them from people will have the same system as we choosing men in whom they have conhave; than which nothing can be farther fidence? And why is the attempt to confrom the truth. There will be no boroughs firm their liberty to fail?_But, it seems, in France; no counties, where it will cost that the representatives, if chosen properly, many huudreds of thousands of lives to are not sober enough for legislative disobtain a seat in the Corps Legislative ; “ cussion." What does this writer mean? no Gattons, no Old Sarun, no St. Michels, Are the French a drunken people? He no Corporations. These, indeed, it would will hardly say that. He means then, require time, and a long time, to make that they are too hasty, too apt to be pasthe minds of the people of France fami- sionate. In the first place, this has never liar with. A system like this, indeed, appeared; and, whoever looks at the codes the French people may, very likely, not of Napoleon will agree, that more wisbe“ in a condition to bear."' It requires dom, more real political wisdom, a more much time, and many measures, to con- profound knowledge of human nature, and vince a people of the excellence of such a more minute acquaintance with human a system, and to induce them to look up- concerns, joined to a more solicitous and on it as the best in the whole universe. — tender regard for human rights and hapBut, the system of representation about piress, were never discovered by any leto be established, or, rather, confirmed, gislator, or legislators, in the whole world. in France, the people there will easily Are the French an ignorant or a frivolous understa:d, and as easily practise. For, people? Let their works, whether philosowhat dificulty is there in the people who phical or literary; let their sciences and pay the taxes meeting, in, their several arts; let these be compared with those of districts, and there choosing Electors, who, any other nation, and, it will be seen, I aşçain, are to choose the members of the believe, that they take the lead in all Corps Legislative, by whose voice the those endowments which raise man in the taxes are to be granted? What difficulty scale of beings. Take their theatrical can there be, either in understanding, or pieces; compare them with our's; put the
elegant language, the wit, the sentinent, , the said Devil to bis former state. In the the reasoning, the philosophy of the Metro- same Poem we are presented with familiar manie, the Joueur, or any one of a hundred dialogues between God the Father, and pieces that might be named, and put them God the Son; and are shown the latter by the side of the grovelling style, the taking a pair of compasses out of a celestial canting plever, and horse-laughter trash drawer, in order to describe the boundaof our comedies, and then say, whether ries of the earth! - And this is what we De French are a people without solidity admire. To honour and to perpetuate the of miad. The very circumstance that works containing these marks of disordered pieces, like those that I have named, are imaginations, we lay out thousands and admired in France, and attract crowded thousands of pounds upon splendid printing auliences, is sufficient to characterize the and engraving.-.And is it, then, for us to mind of the nation; and, for the sake of charge the French nation ; is it for us to my own country, I wish I could say, that charge the admirers of Voltaire, Rousseau, the character of its mind was in no degree Racine, Destouches, and Regnard; is it to be gathered from the circumstance, that for us to charge them with ignorance, preplay-actors in London find their account in judice, and want of solidity of mind ? And, nitering strings of dirty double-meanings if the charge, as applied to the whole naand miserable puns from the lips of a person tion, would be unjust, whence are we to swelled out, by the means of pillows and bol-in-r, that the representatives of the people sters, to the size of a sugar-hogshead. It is of France would not be sufficiently suber the impudent, the malignant observatious of for legislative discussion ? For my part, this svriter, levelled, at bottom, against the I care little about the taste of either counfree:Tom and happiness of France, that have try; but, it is necessary to meet, in all called forth this comparison from me ; sorts of ways, every attempt to justily an though, perhaps, it would, at any time, bé cndeavour io stifle freedom in France, and one's duty to have made it. I am not to introduce that regime, under which the speaking of exhibitions, where people are French people groaned for so many cenadmitted at two-pence a head. I am speak-turies. Every thing belonging to l'rance ing of the national theatres, which are the is interesting; because, whatever is done criterion of the taste of a people, and of there will have a certain vogue in the the character of the public mind. In that world. The eyes of all the nations of Euof France I sce beautiful language, refined rope are fixed upon France: her acts sentiment, brilliant wit, fine reasoning, must, therefore, be of the greatest consesound philosophy, all displayed in the form- quence. And, who can express a sufficient ing and the unravelling of fables the most degree of indignation against those, who, interesting, never violating nature, and like this writer and his like, are endeascidom probability. In ours, I see mugi-vouring to cause the ancient regime to be cions calling forth thunder and lightening, re-established in that country? They exand putting spells upon those who offend press their decided opinion, that the rethem; witches, foretelling the fall and rise presentative government will fail. They of kings, and woods walking over the arc ready to din the public with their country to fulfil their predictions; ghosts, fours; but :cir real foar is, that it will giving information of murders, and troub-succeed in establishing freedom in Fracce ling people in their sleep; and men and under a constitutional King, and under a !l*
men so much ont of nature, as to make system which, being open and frank, vill he whole of the representation a thing too put hypocrisy and shame, and vile cheatery constrous to be endured by common sense.
to shame. Ilhy, I ask, should these Ind, I see this, too, in those pieces which people be so set against represertative gore most adopired by fashionable people and rernment in France ? Why should they rave critics. But, indeed, even this is not be so eager to decry it? It is notorious, ratter of surprise, when we see extolled, that, for ages, previous to the French Revos the first of Pormes, a mass of crabbed lution, we, in this country, were by all our anepositions and inflated periods, narrat- speech-makers, and book-makers, and new 3ig battles in heaven, in which the Devils writers, bid to hold the French govern, red cannon against the Angels, and dur- ment in abhorrence. Addison, that fang which a Devil, having been split down mous partizan of the Hanoveriani Surcese le middle by an Angel, the two halves sion, used this argument agairsų the Preistantly smacked up together, and restored tender. “What,” said lie, “ soud Engr
“ lishmen, free-born Englishmen, have to " ducement to the national vanity, the mi“ expect at the hands of a King, educated litary ardour of that people, again, to try “ in such a country as France, where the " their strength with their neighbours as “ Sovereign is absolute, and the people the soon as they have recovered from their “ most wretched of slaves ?" And yet we “ disasters? They who depend much
upon now want, or, at least, some of us want, “ the change which has taken place in their to sçe re-established that very government!“ government will do well to recollect, that What are the French to think of such "the disgraceful interference of France is conduct ?-But all this is explained, when “ the quarrel between us and our Ameriwe come to another part of the same paper. can colonies took place under a Bourbon Not, indeed, the same article; but the “ of the best character; yet, though Louis same paper. There the hatred of France“ XVI. himself was averse to the Ameribreaks forth in all its natire odiousness; can war, on the ground of its injustice, and, by putting the two together, we see “his voice was overruled by the majoclearly, and, I trust, that all Frenchmen“ rity of his Council.”. - This malignant will see, that it is hatred of them (grow-writer could not help even to rip up the old ing out of base fear), which makes these subject of revenge, the American War!persons desirous of seeing the promises of | What! now that the Bourbons are restorthe King violated. If we find a man ad-ed, we are to recollect the " disgracefal invising ourselves not to make a certain " terference of France in the quarrel bebargain, for instance, lest we should lose “tween us and America.”. And we are by it, and if we find the same man speak to bear in mind, too, that this took place ing to others, and endeavouring to excite under a Bourbon! Take the whole of this ill-will against us, we may pretty safely article together, and, I think, you see in it conclude, that such bargain would be to as much malice as can possibly discover itour advantage. The following is the self in a like compass. The French naarticle I allude to:-" To the principle of tion is to be kept in a low state; the French “ ceding the Colonies we have conquered, nation is mischievous ; the French nation
partiralarly to France, we have before is perfidious; she is the same under all sorts “ stated our objections. To render France of rulers; and, therefore, we ought not to
powerful by giving her colonies, enabling saffer her to get power by any means.“ her to create an extensive marine, and The Allies, indeed, before they got to "fostering her political strength by the Paris, told the French people that France “ wealth of commerce, is a dangerous ex- ought to be great and happy; and that it "periment. It is dangerous to us. France was for the good of Europe that she should “has the means of greatness within her- be so. Nay, they expressed their inten“self. Great Britain owes her political tion of extending her ancient linits; greatness, and even her independence, to leaving her an extent of territory, which
, “ her maritime power and to foreign trade. under her kinys, she never knew. Hos " France, without trade and colonics, has difierent is this language from that of our “ been a match for combined Europe; and newspaper writers! They want even a " it will be well to reflect whether, by giv- part of the allied forces to be kept op in ing her these in adılition to the combined France for years !
But the truth is, powers, they are not endangering that that these detestable men think about no
equilibrium they have been so anxious to thing but the prospect of France being 66 establish.
Is it ncthing to say, that happy and free. The sworn foes of free“ France before the Revolution had the ad-dom, who WRITE these articles, and (lix “ vantages in question? She had, and she wbat means I need not say) cause them to <used them for purposes of gross aggres- be published; these supporters of every “sion. To raise that monarchy to unli- thing oppressive; the abettors of tyranas: * mited power was for ages
men, who thrive by what render; i “ aim of her Couri. But France knows people miserable. These men are, just at “ her power now better than she ever this moment, wonderfully puzzled. Ni “ knew it. Her vast resources, her milita- poleon has 'disconcerted them by his
ry endowments, her political influence l'abdication, very nearly as much as he " have been displayed by the revolutionary ever did before by his wonderful feats in
governments in succession, on a scale large arms. Greater at-last than ever, he sared Nilimet ; land will not this be a strong in- state to be great, and to bevond the contemplation of her old poli- France from a civil war, and left her in ?
a thorn in the