« ZurückWeiter »
There can now remain no doubt as to the ject of Prize concerns, and stated, that I real character of the man, on whose eulogy had learnt; that Mr. Mant was about to I have been observing. If any thing were make a publication respecting it.--I now wanting to give to that character a finishing have that publication before me; and, touch, it would be found in the fulsoine, from its contents, I am persuaded, that it the disgusting, the loathsome, the nause must lead to serious investigation.-From ous adulation, which the Memoir says that this publication, it appears, that about five this " noble-minded, this angelic” man years ago (the publication being in point of paid to the Emperor of Russia and other dates very deficient), Captain Patrick princes, enemies of his country. -Reader, Campbell commanded the Frigate, Unilé, behold this man, who once slept on beds and had also the command of a squadron of made of the colours wrenched from Russia cruisers in the Adriatic, and that Mr. and Austria and Prussia, by his valiant coun- Thomas Mant was the surgeon of the Unité. trymen under his command, and urged on by It appears that Mr. Mant was sent to the cry of liberty; behold this man, this Co- the town of Trieste by the Captain to riolanus of Grosbois, now ranged on the manage the pecuniary matters, relating to side of combined kings against the armies prizes; and that the Captain has accused of his country, exclaiming, at the first in-him, and perseveres in accusing him, of terview with the Emperor of Russia : peculation, in that management. This “Ah! my dear Svinine, what a man is charge the publication rebuts, and, as far " the Emperor! from this moment I have as the proofs on one side can go, it does, I “ contracted the sweet and sacred obligation think, rebut the charge with success." of sacrificing my life for that angel of But, this is far from being the most im"goodness;” behold this man, rebuking portant branch of the subject, which, insharply a Russian General for calling the deed, would not have required my notice Emperor “ the best of princes," instead of of it, had it not been for that other branch calling him "the best of men;" behold of it, in which the public, in which the this man, this great captain of the republi- interest and honour of the nation, appear to can revolution, who asserted his civism me to be deeply concerned. To enter even when in the Temple, discovering, at upon this important matter I must, howfirst sight, in the mind of the Grand ever, have more room to spare than I have Duchess of Oldenburg (the Emperor's sis. at present. I must, therefore, put it off ter, I believe) “ the Great Catherine her till
self, with a genius that astonished and “s with manners that captivated all who knew WHY ARE WE AT WAR WITH FRANCE ? “ her;" behold this man, who, while in This is a question which few people will be the Temple, told Napoleon, that he was at the trouble of asking, and which still vain enough to believe himself entitled to fewer are willing to investigate, even althe hatred and the revenge of England, re- though they could bring their minds to put ciprocating the compliments said to have it to themselves. I am not surprised at been paid him on his death bed by the this reluctance, when I consider how often Duke of Cumberland; to conclude, reader, the enemies of France have changed their behold this man, who owed his renown views, at least pretended to change them, and his fortune to the arms of his valiant respecting that devoted country. To enter countrymen, receiving, while in the ranks into an exposition of all the absurd projects, of the enemy, his death-blow from the and all the different plans laid down, from hands of those countrymen, and using his time to time by the Confederates, as nelast breath in dictating a letter of praise to cessary to be adopted by the French people, his new and "angel of a sovereign before they would acknowledge their indeBehold him thus, for thus the Memoir re- pendence, is a task which I do not intend presents him to us; behold him thus, tak- to impose on myself. It is sufficient for ing into view all the foregoing facts, argu- my present purpose to state, that these ments, and conclusions, and then pronounce projects always appeared to me deserving decidedly and aloud your judgment upon of contempt, and that for the best of all his conduct and character.
reasons, namely, that France, the party
whose interest was more deeply involved in Mr. MANT AND CAPT. CAMPBELL.-1, these proposed arrangements than all the some weeks ago, noticed a very serious other States of Europe, was never condispute, existing between these gentlemen, sulted respecting them.
In one view both resident at Southampton, on the sub- her importance was regarded by these
States of sufficient magnitude to satisfy bosom of peace. But, no; France had de. them that it would require the whole clared herself free : her sons had ascended of their military strength to bring her to that proud eminence which nature gave compliance with their wishes; but, in them a right to ascend. This, in the eyes another view, they would not allow that of their oppressors, was treason against she deserved any consideration, when their authority; was a crime of the deepest the questions came to be discussed, -Who die, which could never be forgiven. Liwere to be her rulers? What should be berty, which had “ marshalled her way to the limits of her territory ? --But though“ renovated France," after she had in vain I do not inean here to illustrate these topics ; sought an asylum in other countries, was though I am disposed at present to spare assailed in France by the cry of the despot; these men the mortification, which a re was here doomed to struggle for existence currence to them would occasion; I think against the united efforts of prejudice, of it may not be ainiss to carry them back to superstition: against all which interest, the commencement of the war; and to which intrigue, and which the arm of place before their view a few of those cir- power were capable of accomplishing. cumstances connected with that eventful By a strange infatuation, millions of human period; many of which bear a strong re- beings, who assumed the name of freemen, semblance to the occurrences of the present gave their support to a cause, which its day, and cannot admit of an equivocal con- very partisans openly proclaimed to be instruction. ---In 1792, the affairs of France imical to the dearest rights of humanity; were 'at as low an ebb as they are now and actually sacrificed their lives for the represented to be, and then, as at this declared purpose of imposing slavery upon moment, her territory was invaded by the a whole nation born like themselves to be combined forces of Europe. --A resem- free. It is a fact known to every man in the blance so very striking, naturally carries least acquainted with the history of France, the inind back to the early periods of the that its government previous to the revolus revolution ; and if the causes of this simi- tion, was one of the most despotic in Eularity are impartially inquired into, we may rope ; that, in contrasting it with the Briperhaps find that the motives which actuate tish constitution, no one hesitated to prothe conduct of the enemies of France in nounce it an absolute tyranny; and that the 1814, and those which influenced them in French people, who lived under it, were 1792, are not materially different. At the base and contemptible slaves. This was latter period, nothing was so much thought the opinion which universally prevailed of, nothing so lou 'ly talked of, and nothing among Englishmen; it was the theme of so earnestly wished for, as the destruction their public and private conversations; and of the revolutionists of France. The con- it formed the topic of animadversion in sternation, which an event that professed every publication which contained any alto carry with it so many terrors to the op- Jusion to France. It cannot be supposed pressor ; which promised emancipation to that this frequent recurrence to a subject so the enslaved, and ultimately to deliver distressing, proceeded from envy, or that Europe from the grasp of civil and religious any man who reflected upon it, could be so despotism, was well calculated to arouse destitute of all generous feelings as to wish from their lethargy those who felt interested this state of vassalage to be perpetuated. in the continuance of established systems. No; the sensation which universally preWhatever may be said of the enormities vailed, proceeded from the interest which which stained the early part of the French every one took in the degraded condition of Revolution, or of the extravagant views of the people of France, and from a sincere many of those who figured in that extraor- desire to assist them in liberating themselves dinary scene, it cannot now be denied that, from so disgraceful a bondage. Accordif the people of France had been left to ingly, the moment it was known here, themselves, the furor with which they that attempts at freedom were making in were then agitated, and which is, per- France, the event was hailed by a vast haps, inseparable from great political majority of the people, and by many of convulsions, would have exhausted itself the higher ranks, as propitious to the hapand subsided into a calm; that all the blood- piness of nations. Frenchmen had done no shed, which has since desolated the earth, more than had been done by Englishmen. would have been prevented; and, instead The latter had accomplished, by revolu. of the torch of war blazing among civilized tionary means, the establishment of a con• nations, mankind might have been univer- stication which imposed limits, and resally cultivating the arts and sciences in the strictions upon the power of the crown :
the former had established a limited mo- tection to the emigrants. Instead of comnarchy in France. What could be more plying with this request, he augmented his desirable, what more congenial with the armies on the frontiers of France, which wishes of the inhabitants of Britain ? rendered it no longer doubtful that he meWe shall very soon, however, find that ditated an invasion of the country. In a party existed in this country, who these circumstances the National Assembly were enemies to the rights of the peo- brought matters to an issue by a Declaraple; who censured all attempts at amelio- tion of War against Austria, in which, rating their condition. But as the fa- after enumerating her causes of complaint, vourable opinion entertained here of it was stated, " that the French nation, the French revolution, prevented its op- " faithful to the principles of its constituposers for some time from declaring them tion, which forbid it every kind of conselves, let us direct our attention for a quest, and from arming against the liberty little to the conduct pursued by the coa of any people, is now arming only for its lesced powers. It has been already ob own freedom, its independence and its served, that an event of such magnitude as “ sovereignty." Had the Confederation the revolution in France, was well calcu- been disposed to admit the justice of the lated to alarm some other governments, principle, that no nation has a right to arm particularly those in its immediate vicinity. itself against the liberties of another people, Among these the Emperor of Germany was Louis the XVIth might yet have been alive not the last who evinced his fears. Under the throne secured in the family of the pretence of maintaining the inviolability of Bourbons, and the war which has desolated the crown of France ; dissatisfied with the Europe for more than twenty years, been restrictions imposed by the people upon the averted. But the Allied Sovereigns, forexercise of the sovereign power; stimulated getting that the happiness of a people alone by the clergy to insist for indemnity for the constitutes a monarch's greatness, regarded losses they had sustained by the new order the recognition of these principles as a new of things ; and afraid lest the example of crime committed by France ; and because France should have an effect upon his own the government which she had chosen for subjects ; the head of the Electorate pre-herself, had resolved on defending her tervailed upon the German Princes to enter ritory; this was held as a sufficient reason into his views, and to make common cause for inflicting the severest punishment that against France, for the purpose of restoring could be devised on all who had patriotism the ancient government. At the very mo- enough to give it their support.---What in ment this resolution was adopted, the every age of the world was esteemed the French people were peaceably engaged in highest virtue ; what in this country was forming for themselves a constitution, in so recently, and so strenuously recommendwhich ihe right of the Bourbons to continue ed by our own government, by the senate, the sovereignty was unequivocally recog- and from the pulpit, as the first of duties; nized. Louis the XVIth had no doubt in the taking up arms to defend us from incurred the displeasure of his subjects by at-vasion; was considered in the French peos tempting to escape from France, a circum- ple a crime so enormous as to merit uiter stance, considering the state of the public extermination. This threat was conveyed to mind, no way calculated to remove the the French nation, in a Manifesto of the Duke suspicions entertained by many, that he of Brunswick, as Generalissimo of the Allied was in secret correspondence with the ene. Armies, dated Coblentz, 25th July, 1792. mies of his country, and approved of their As this extraordinary and celebrated docu. measures. But the nation were willing to ment serves more to lay open the views and overlook this. Their earnest desire was to designs of the coalition than any other part see their country restored to liberty; and of their proceedings, and as I will altera although they had received innumerable wards have frequent occasion to notice iis and repeated insults from surrounding states, contents, I shall here give it at lengih, beo they were inclined to submit even to these fore proceeding any farther in my remarks. injuries, rather than give up the advantages which they promised themselves in a state Declaration of his Serene Highness the of liberty and of peace. The Confedera reigning Duke of Brunswick and Lunention which had reared its formidable head burgh, Commander of the Combined against them, was, however, resolved to Armies of their Majesties the Emperor oppose this. Application had been made and the King of Prussia, addressed to in vain to the Emperor of Germany to with the Inhabitants of France. draw from the league, and refuse his pro “ Their majesties the emperor and the
kiug of Prussia, having intrusted me with is with this view that I, the underwritten, the command of the combined armies, as general commandant in chief of the two sembled ou the frontiers of France, I think armies, do declare, it my duty to inform the inhabitants of that “ ist, That, drawn into the present war kingdom of the motives which have in- by irresistible circunstances, the two al. fluenced the conduct of the two sovereigns, lied courts have no other object in view and of the principles by which they are than the welfare of France, without any guided.
pretence to enrich themselves by making "After arbitrarily suppressing the rights, conquests. and invading the possessions of the German " 2d, That they do not mean lo meddle princes in Alsace and Lorrain; after hav- with the internal government of France, ing disturbed and overthrown in the interior but that they simply intend to deliver the part of the kingdom all order and lawful king, the queen, and the royal family, from government ; after having been guilly of their captivity, and to ensure to his most the most daring allacks, and having had re- Christian majesty that safety which is necourse to the most violent measures, which cessary for his making, without danger are still daily renewed against the sacred and without obstacles, such convocations person of the king, and against his august as he shall judge proper, and for endeafamily—those who have seized on the reins vouring to ensure the welfare of his subof goverument liave, at length, filled the jects, according to his promises, and to meaşure of their guilt, by declaring an un- the utmost of his power. just war against his majesty the emperor, “ 3dly, That the combined armies shall and by invading his provinces of the Low protect the towns, bourgs and villages, as Countries. Some of the possessions be well as the persons and property of all longing to the German empire have been those who shall submit to the king; and equally exposed to the same oppression, that they will concur in the immediate reand many others have only avoided the storation of order and police throughout all danger by yielding to the imperious threats France. of the domineering party and of their emis 4thly, That the national guards are saries. His majesty the king of Prussia, called upon to preserve, provisionally, united with his imperial majesty in the tranquillity in towns and in the country, bands of the strictest defensive alliance, and to provide for the personal safety and proas a preponderant member himself of the perty of all Frenchmen until the arrival of Germanic body, could not refuse marching the troops belonging to their imperial and to the assistance of his ally and of his co- royal majesties, or until orders be given to estates. It is under this double relation, the contrary,-on pain of being personally that he undertakes the defence of that mo- responsible: that, on the contrary, such narch and of Germany.
national guards as shall fight against the “ To these high interests is added an- troops of the two allied courts, and who other important object, and which both the shall be taken with arms in their hands, sovereigns have most cordially in view ; shall be treated as enemies, and punished which is, lo put an end to thal anarchy which as rebels to their king, and as disturbers of prevails in the interior parts of France, to the public peace. put a slop lo lhe allacks made on the throne " 5thly, That the general officers, the and the altar, lo restore the king to his le- subalterns, and soldiers of the regular gitimate power, lo liberty, and to safely, French troops, are equally called upon to of which he is now deprived, and to place return to their former allegiance, and to him in such a silualion, that he may exer- submit immediately to the king, their lecise thal legitimate aulhority to which he is gitimate sovereign. enlilled.
" 6thly, That the members of depart5. Convinced that the sober part of the ments, districts, and municipalities shall nation detest the excesses of a faction which be equally responsible, on pain of losing has enslaved them, and that the majorily their heads and estales, for their cri wes, of the inhabitants wait with impatience the all the conflagrations, all the murders, and moment when succours shall arrive, lo de- the pillage which they shall suffer to take clare themselves openly against the odious place, and which they shall not have, in a enterprises of their oppressors; his ma- public manner, attempted to prevent within jesty, the emperor, and his majesty the their respective territories; that they shall king of Prussia, earnestly invite them to also be obliged to continue their functions, return without delay into the paths of rea- until his most Christian majesty, when set son and of justice, of order and peace. It at full liberty, shall make further arrange
ments, or until further orders be given in and property, provided they speedily and
strictly conform to the above injunctions. “7thly, That the inhabitants of towns, “ Finally, Their majesties, not being at bourgs, and villages, who shall dare to liberly to acknowledge any other laws in defend themselves against the iroops of France except those which shall be derived their imperial and royal majesties, and to from the king, when at full liberty, profire upon them, either in open country, or test beforehand against the authenticity of through half open doors or windows of all kinds of declarations which may be their houses, shall be punished instantly, issued in the name of the king, so long as according to the rigorous rules of war, his sacred person, and that of the queen, or their houses shall be demolished or and the princes, of the whole royal family, burned. On the contrary, all the inha- shall not be in full safety: and with this bitants of the said towns, bourgs, and view, their inperial and royal majesties villages, who shall readily submit to their invite and entreat his most Christian making, by opening their gates to the troops jesty to name a town in his kingdom, belonging to their majesties, shall be im- nearest to the frontiers, to which he would mediately under their safe.guard and pro- wish to remove, together with the queen, tection; and estates, their property, and and the royal family, under a strong and their persons shall be secured by the laws, safe escort, which shall be sent for that and each and all of them shall be in full purpose; so that his most Christian masafety.
jesty may, in perfect safety, send for such “ 8thly, The city of Paris and all its in- ministers and counsellors as he shall be habitants, without distinction, shall be pleased to name, order such convocation as called upon to submit instantly and with he shall think proper, and provide for the out delay to the king, to set that prince at restoration of order and the regular admifull liberty, and to ensure to his and to nistration of his kingdom. all royal persons that inviolability and re “ In fine, I declare
and promise in my own spect which are due, by the laws of na- individual name, and in my above quality, ture and of nations, to sovereigns: their to cause to be observed, every where, by imperial and royal majesties, making per- the troops under my command, good and sonally responsible for all events-on pain strict discipline, promising to treat with of losing their heads pursuant to military mildness and moderation, those well disTrials, without hopes of pardon, all the posed subjects who shall submit peaceably members of the national assembly, of the and quietly, and to employ force against department, of the district, of the muni- those only who shall be guilty of resistance cipality, and of the national guards of or of manifest evil intentions. Paris, justices of the peace, and others " I therefore call upon and expect all the whom it may concern; and their imperial inhabitants of the kingdom, in the most and royal majesties further declare, on their earnest and forcible manner, not to make faith and word of emperor and king, that any opposition to the troops under my comif the palace of the Thuilleries be forced mand, but rather to suffer them every where or insulted, if the least violence be offered, to enter the kingdom freely, and io afford the least outrage done to their majesties, them all the assistance, and show them all the king, queen, and the royal family, if the benevolence which circumstances may they be not immediately placed in safety require. and set at liberty, they will inflict on those " Given at General Quarters at Cobwho shall deserve il, the most exemplary lentz, July 25, 1792. and ever-memorable avenging punishments, 66 Charles GUILLAUME FERDINAND, by giving up the city of Paris to military Duc de BRUNSWICK LUNENBOURG." erecution, and exposing it to total destruction, and the rebels who shall be guilly Such was the conciliating language held of illegal resistance, shall suffer the pu- out to France by the Sovereigns of Europe: nishments which they shall have deserved. such the prospect which was presented to Their imperial and royal majesties promise, the people of that devoted country, if they on the contrary, to all the inhabitants of dared to defend themselves against an army the city of Paris, to emply their good offices which threatened to occupy the kingdom, with his most Christian majesty, to obtain and to destroy every, vestige of liberty; for them a pardon for their insults and such the punishments denounced against all errors, and to adopt the most vigorous persons whatsoever, not merely for their measures for the security of their persons own supposed offences, but for all events