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the proof of their “ instinctive patriolism,' li that it should have been tried in c unthey hired themselves as soldiers to the " tries where no man in his senses will say French, the Germans, the Prussians, or " that the frame of political society is such, any body else, and were not unfrequently " as according to the most moderare prin opposed to each other in battle by the princes" ciples of regulated freedom it ought to to whom they let themselves out to hire, " be : where I will venture to say, withuntil the French revolution, by an exposure out hazarding the imputation of being of the infamy of such a traffic, put a stop“ myself a visionary reformer, political to it; though now, perhaps, amongst the society is not such, as, after the success other good things, which Mr. Canning an " of this war, and from the bappy conticipates from the great approaching change," ragion of the example of Great Britain, it this traffic may possibly be revived. " is sure gradually to become. It is happy There is, however, such a confusion of " for the world that this question, as to the ideas in this part of the speech, that I must “ value of national independence, should quote it, in the speaker's words, in order, “ thus have been tried on its own merits; not that the reader may comprehend its " that after twenty years of controversy we meaning (for that is impossible, I think); “ should be authorized by undoubted rebut that I may not be chargeable with havo“ sults to revert to truth and nature, and ing garbled it.

66 The order of nature " to disentangle the genuine feelings of the “could not subsist among mankind, if heart from the obstructions which a ge" there were not an instinclive patriotism,“ neralizing philosophy had wound around "a love of pational independence, I do “ them. —What Goldsmith has beauti“ not say unconnected with, but prior and “ fully applied to the physical varieties and “ paramount to, the desire of political “ disadvantages of a country has been found " amelioration. It inay be very wrong

66 to be not less true with respect to polios that this should be so. I cannot help it. 6 tical institutions. The sober desire of * Our business is with the fact. And “ improvement, the rational endeavour to

surely it is not to be regretted that tyrunts “ redress wrong or correct imperfection in “ and conquerors should have learned from “ the political frame of a government, are 66 experience that the first consideration not only natural but laudable in inan: “ suggested to the inhabitants of any coun

in-“ but it is well that it should have been try by a foreign invasion, is not whether" shown by irrefragable proof that these " the political constitution of the state is “ sentimenis, where they exist, supersede “ perfect, but whether the altar at which 66 not that devotion to nalive soil which is “ he has worshipped, and th: home in the foundalion of nalional independence. which he has dwelt from his infancy, " And it is right that it should be under“ whether his wife and his children, whe stood and remembered that this senti“ther the tombs of his forefathers, whe" ment of natioual independence alone“ther the palace of the sovereign under aroused where it had slumbered-en" whom he was born, and to whom he lightened where it had been deluded

may owe, or fancy that he owes, alle " and kindled into enthusiasın by the in“ giance-should be abundoned lo violence" sults and provocations of the enemy, has " and profanalion ? That in the in “ been found sufficient, without internal “ fancy of the French Revolution, many "changes, or compromises, of sovereigns nations in Europe were unfortunately “ and governments with their people, with" led to believe and to act upon a different “ out relaxations of allegiance or abjurapersuasion, is undoubtedly true ;-that "tions of authority, to connect the nations “ whole countries were over-run by re

“ of the continent in one cominou cause, to “ forming conquerors, and flattered them “ lead them against their tyrant, and to "selves with being proselytes till they “ shake and (may we not hope to over“ found themselves victims. Even in this " throw) the Babel of his power!"

country, as I have already said, there Here is, as I said before, such a confusion “ have been times when we have been of ideas, that one hardly knows where to « called upon to consider whether there begin the work of separating and comparing " was not something at home which must them and bringing them to the test of rea“ be mended before we could hope to repel son. -We are told, that it is an " in

-Gen" a foreign invader with success.

- stinctive patriotism," a 66 devotion 10 “ tlemen, it is happy for the world that " native soil, which is the foundation of " this sort of question should have been “ national independence." We will, by

tried, if I may so say, to a disadvantage ; and by, inquire what is toeant by these two

last words, the use of which is so common, in spite of this “ devotion to nalive soil ;" and the meaning of which is so very vague; in spite of this “ genuine feeling of the but, at present, let us suppose that the "heart;" that, in spite of this " foundation Speaker means, that the effect of this " in " of national independence," that, “ many "stinctive patriotism," this “ devotion to " nations of Europe were unfortunately led " native soil," is, the exertion of a people to believe and to act upon a different perto keep any enemy out of their country. In " suasion; that whole nations were overother words, that there requires nothing “run by reforming conquerors, and flatbut this love of their native soil to make "tered themselves with being proselyles, men fight against an invader; that this till they found themselves victims. In feeling, this " genuine feeling of the heart,” plain words, many nations of Europe, in is quite sufficient without any other consi- the hope of bettering their condition, rederation. But, not to speak of the fact ceived the French invaders with open arms; again yet, how does this agree with the but, at last, finding themselves " victims," Speaker's observation, that men fight for finding that they had been “ deluded;": the homes in which they have dwelt; for being "insulted" and " provoked" by their their wives and children, and other objects? new masters, they joined with their old They fight, he says, against an invader, be- sovereigns to drive the new masters out. cause these objecis, so dear to them, should Let us take all this for granted; for it comnot be exposed to violence. In short, they pletely drives away the notion of " instinchazard their lives in repelling invasion, tive patriotism.'

live patriotism." Here we see nations, because they fear that the invader will take many nations, receiving the invader with away their properly and make them mise- open arms, because they thought he would rable; and, not because they fear he will belter their lol; and we see them driving insult or dishonour the dirt upon which him out again, because he had rendered they walk, or the place where they happen their lot worse than it was before.--Here to have been born, and upon which parti- we see “ many nations" actuated, in this cular spot not one out of five hundred is question of invasion, not by any 66 instincliving. What becomes, then, of his tive" feeling about the soil; but by modoctrine of “ instinctive patriotism," if it tives of self-interest; by considerations be for houses, goods, chattels, churches, connected with their property and political wives and children, that men repel invasion ? institutions ; we see them, in short, makThese are under the safe-guard of laws, ing calculations, putting the good against that is to say, political institutions, with the evil likely to arise to them from the inout which there can be no property, or vasion of their country; and deciding in ownership, in any thing:—What becomes, favour of the former. We see " whole nathen, of his degrading doctrine ; what be “tions; many nations," acting thus ; Mr. comes of his assertion, that a mere catile. Canning himself exhibits them to us as like attachment to the earth, is of itself thus acting; and yet, with the statement sufficient to make men fight against an in- of this fact, this notorious fact, upon his vading enemy? --- Even in those countries, lips, he, from his innate love of cattle-like where the wretched inhabitants are bought feeling in the people, he tells his hearers, and sold with the estates, in which they that a twenty years' war has decided this are bred, and where the human form is great question, has put reforming philosoanimated with a degree of intelligence little phy to shame, and has clearly proved, that superior to that of a brute, it is not the mere a devolion to nalive soil" alone is the love of the soil which produces resistance foundation of national independence, and that to an invader ; for, though the vassal be a it is quite sufficient for the purpose of keepsort of beast, the lord knows his interest, ing out or driving out an invader, without and he drags forth the vassal to war, not the aid of any motive connected with polifrom a love of the soil, but from his love tical institutions. —Yes, Mr. Canning of the profils of the soil. In short, for the could not disguise the fact, that " instinca sake of his properly; for fear of losing more " live patriotism” had not prevented the than he has any chance of gaining: But, Brabanters, the Dutch, the Italians, the why need we have made these observa- Germans, the Prussians, 'the Polanders, tions? What need had we of an argument from receiving the French invaders with drawn from the reason of the case, when open arms, and with the avowed hope of Mr. Canning himself has told us (what, betlering their condition ; he could not disindeed, we well knew before), that, in guise this fact, so well known, and so dispite of this fine “ instinctive patriotism;" rectly in the teeth of bis doctrine ; and,

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therefore, he says, that this “instinctive ple; nay, they have brought a very cone “ patriotism," this “ devotion to native siderable army of foreigners into the counsoil,this "genuine feeling of the try, upon the ground, expressly alleged, "heart," "slumhered,” that it was “ deo of their being necessary; districts of Eng" luded,” till ", enlightened and kindled” land itself have been under the command by the insults and provocations of the in- of some of these foreigners. Now, if vaders. A strange sort of instinct this ? the “ instinctive patriotism" of a people be Instinct is a feeling wholly unconnected sufficient to induce them to repel an invader, with reason; wholly distinct from mind. and if this "genuine feeling of the heart' How, then, could it be enlightened; how be not less powerful in England than in could it be kindled; how could it slumber; Germany, why all these military establishhow be deluded ? -But, this confusion ments? Why all the enormous expense of of ideas, this floundering, this flippant camps, barracks, armies of reserve, yeotrash, was well enough suited to Mr. Can- manry, volunteers and foreigners, amountniug's audience. It is possible that he ing to not less than ten or fourteen millions thought that he himself understood what sterling a year? As a speech-maker at he was talking about ; but, whatever might Liverpool, Mr. Canning found it convebe his thoughts as to that matter, he knew nient, in support of his principles, as an well enough, that his audience was incapa- enemy of reform of corrupt abuses, to ble of detecting any absurdity that might broach his doctrine of “instinctive pa

The darker the deeper he“ triotism;" but, as a minisler, he was too knew for them. There was, however, wise to trust to that patriotism for the reto be drawn from this monstrous doctrine pelling of an invader ; or, if he did trust of “ instinctive patriotism," a practical in-. to it, he wisely chose to clothe his " inference of great import to ourselves. It “stinctive patriots" in uniform, and to was this ; that, whereas," there have furnish them with arms, pay, lodging, “ been times when we have been called coals, candles, and with bread and meat

upon to consider, whether there was not at a given price. I am by no means call“ sumething at home, which must be ing in question the wisdom of these mea66 mended before we could hope to repel a sures; I am not endeavouring to show, “ foreign invader with success." This that the camps, barracks, and all the other question, says he, is now settled ; because causes of expense, above enumerated, were we have seen that people who have less not necessary, in our silualion, for the reliberty than the people here enjoy, have, pelling of invasion ; but, I must insist upon by the operation of " instinctive patriotism" it, that the practice of Mr. Canning and alone, repelled the invader. There the his different sets of colleagues has been in premises are false; for we know, that the direct opposition to the doctrine that he nations of Europe did not repel invaders; now holds.--Mr. Canning tells his authat they received the invaders with open dience, that the Reformers have said, that arms, as Mr. Canning acknowledges ; and without a reform, the country could not be that, whatever they have now done to assist defended against an invader. Now, says their old masters, has been in the driving he, this is not true, for we have seen the out of new maslers, by whom, as he says, contrary on the continent, where no reform they had been insulted and provoked. has been made or promised ; and, thereBesides, whatever may be Mr. Canning's fore, the question is decided against the Re. opinion of the power of " instinctive pa- formers. In the first place, I repeat,

triotism," in this country, none of the that invasion was not repelled on the conministries, to which he has belonged (and tinent. It was a new master that was he has belonged to almost every one for driven out ; and, in the next place, I deny, twenty years past), appear to have placed that the Reformers have ever said, that, much reliance upon it. They have acted without a reform the country could not be upon notions very opposite indeed. They defended against an invader. What the have kept on foot a large regular army; Reformers have said is this : that, to enthey have had an army of reserve; they sure the repelling of an invader the people have had all sorts of militias ; they have must be better satisfied with the state of established camps,

built barracks near the representation ; OR, that an enormous every..considerable town ; they have had expense must be incurred for the support of recourse to yeomanry and volunteers, clothed an army of some sort in the country. This as soldiers, and placed under officers ap- is what the Reformers have said ; this is pointed by the crown and paid by the peo- what they still say; and is there any thing

that Mr. Canning, or any one else, can nay, we see, besides, that nations having produce in the change of governors on the not even the name of political liberty in Continent, or in any of the events there ' use amongst them, have fought heartily for the last twenty years, which does not against the French and defeated them ; make for, instead of against, this position?' which clearly shews, that “ instinctive And, as to what has happened here : it is “patriotism” alone is sufficient to induce true, that no reform has taken place, and a people to defend their country.' And that yet, we have not been invaded with hence the speaker leaves us to infer, that any considerable degree of success; but, even if the mass of the people of England the army at home has added many scores were reduced to the state of ihose of Russia, of millions to a debt, which no peace, no there would be no danger of their siding state of prosperity, which nothing short of with the invader. This, this is the rean event which no minister will dare look sult at which he aimed. With this object in the face, will ever get rid of, or ma. the speech was made. This was the acterially diminish. -The money, which count to which the speaker endeavoured to this home army has cost, might easily be turn the recent successes of the Allies.-shown to surpass £10,000,000 a year. The friends of freedom, under the name of This, during the 20 years of war, amounts Jacobins, Levellers, Democrats, or what to 200 millions. Thus, 200 millions of not, have often been accused of wishthe national debt is due to this cause, and ing success to the French; of rejoicing at this imposes upon the people of this coun- their triumphs; and of mourning at their try 10 millions a year of interest for ever ; reverses. This was a very foul and base that is to say, about one half of the amount way of opposing arguments in favour of a of the Property Tax. So that, if a 5 per reform of notorious abuses; but, really, if centum tax, or one half of this terrible iax, Mr. Canning's doctrine, if his mode of arunder which the farmers and tradesmen and guing, if liis inferences were right, the handicraftsmen are writhing with such im- friends of freedom might with pride plead patience, should be kept on after the war, guilty to the charge; for, if the defeat of the country will probably begin to feel, the French by the armies of nations who that it would have been better to have a re- enjoy no political liberty be taken to be a form and no domestic army, during the last proof, that rotten boroughs and sinecure 20 years.-The Reformers have asserted, places are good things, and that Englishand MAJOR CARTWRIGHT has brought for men need no political liberty; if such a ward arguments to prove, that, with re. conclusion be to be drawn from the deleat form, this army might have been dispensed of the French by the Allies, ought not with. It is possible that the Reformers Englishmen to lament that such defeat has may have been wrong, and that Major taken place, and is it not natural for them Cartwright may have reasoned erro- to wish to see ihe ground of such a dangerneously; but, his reasoning has never ous doctrine speedily removed ? --Acbeen shown to be erroneous; and Mr. cording to this doctrine of Mr. Ganning, it Canning has not now produced any thing is not only natural for a man who is attachto shake the assertion of the Reformers. ed to the rights and liberties of his country So that this speech fails in its main object, to lament that his own governnent is suewhich was to produce a belief, that, because cessful, but it is lois duty to endeavour to the French armies had been driven back by prevent such success; because this gentlenations, having no political liberty, politi- man tells us, that we are to take that succal liberty is not at all necessary to the cess as a proof, not only that no reform of safety of a country against the attacks of a abuses ought to take place; but, also, as a foreign enemy.---This was the main drift proof, that no political liberty at alt is of the speech. The object of the speaker necessary to the defence and safety and was to impress upon the minds of his happiness of the country. Such is the hearers, and, through the press, on the state, to which the prevalence of this ininds of the people at large, that Reform abominable doctrine would reduce the has not been, and is not necessary. This friends of freedom in every country in was what he was aiming at. “Here,' says the world where abuses exist. A due rehe, we are in a state of triumph; we have gard for their own liberties and those of • not been invaded; we have beaten France; their fellow citizens would compel them to we have got out of all our dangers; we wish to see their government and its armies

have done this without any reform, which defeated. It is absolutely necessary, to . clearly shows, that noreform was necessary; show the falsehood and the absurdity of this

doctrine in every way that it presents itself complete state of dependence on others, or to us. -Success in war being, by Mr. on another, without being invaded ? All Canning, taken as a complete proof, that the world knows, that they may; and, it no reform is wanted in the government is equally well known, that a nation, whose which has obtained that success, we may rulers are turned out by foreign aid, and ask him, why he has, for the last twenty who receives a foreigner for their sovereign, years, been crying out against the several may still be independent nations. In that governments in France ; seeing, that under revolution, which we style “Glorious," them, far greater successes in war have a foreigner was put upon the throne of this been obtained than by all the other goveru kingdom, and brought with himn foreign ments in Europe put together within the troops to assist him against the partisans of two last centuries. If success in war be a our king. No one will, I imagine, attempt proof, or even a mark, of a good govern 10 say, that England was degraded, or that ment, the French have, for twenty years she lost her independence, in consequence past, been blest with the best government of that Revolution. In Sweden we see in that ever existed; and yet Mr. Canning has the heir to the throne, a Frenchman, in been incessantly scolding and railing against no wise related to the Royal family; a man the French government, during the whole who was not long ago a private soldier in of that period. The American govern- the service of France; a relation by marment, too, which Mr. Canning so hates, riage of Buonaparte himself. No one will, and the President at the head of which the I imagine, be inclined to dispute the legiTimes newspaper calls a “ hypocritical timacy of his title to the Crown of Sweden, villain," must, according to Mr. Can- or to say that Sweden has been degraded, or ning's doctrine, be a pretty good one ; for, lost her independence by his being placed it is notorious, that its forces have been over her. He is one of our august Allies; victorious by sea and land; that in the war we have, in the most solemn manner, acof frigates, they have beaten ours three knowledged his heirship to the crown, and times out of four; that, in several instances, to an island which we have ceded to Swetheir inferior ships of war have beaten ours den.-What, then, becomes of the with an equal force; that they have defeat outcry about the loss of national indepened us upon the lakes; and that they have dence in those countries where Frenchmen invaded and possess a large portion of have obtained the sway? Why should our North American dominions. -The Naples, or Italy, be looked upon as deflashy gentleman, as he was dashing along, graded by their change of sovereigns any seems to have forgotten these things; but more than England was, or than Sweden we must stop himn and pin him down here, is, by the change of sovereigns in those and make himn acknowledge, that the Ame- countries ? - Why should it be a crime ·rican government is an excellent one, and in a Neapolitan, or an Italian, or a Dutch. that the French government for the last man, or a German, to have favoured and twenty years has been excellent ; or, make sought for a change of rulers, if it was no him eat his words, and confess, that suc- crime, but a great merit, as Mr. Canning cess in war is nol a proof that the govern- will not deny it was, for Englishmen and ment obtaining it is excellent and stands in Swedes to favour and seek for such a need of no reform. I now come to in- change? The words 66 national inde. quire a little into the meaning of the words pendence,” like the word "constitution,6 national independence," so often made are made to take whatever meaning may use of by Mr. Canning, and of which he best suit the purposes of those, who use appears to have no very distinct idea. He them with a sinister view. But, unless says, that his famous nostrum of “ inslinc Mr. Canning be prepared to go the length " live patriotism," is of itself, without of condemping our glorious revolution, and any political considerations, sufficient to the more recent glorious revolution in ensure national independence,” by which, Sweden, he inust acknowledge, that inen from the context, it would seem that he way love their country, that they may be means the keeping out of invaders, for le very meritorious men, that they may be states the effect of his wonderful instinct 10 entitled to every mark of respect, and every be the defending of property from plun- epithet of praise, notwithstanding that they der. But, are nations, then, to be re effect, or endeavour to effect, a change in their garded as independent in all cases except rulers, even with the assistance of foreign while they have invaders in their territo- troops. -What then, become of all these ries? May not a nation be placed in a loose and unqualified invectives against re

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